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80年代的成长电影对于2018年是否太过震撼

更新时间:2018-9-7 9:55:27 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Is Heathers too shocking for 2018?
80年代的成长电影对于2018年是否太过震撼

A toxic love affair, an apparent contagion of suicides at a high school and an attempt by a psychotic teenage villain to blow up the school and kill every pupil in it. Heathers, the 1988 satire starring Winona Ryder and Christian Slater, was never just about a girl (Veronica) who can’t stand her three best friends (all named Heather).

一段有毒的恋情,一所高中明显蔓延的自杀行为,还有一名患有精神病的少年罪犯企图炸毁学校,杀死所有学生。1988年,由瑞德(Winona Ryder)和斯莱特(Christian Slater)主演的讽刺电影《希德姐妹帮》(Heathers),绝不仅仅是关于一个女孩(维罗妮卡,Veronica)无法忍受她三个最好朋友(都叫希德)的故事。

A critical rather than a box office success at the time, it’s kept its cult status and celebrates its 30th birthday this year with a 4K restoration of the original film. It’s also been made into a successful musical – but would Heathers the movie ever get the go ahead in 2018?

当时,这部电影的票房并不算成功,但影评不错,在小众电影(译注:cult,指某种在小圈子内被支持者喜爱及推崇的电影,指拍摄手法独特、题材诡异、剑走偏锋、风格异常、带有强烈的个人观点、富有争议性)中保有一席之地。今年,该片以4K格式对原作进行复原,以庆祝它诞生30周年。这部电影也被改编成一部成功的音乐剧。但是,《希德姐妹帮》这部电影在2018年能获得认可吗?

According to its makers, right from the start it was a popular misconception with audiences that Heathers was a film about teen suicide. After Veronica and JD kill ‘Red’ Heather Chandler and pass it off as suicide, it apparently inspires a spate of other tragedies in the fictional high school.

据制作方说,从一开始,观众就普遍误解《希德姐妹帮》是一部有关青少年自杀问题的电影。维罗妮卡和迪恩(JD)杀死"红色的"希德·钱德勒(Heather Chandler)并将其伪装成自杀后,其它自杀悲剧在这所虚构的高中一发不可收拾。

“I remember saying back in 1988 at screenings to audiences, ‘it’s not about teenage suicide,’” says Lehmann. “It’s a satire about all sorts of things, but not teenage suicide. The movie is about the general perception of teenagers and the speed at which a community is able to believe that murders are suicides. But some people – and film critics – did consider it obnoxious. They felt it was taboo – to make a comedy that even touched on the idea was insensitive and wrong.”

"我记得在1988年放映时,我对观众说,'这部电影不是关于青少年自杀,'"导演勒曼(Lehmann)说。"这是对各种事情的讽刺,但不是青少年自杀。这部电影是关于青少年的普遍认知,以及一个群体可以有多快就把谋杀认为是自杀。但一些人,以及电影评论家,确实认为它令人讨厌。他们觉得这是一种禁忌,拍摄一部这样想法的喜剧是麻木的,也是错误的。"

“No one commits suicide in the movie,” points out Lisanne Falk, who played Heather McNamara (‘Yellow Heather’) in the film. “They are murdered. Heathers is actually a revenge fantasy.”

"没有人在电影中自杀,"福尔克(Lisanne Falk)说,她在片中饰演麦克纳马拉(Heather McNamara,即"黄色的希德")。"他们是被谋杀的。《希德姐妹帮》其实是一部复仇的奇幻片。"

It was director Michael Lehmann’s first feature film; he says now that Dan Waters’ script was a satirical answer to the spate of ‘coming of age’ films in the late 1980s that included Ferris Bueller’s Day Off.

这是导演勒曼的第一部故事片;他说,沃特斯(Dan Waters)的剧本是对上世纪80年代末包括《春天不是读书天》(Ferris Bueller's Day Off)在内的大量成长电影的讽刺回应。

“Myself and Dan Waters always knew that it would be viewed as offensive and provocative,” says Lehmann. “But part of why you’d make a satire is to rile people up a bit and look at things in a different way, so I wasn’t too bothered when people were offended or took it in a direction where we hadn’t intended it to go.”

