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朝鲜建国70周年阅兵未展示洲际导弹

更新时间:2018-9-10 19:47:17 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

North Korea Stages Huge Military Parade — Without Its ICBMs
朝鲜建国70周年阅兵未展示洲际导弹

SEOUL, South Korea — Columns of goose-stepping soldiers and artillery vehicles rolled through a main plaza in Pyongyang, the capital of North Korea, on Sunday, as the country celebrated the 70th anniversary of its founding with a large military parade notable for one conspicuous absence: its long-range ballistic missiles.

韩国首尔——周日,为庆祝朝鲜建国70周年,一列列走着正步的士兵以及炮兵车穿过首都平壤的一个主要广场,其中一样东西的缺席格外引人瞩目:远程弹道导弹。

The North’s intercontinental ballistic missiles, including its Hwasong-14 and Hwasong-15, have been a main feature of its recent military parades, including one in February, and they have provoked President Trump to the extent that he has threatened military action. Their absence in Sunday’s parade is an encouraging signal for Washington, which has been urging the North’s leader, Kim Jong-un, to ease tensions and focus on diplomacy aimed at ending his country’s nuclear weapons program.

朝鲜的洲际弹道导弹,包括火星-14(Hwasong-14)和火星-15导弹,是其近期阅兵式上的重头戏(包括二月份的阅兵式),它们刺激特朗普总统威胁要采取军事行动。对于华盛顿来说,它们在周日的阅兵中缺席,是一个令人鼓舞的信号,华盛顿一直在敦促朝鲜领导人金正恩缓和紧张局势,并专注于旨在结束该国核武器计划的外交。

For weeks, outside analysts had been scrutinizing satellite imagery of North Korea’s preparations for Sunday’s festivities. If the North decided not to showcase its ICBMs, they said, it could be counted as a sign that North Korea was serious about its negotiations with Washington.

数周来,外界分析人士一直在仔细观察朝鲜筹备周日庆祝活动的卫星图像。他们表示,如果朝鲜决定不展示其洲际弹道导弹,那可能是朝鲜认真对待与华盛顿谈判的迹象。

During the two-hour parade, North Korea displayed conventional weaponry, such as tanks, artillery pieces and multiple-rocket launchers, but it neither rolled out its ICBMs nor made direct references to its growing nuclear weapons capabilities, as it often did in past parades.

在两个小时的阅兵式中,朝鲜展示了坦克、大炮和多管火箭炮等常规武器,但它没有像过去的阅兵中经常做的那样展示洲际弹道导弹,或直接提及其日益增长的核武器能力。

In comparison, this one appeared to have been choreographed to tone down militarism and instead highlight Mr. Kim’s efforts to rebuild the economy.

相比之下,这一次的阅兵式似乎是为了降低军国主义色彩,突出金正恩重建经济的努力。

The missiles on display were fewer in number and short in range. Nearly half the parade was composed of civilian groups, like nurses and construction workers, marching with colorful floats that swore loyalty to Mr. Kim and to his new policy aim of economic growth. Largely gone were explicit anti-American slogans (though some tanks still bore old ones that called for the “extermination of American imperialist invaders”). Replacing them were exhortations for building “a strong socialist economy.”

展示的导弹数量较少、射程较短。近一半的游行队伍是由平民团体组成,比如护士和建筑工人,他们乘坐五颜六色的花车游行,宣誓效忠金正恩,支持他新的经济增长政策目标。明确的反美口号大都消失了(尽管有些坦克上仍然有呼吁“消灭美帝国主义侵略者”的旧口号)。取而代之的是敦促建立“强大社会主义经济”的口号。

“By keeping ICBMs out, Kim Jong-un showed that he did not want to antagonize President Trump,” said Kim Yong-hyun, a professor of North Korean studies at Dongguk University in Seoul, South Korea. “The composition of the parade appears to reflect Kim Jong-un’s focus on dialogue and economic development.”

“通过撤下洲际弹道导弹,金正恩表明不想与特朗普总统对抗。”韩国首尔东国大学研究朝鲜问题的教授金容铉(Kim Yong-hyun)表示,“阅兵式的构成似乎反映了金正恩对于对话和经济发展的关注。”

The North’s ICBMs have been a leading source of tension with Washington, as Mr. Kim has accelerated their development and testing.

