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伦敦设计双年展:汇聚各国情绪感召力

更新时间:2018-9-17 19:58:17 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

United Nations of design: Global show packs emotional punch
伦敦设计双年展:汇聚各国情绪感召力

London’s Somerset House is a stage for some of the world’s most innovative designers at the London Design Biennale. From Poland to Pakistan, from Sweden to Somalia, 40 countries, cities and territories (from every continent apart from Antarctica) have transformed this grand old building into a united nations of design.

伦敦设计双年展在市中心的萨默赛特宫(Somerset House)举行,为全球最具创造力的设计师打造一座舞台。参赛作品来自40个国家、城市和地区,从波兰到巴基斯坦,从瑞典到索马里(包括除南极洲以外的各大洲),这幢宏伟辉煌的历史建筑摇身一变成为设计联合国。

The theme of the first London Design Biennale, held at Somerset House in 2016, was Utopia. This year, the theme is Emotional States.

2016年,首届伦敦设计双年展在萨默赛特宫举行,主题为"乌托邦"。今年的主题是"情绪国度"(Emotional States)。

This enigmatic brief has inspired a broad range of responses, from Scandinavian robots to Australian light sculptures. This isn’t a conventional exhibition of modern furnishing or household appliances. A lot of these installations would look perfectly at home in a show of contemporary art.

主题带有神秘意味,引发广大反响,包括斯堪的纳维亚的艺术机器人装置,以及澳大利亚的全光谱装置。这不是传统意义上的现代家居展或家用电器展。很多装置摆在家中也相得益彰,展现当代艺术。

Like the Venice Biennale, each country has its own pavilion – a space where anything goes. India’s pavilion pays tribute to indigo workers who used to make this precious dye by hand. Canada’s pavilion is a homage to the many places in Canada named after emotions, from Happy Adventure to Lonely Island. "In your life there are only a few places, or maybe only the one place, where something happened, and then there are all the other places," reads a lyrical quotation by Canadian writer Alice Munro.

如同威尼斯双年展,各国以国家馆的形式展出,内容无奇不有。印度国家馆向生产靛蓝染料的工人致敬,他们传承了手工生产出的这种浓缩染料。加拿大国家馆颂扬加国多地的署名以情感命名,比如"快乐旅程"(Happy Adventure)、"孤岛"(Lonely Island)等。加拿大女作家门罗(Alice Munro)如诗一般写道,"一生之中,只有零星之地,也许仅有一处,是分水岭,其余都是漂泊的地方。"

The UK shows how digital tools can enable on-the-ground recording and preservation of evidence of cultural heritage destruction in Maps of Defiance. Other entrants from the UK include Liverpool celebrating the immensity of the universe with projected images from an extremely sophisticated telescope, Dundee exploring how gaming and virtual technology can be used to help young people talk about mental health and Leeds’ highly charged live tableau inspired by British folklore.

英国展出了《反抗地图》(Maps of Defiance)的装置,展示了数字仪器如何摄录并保存摧毁文化遗产的证据。英国还有其它展品,利物浦(Liverpool)通过极其精密的望远镜投射影像,展示了宇宙的浩瀚;来自苏格兰邓迪(Dundee)的展品探索游戏和虚拟科技如何帮助年轻人探讨心理健康;利兹(Leeds)的艺术作品一触即发,灵感源自英国的神话。

So why was ‘Emotional States’ chosen as the theme for this year’s biennale? "The theme is intended to encourage immersive installations that really engage the viewer at a physical as well as an intellectual level," says LDB’s artistic director, Christopher Turner.

那么主办方为什么将"情绪国度"定为本届双年展的主题呢?双年展的艺术总监特纳(Christopher Turner)说,"这个主题旨在鼓励令参观者身临其境的互动艺术作品,让参观者有实际的体验,同时也能增进认识。"

As Turner observes, it’s an idea whose time has come. Rather than merely measuring Gross Domestic Product, nations are now trying to measure happiness. States from Venezuela to the United Arab Emirates have appointed Ministers of Happiness. Theresa May has appointed a Minister for Loneliness to her cabinet.

在特纳看来,这一理念恰逢其时。各国不仅在计算国内生产总值,现在也积极衡量幸福指数。从委内瑞拉到阿联酋,幸福部官员走马上任。英国首相特蕾莎•梅(Theresa May)任命了一名孤独大臣。

Two hundred years ago, English philosopher Jeremy Bentham advocated the greatest happiness for the greatest number as the best basis for legislation. The pursuit of happiness is enshrined in the US Constitution. However it’s only recently that nations have started addressing happiness in its own right. Bhutan led the way, with its Gross National Happiness Index, and in 2012 the UN launched the first World Happiness Report.

