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在外国出生美国人口数创新高,新移民多来自亚洲

更新时间:2018-9-14 18:15:29 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

U.S. Has Highest Share of Foreign-Born Since 1910, With More Coming From Asia
在外国出生美国人口数创新高,新移民多来自亚洲

WASHINGTON — The foreign-born population in the United States has reached its highest share since 1910, according to government data released Thursday, and the new arrivals are more likely to come from Asia and to have college degrees than those who arrived in past decades.

华盛顿——根据周四公布的政府数据,美国的外国出生人口数量已达到自1910年以来的最高,和过去几十年相比,新移民更有可能来自亚洲并拥有大学学位。

The Census Bureau’s figures for 2017 confirm a major shift in who is coming to the United States. For years newcomers tended to be from Latin America, but a Brookings Institution analysis of that data shows that 41 percent of the people who said they arrived since 2010 came from Asia. Just 39 percent were from Latin America. About 45 percent were college educated, the analysis found, compared with about 30 percent of those who came between 2000 and 2009.

人口调查局2017年的数据证实了赴美者的重大转变。多年来,新移民往往来自拉丁美洲,但布鲁金斯学会(Brookings Institution)对这些数据的分析显示,自2010年以来,有41%的人来自亚洲。只有39%来自拉丁美洲。分析发现,大约45%的人接受过大学教育,而2000年至2009年间,这一比例约为30%。

“This is quite different from what we had thought,” said William H. Frey, the senior demographer at the Brookings Institution who conducted the analysis. “We think of immigrants as being low-skilled workers from Latin America, but for recent arrivals that’s much less the case. People from Asia have overtaken people from Latin America.”

“这与我们过去的想法截然不同,”布鲁金斯学会高级人口统计学家威廉·H·弗雷(William H. Frey)说。“我们认为移民是来自拉丁美洲的低技能工人,但在最近到来的移民中,这种情况少得多了。来自亚洲的人已经超过拉丁美洲人。”

The new data was released as the nation’s changing demography has become a flash point in American politics. President Trump, and many Republicans, have sounded alarms about immigration and suggested the government needs to restrict both the number and types of people coming into the country.

新数据的公布正值美国变化的人口构成成为全国政治焦点之时。特朗普总统和许多共和党人都对移民发出了警告,并建议政府需要限制进入美国的人口数量和类型。

The foreign-born population stood at 13.7 percent in 2017, or 44.5 million people, according to the data, compared with 13.5 percent in 2016.

根据数据显示,2017年,在外国出生的人口为13.7%,即4450万人,而2016年为13.5%。

The last historic peak in immigration to the United States came at the end of the 19th century, when large numbers of Europeans fled poverty and violence in their home countries. Some of the largest numbers came from Germany, Italy and Poland. That wave peaked around the turn of the century, when the total foreign-born population stood at nearly 15 percent. But after the passage of strict racial quotas in the 1920s, the foreign-born population fell sharply for decades in the middle of the 20th century. By 1970, the population was below 5 percent.

移民美国的上一个历史性高峰发生在19世纪末,当时大量欧洲人为了逃离本国的贫困和暴力来到美国,其中数量最多的人群包括德国人、意大利人和波兰人。这波浪潮在世纪之交达到顶峰,当时外国出生的人口总数接近15%。但在1920年代,严格的种族配额制度通过后,外国出生的人口在20世纪中叶的几十年里急剧下降。到1970年,该人群比例低于5%。

The passage of a more liberal immigration law in 1965, which ended ethnic quotas and prioritized family reunification, ushered in new demographics. And the changes have only accelerated in recent years.

1965年通过了一项更加自由的移民法,结束了种族配额,并优先考虑家庭团聚,开创了新的人口构成统计数据。而这些变化近年来才加速。

For many years, Mexico was the single largest contributor of immigrants. But since 2010, the number of immigrants arriving from Mexico has declined, while those from China and India have surged. Since 2010, the increase in the number of people from Asia — 2.6 million — was more than double the 1.2 million who came from Latin America, Mr. Frey found.

墨西哥曾连续多年成为移民的唯一最大促成因素。但自2010年以来,来自墨西哥的移民数量有所下降,而来自中国和印度的移民数量激增。弗雷发现,自2010年以来,来自亚洲的人数增加了260万,比来自拉丁美洲的120万人多了一倍多。

Some of the largest gains were in states with the smallest immigrant populations, suggesting that immigrants were spreading out in the country. New York and California, states with large immigrant populations, both had increases of less than six percent since 2010. But foreign-born populations rose by 20 percent in Tennessee, 13 percent in Ohio, 12 percent in South Carolina and 20 percent in Kentucky over the same period.