"我和沃特斯一直都知道这会被看作是一种冒犯和挑衅,"勒曼说。"但你讽刺别人的部分原因是为了激怒别人,让他们以一种不同的方式看待事情,所以当别人被冒犯了,或者把影片引向了我们没有打算去的方向时,我不会太在意。"

Winona Ryder, then the rising 16-year-old star of Beetlejuice, recalls being begged by her agent not to take the part of Veronica, claiming that she’d find it hard to get roles in Hollywood after making the film. “But I would have made Heathers for free,” she declared.

当时16岁的瑞德刚拍完《阴间大法师》(Beetlejuice),是一颗冉冉升起的新星,她回忆起自己的经纪人曾恳求她不要出演维罗妮卡这个角色,说拍完这部电影后在好莱坞就很难接到角色了。"但我宁愿不要报酬也要出演《希德姐妹帮》,"她说。

Lisanne Falk was 23 years old when she was cast and counted herself lucky she didn’t need parental consent like actress Heather Graham, who, aged 16, was banned by her parents from taking the role of lead ‘Red Heather’, Heather Chandler.

福尔克(Lisanne Falk)出演时23岁,她觉得自己很幸运,因为她不需要像女演员格雷厄姆(Heather Graham)一样征得父母的同意,格雷厄姆当时16岁,她的父母不让她出演"红色的希德",即钱德勒这个角色。

“I told my agent I would do any part at all to be in this movie,” Falk remembers. “I wasn’t originally cast as a Heather, but I got the part after someone else dropped out. Those of us who auditioned loved the script and would have done anything to be in the film; those who had parents involved had more difficulties.

"我告诉我的经纪人,我会不惜一切代价出演这部电影,"福尔克回忆说。"我最初并没有出演其中一个希德,但在其他人退出后我得到了这个角色。我们这些试镜的人都喜欢这个剧本,无论如何都要演这部电影;那些受到父母干涉的人面临更多困难。

“Now as a parent myself, I can see some of the language and content being shocking, and perhaps I’d be worried about it all being taken literally.”

"现在,我自己作为一名家长,我可以看到片中一些令人震惊的语言和内容,也许我会担心这些都被当真。"

‘Unique product of its time’

"那个时代独特的作品"

The reaction Heathers provoked in 1988 was mainly amongst adults rather than the teenage audience it was aimed at. Today’s young viewers are perceived as far more sensitive to the content they watch than 30 years ago. When 1990s sitcom Friends recently became available to stream, social media users were quick to highlight its ‘out of date’ storylines, reflecting a change in social attitudes.

《希德姐妹帮》在1988年引起的反响主要是在成年人当中,而不是其预期的青少年观众。与30年前相比,如今的年轻观众对他们观看的内容更加敏感。上世纪90年代的情景喜剧《老友记》(Friends)最近开始在流媒体播放,社交媒体用户很快就强调它的故事情节"过时",这反映出社会态度的变化。

Perhaps Heathers could be made today if it had its main stars participating in video clips urging those affected by the film to seek help, then offering useful further resources – which is what the Netflix series about a high school suicide, 13 Reasons Why, has done. But Michael Lehmann remains adamant that Heathers as a film could not work now – and it’s not necessarily because of the associations with suicide.

如果《希德姐妹帮》的主要明星们参与录制一段视频,敦促那些受到电影影响的人去寻求帮助,然后提供更多有用的资源,这样的话,也许这部电影在今天也仍然可以拍摄。网飞公司关于高中自杀事件的电视剧《13个原因》就是这样做的。但是勒曼仍然坚持认为,作为一部电影,《希德姐妹帮》现在已经行不通了,这并不一定是因为与自杀主题有关。

“It’s because of the violence in schools now and the way it’s often presented as a response to bullying,” he says. “No one would want to make a comedy that touches on high school violence in that way.”

"这是因为现在学校里的暴力事件,而自杀通常成为对欺凌行为的回应,"他说。"没人想拍一部喜剧,以那种方式触及高中暴力。"

Media psychologist Dr Jennifer Johnston of Western New Mexico University, who studies the link between media reporting of mass shootings and copycat killings, agrees with him.

西新墨西哥大学(Western New Mexico University)的媒体心理学家约翰斯顿(Jennifer Johnston)博士研究了媒体大规模报道枪击事件与模仿杀人之间的联系,她同意勒曼的观点。

“I think it was a perfect recipe to inspire would-be shooters. They chose a popular actor at the time, Christian Slater, who played a classic anti-hero. Winona Ryder was an emblem of counter-culture. The characters they played in the film represent those groups that high-school shooters often say they identify with. And it’s a film that showed what life looked like when you get to sit in judgement on those around you.  I watched Heathers as a teenager in the 1980s and I’m not sure I totally understood then it was a satire."