两百年前,英国功利主义哲学家边沁(Jeremy Bentham)提出以最多数人的最大幸福为立法的最佳基础。在美国宪法中,追求幸福至高无上。然而,近年来各个国家才开始纷纷着手解决幸福问题。不丹率先推行,采用国民幸福总值指数,2012年,联合国首次发布《全球幸福指数报告》(World Happiness Report)。

In this report the richest countries scored highest and the poorest countries scored lowest. No surprises there. However when Gallup conducted a more complex survey, called the Global Emotions Report, the results were more revealing: 149,000 people in 142 countries were asked questions like "Did you feel well rested yesterday?" "Were you treated with respect?" "Did you smile or laugh a lot?" and "Did you feel pain, anger, worry or stress?"

该报告称,最富裕的国家得分最高,最贫穷的国家得分最低。并无逆转之处。然而,民意调查机构盖洛普(Gallup)进行了一项更为复杂的调研,名为《全球情感调查报告》(Global Emotions Report),结果更能说明真相:盖洛普向142个国家的149000人发问,比如 "昨天睡得好吗?""你受到他人尊重吗?""你经常微笑或开怀大笑吗?"还有"是否感到疼痛、愤怒、担心或压力?"

This time, the country that came top was Paraguay, which ranks 64th in the World Happiness Report. The UK came 38th, alongside Germany and the US. Thanks to their strong familial and social networks, Latin American countries scored highly despite lower levels of individual GDP.

这一次,位居榜首的国家是巴拉圭,在《全球幸福指数报告》中排名64位。英国排名38位,与德国和美国并列。拉丁美洲国家多亏有强大的家族和社会关系,尽管人均国内生产总值水平较低,但排名靠前。

The contents of these pavilions confirm that when it comes to cultivating happiness, money isn’t everything. Italy, Brazil and Argentina all focus on the importance of trees and forests. Austria depicts an Alpine dystopia, ravaged by global warming. Yet amid the doom and gloom are messages of hope and optimism. Germany focuses on turning rubbish into furniture.

这些国家馆的布展证实,涉及到培养福祉时,金钱不是万能的。意大利、巴西和阿根廷都强调植树造林的意义。奥地利描绘了反乌托邦的阿尔卑斯山,受到全球变暖的侵袭。而悲观失望中也有希望和乐观的信号。德国着力将垃圾变为家具。

"This is the first design biennale in a major capital city," explains Christopher Turner. "It’s important to bring people together in a forum like this, to exchange ideas." Turner hopes LDB will help to counter the emotionally turbulent and politically polarised tenor of our time.

"这是首都首次举办设计双年展,"特纳解释道。"让人们齐聚一堂参加这样的盛会很重要,有利于相互交流思想。"特纳希望此次双年展助力缓解我们这个时代的情绪失控和政治分化。

With so many fine art biennales to choose from, is a design biennale really necessary? "Design is very much about problem solving, so it’s got a practical bent that art doesn’t have," says Turner. "Design is about asking questions." LDB asks a lot of questions. It also proposes some solutions. "Some pretty big themes are being looked at here: sustainability, migration." Designers can reflect on those themes in ways that artists don’t.

艺术双年展云集,是否真的需要设计双年展?特纳说,"设计主要是为了解决问题,因此它有艺术展不具备的实际用处。设计本身就是质疑的过程。"伦敦设计双年展提出很多疑问。也给出一些方案。"一些试图回答的重大问题有:可持续性,移民。"设计师对这些议题的处理和艺术家不同。

Turner believes design can have a big impact on the way we live, for better or worse. "When something is designed well it does make a tremendous difference, but design can also have negative effects." LDB designers are taking a closer look at new technology, thinking about how computers can serve mankind, rather than the other way around.

特纳认为,不管怎样,设计对我们的生活方式有很大影响。"好的设计的确能产生很大的影响,但设计也会带来负面影响。"伦敦设计双年展的设计师深入探讨新技术,思考如何让电脑为人所用,而不是人被电脑利用。

Design is a reflection of the times we live in, and the times have changed a good deal since the first London Design Biennale at Somerset House in 2016. "It is a challenging landscape," says Turner. "London really needs to emphasise that it is open to business and the creative community. A lot of people who work in the creative communities here, especially from the European Union, aren’t feeling particularly welcome right now, and I hope events like this can serve to counter that in some small way."

设计是对我们所处时代的反思,自2016年萨默赛特宫举办首届伦敦设计双年展以来,时代又添新貌。特纳说,"环境颇具考验。伦敦真的应该强调,欢迎企业和创意工作者社群进驻。很多在这里工作的创意工作者社群,特别是来自欧盟地区,目前感觉不太受欢迎,我希望像这样的活动多少有助于消除那种感觉。"

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