一些最大幅的增长来自移民人口最少的州,这表明移民正在美国广泛蔓延。自2010年以来,拥有大量移民人口的纽约州和加利福尼亚州的增幅都不到6%。但同时期田纳西州的外国出生人口增长率为20%,俄亥俄州为13%,南卡罗来纳州为12%,肯塔基州为20%。

The data also suggests a political pattern among states with large percentages of foreign-born residents. Of the 15 states with the highest concentration of immigrants, all but three — Florida, Texas and Arizona — voted for Hillary Clinton in the 2016 presidential race. Many of the states with low and moderate concentrations of foreign-born people voted for Mr. Trump, Mr. Frey found.

这些数据还表明,在拥有大比例外国出生居民的州中存在一种政治模式。在移民密度最高的15个州中,除佛罗里达州、德克萨斯州和亚利桑那州之外的所有州都在2016年总统竞选中投票支持希拉里·克林顿(Hillary Clinton)。弗雷发现,许多外国出生人口密度较低和密度中等的州投票支持特朗普。

In those low-concentration states, foreign-born populations tended to be more educated than the native-born. In Ohio, for example, 43 percent of the foreign-born population is college educated, compared with just 27 percent of American-born Ohioans. About 43 percent of the foreign-born population is from Asia, far more than the 20 percent from Latin America.

在那些低密度的州,外国出生的人口往往比本土出生的人口受教育程度更高。例如,在俄亥俄州,43%的外国出生人口接受过大学教育,而在美国出生的俄亥俄州人中只有27%。大约43%的外国出生人口来自亚洲,远远超过拉丁美洲的20%。

The same can be true in states with large immigrant populations. About 15 percent of the population of Maryland last year was foreign-born. Of those people, 42 percent had college degrees, compared with 39 percent of American-born Marylanders.

在拥有大量移民人口的州也可能如此。马里兰州去年约有15%的国外出生人口。在这些人中,42%拥有大学学位,而美国出生的马里兰人的比例则为39%。

Chao Wu, a data scientist in Columbia, Maryland, who came from China in 2003, said he had long known about Asian graduate students in the United States, because he had been one. But it wasn’t until he started running for a seat on his county’s board of education that he noticed the richness and variation in the population.

2003年,来自中国的马里兰州哥伦比亚数据科学家赵武(音)表示,他早就了解美国的亚洲研究生情况,因为他曾经是其中一员。但直到他开始竞选县教育委员会的一个席位时,才注意到这个人群的丰富性和变异性。

“I increased my outreach and I realized there was a big Asian-American business community, with restaurants and grocery stores,” he said. He said he recently helped organize a ceremony in his town with a sister city in China. A portion of Route 40 was renamed Korean Way.

“我拓展了自己的接触范围,我意识到这里有一个大型的亚裔商户社区,有餐馆和杂货店,”他说。他还说,最近在他所在的城市,他参与组织了一个与中国姐妹城市举办的仪式。40号公路的一部分更名为韩国路。

But the rising levels of education are not lifting everyone. Asian-Americans are now the most economically divided racial or ethnic group in the country, according to a Pew Research Center analysis. Income inequality among Asian-Americans nearly doubled from 1970 to 2016.

但是,不断上升的教育水平并没有令所有人都得到提升。根据皮尤研究中心(Pew Research Center)的分析,亚裔美国人现在是美国经济上差异最大的种族或族裔群体。从1970年到2016年,亚裔美国人的收入不平等几乎翻了一番。

While people from Asia make up the largest share of recent newcomers, a majority of the country’s total foreign-born population is still from Latin America — 50 percent, compared to 31 percent from Asia.

虽然来自亚洲的人口占最近新移民的最大份额,但外国出生人口多数仍来自拉丁美洲,占50%,而亚裔占31%。

North Dakota had the single largest percentage increase in foreign-born residents since 2010, Mr. Frey said, with the number going up by 87 percent. Dr. Fadel E. Nammour, a gastroenterologist in Fargo, N.D., who moved to the United States from Lebanon in 1996, said he has noticed more immigrant-owned restaurants since he moved to North Dakota in 2002. In recent years, the state has settled refugees from countries including Iraq, Somalia and Congo. In all, foreign-born people in North Dakota rose to 31,000 in 2017 from just 16,600 in 2010, Mr. Frey found.

弗雷说,自2010年以来,北达科他州的外国出生居民增幅最大,增长率达到87%。1996年从黎巴嫩移居美国的胃肠病学家法德尔·E·那默尔(Fadel E. Nammour)博士表示,自2002年搬到北达科他州以来,他注意到移民开的餐馆更多了。近年来,该州有来自伊拉克、索马里和刚果等国的难民。弗雷发现,总体而言,北达科他州的外国出生人口从2010年的1.66万人增加到了2017年的3.1万人。

“There is more diversity now,” Dr. Nammour said. “You can tell by food. There are Indian places that opened up. We have an African place now. Little things that are a little bit different.”

“现在有更多的多样性,”那默尔说。“你可以通过食物来判断。开了一些印度餐厅。现在还有一个非洲餐厅。那些小事情现在有了一些小小的不同。”

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