"我认为这部电影对于那些想要成为枪击案杀手的人来说是一种完美的启示。他们选择了当时很受欢迎的演员斯莱特扮演了一个经典的反英雄角色。瑞德是反文化的象征。他们在电影中扮演的角色代表了那些高中枪手常说的他们认同的群体。这部电影展示了当你开始对周围的人评头论足时,生活是什么样的。80年代,我还是个十几岁的孩子时就看了《希德姐妹帮》,我不确定当时我是否完全理解它是一部讽刺作品。"

In fact, Heathers predates the first notorious high school mass shooting, the massacre at Columbine, by a decade, but Lehmann also points out that earlier this year a planned TV spin-off show of Heathers (it included Shannen Doherty, one of the original Heathers) was pulled immediately after the Parkland shootings in Florida.

事实上,《希德姐妹帮》比第一起臭名昭著的高中枪击事件,科隆比纳(Columbine)高中枪击案要早十年,但勒曼也指出,今年早些时候,佛罗里达州的帕克兰(Parkland)枪击案发生后,一档策划好的《希德姐妹帮》的衍生电视节目(节目主角包括演员多尔蒂Shannen Doherty,曾经出演了希德姐妹中的一人)被立即叫停。

“The musical of Heathers is great and funny, but it takes a lighter view and by being a musical it can have fun. But I think this is now sensitive material,” he says, adding that originally the film had a few different endings, including one where JD (Christian Slater) did manage to blow up the school.

"《希德姐妹帮》的音乐剧是一部伟大而有趣的作品,但它选取了一个更轻松的视角,作为一部音乐剧,它可以很有趣。但我认为现在这是一个敏感题材,"勒曼说,他还补充,最初这部电影有几个不同的结局,其中一个是斯莱特饰演的迪恩设法炸毁了学校。

“We were told to change it on the basis someone might harm themselves or others after seeing it. I didn’t think at the time it was an issue, but now I would be worried.”

"我们被告知要更改这个结局,因为有人看到后可能会伤害自己或他人。我当时不认为这是一个问题,但现在我会担心。"

Lisanne Falk thinks that Heathers should be judged through the historical lens of 1988, not 2018 – though she believes it still speaks to teenagers about their place in school.

福尔克认为,评判《希德姐妹帮》应该从1988年的历史角度,而不是2018年,尽管她认为这部电影仍然在谈论青少年在学校的位置。

“I asked my now teenage daughter if Heathers is still relevant,” she says, “and she said what she found most relatable is that school still categorises people. So all the dynamics are still there, the debate about the hierarchy is still going on, and there are still Veronicas who perhaps think they want to be a part of it and then they find their limits and find out who they are in the process.”

"我问我十几岁的女儿《希德姐妹帮》是否仍有意义,"福尔克说。"我女儿说她觉得最有关的是学校依然把人分门别类。所以所有的动力都还在,关于等级制度的争论还在继续,维罗妮卡们仍然存在,也许认为她们想要成为其中的一部分,然后发现了自己的局限,在这个过程中找到了自己的身份。"

Heathers was, Lehmann advocates, a unique product of its time, and should be left there.

勒曼主张,《希德姐妹帮》是那个时代一部独特的作品,应该被留在那个时代。

“When I do go to screenings of Heathers, what I get asked is, ‘how did you manage to make this back then? Why can’t we do something like this now?’”

"我去看《希德姐妹帮》时,人们问我,'当时你是如何拍出这部电影的?为什么我们现在不能拍像这样的电影呢?'"

“It was a very special script, a special set of circumstances. It was possible to get it financed because of the growing home video market, that just exploded around 1987. We got lucky casting it. I personally can’t imagine anyone else apart from Winona Ryder in that part and she happened to want to do it, and she was actually exactly the right age for Veronica. It was a pretty good set of circumstances and it doesn’t happen that often.”

"这是一个非常特别的剧本,一套特殊的环境。由于家庭录像带市场的不断增长,它才可能获得资金支持,而家庭录像带市场在1987年前后才出现爆炸式增长。我们很幸运拍了这部电影。我个人无法想象除了瑞德之外的人来演这个角色,而她恰好也想演,并且她的年龄演维罗妮卡正合适。这是一种相当好的环境,而这种情况并不常有。"

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