自从金正恩加快了洲际弹道导弹的开发和测试以来,该问题一直是朝鲜与华盛顿紧张关系的主要根源。

In November, North Korea successfully test-launched its Hwasong-15 ICBM, which is largely considered powerful enough to reach most of the continental United States. Mr. Kim later said he would shift focus to the economy, having achieved a nuclear deterrent.

去年11月,朝鲜成功试射了火星-15洲际弹道导弹,外界普遍认为它足以抵达美国大部分地区。金正恩后来表示,取得核威慑力量后,他将把重点转移到经济上。

When he met with Mr. Trump in June in Singapore, Mr. Kim committed to working toward the “complete denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula” in exchange for new relations and security guarantees from the United States. He told visiting South Korean envoys last week that he wanted to denuclearize before Mr. Trump’s current term ends in early 2021. He reiterated, though, that his country would move toward that goal only in phases to secure “simultaneous” reciprocal measures from Washington, such as the easing of sanctions that have been hurting his economy.

今年6月份在新加坡会见特朗普时,金正恩承诺致力于“实现朝鲜半岛的全面无核化”,换取同美国建立新关系和安全保障。他上周对来访的韩国特使表示,他希望在特朗普现任任期于2021年初结束之前实现无核化。但他重申,他的国家只会分阶段朝着这个目标迈进,以确保华盛顿“同时”实行互惠措施,例如放松损害朝鲜经济的制裁。

As Mr. Kim’s stated focus has shifted in recent months from missile development to economic development, the once ubiquitous anti-American and anti-Trump slogans and editorials have receded from Pyongyang’s streets and newspapers. Mr. Kim has also devoted almost all of his public activities to visiting factories and construction sites.

最近几个月,随着金正恩声称重点已从发展导弹转向发展经济,曾经无处不在的反美和反特朗普的口号和社论已从平壤的街道和报纸上消失。金正恩还把几乎所有公共活动变成了视察工厂和建筑工地。

The parade on Sunday reflected the new stance.

周日的阅兵反映了朝鲜的新立场。

Mr. Kim did not speak on Sunday, as he did in some of the past parades. Speaking in his stead, Kim Yong-nam, the head of the North Korean Parliament, emphasized the government’s economic goals.

周日,金正恩没有像过去一样,在一些阅兵式上发表讲话。朝鲜人民会议常任委员会委员长金永南(Kim Yong-nam)代替他发言,强调政府的经济目标。

Mass rallies and parades like the one on Sunday are a main way the government broadcasts its ideological and policy priorities. This month, after a five-year hiatus, North Korea is reintroducing the Mass Games — also with a strong economic theme. The games are a highly choreographed, propaganda-heavy spectacle featuring 100,000 performers, many of them children, dancing and performing synchronized gymnastics.

周日那样的群众集会和游行是政府宣传意识形态和政策优先事项的重要方式。本月,在中断五年之后,朝鲜重新推出了大型团体操表演——同样带有强大的经济主题。这些团体操是一个经过精心编排、宣传意味强烈的演出,有10万名表演者参加,跳舞和表演步调一致的体操,其中不少参演者是儿童。

“It’s incredible how North Korea stays ‘on brand’ — last year’s parade was all about nukes and this year it’s all about the economy,” Will Ripley, a CNN reporter, tweeted from Pyongyang.

“令人难以置信的是朝鲜如何保持‘品牌’的——去年的游行是关于核武器,今年全部都与经济有关,”CNN记者威尔·里普利(Will Ripley)在平壤发推说。

Mr. Ripley said that two North Koreans who participated in the parade had both told him that their country did not need to display ICBMs in the parade because it had achieved its nuclear goals.

里普利说,参加游行的两名朝鲜人都告诉他,他们的国家不需要在阅兵中展示洲际弹道导弹,因为它已实现了自己的核目标。

But “when I asked one man if he thinks North Korea should denuclearize, he quickly replied, ‘Never!’ ” Mr. Ripley posted on Twitter.

但是“当我问一个人是否认为朝鲜应该实现去核时,他立即回答说,‘绝不!’”里普利在Twitter上说。

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