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维多利亚瀑布旁的保育项目“秃鹫餐厅”

更新时间:2018-9-7 9:24:21 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

The race to save Africa's vultures
维多利亚瀑布旁的保育项目“秃鹫餐厅”

Eight of Africa’s vulture species have declined by an average of 62 per cent in the past 30 years, for some species that number is as high as 80 per cent; the threats facing these creatures are extensive.

过去30年间,八个品种的非洲秃鹫数量平均减少62%,一些品种数量减少甚至高达80%;秃鹫面临着各种各样的威胁。

It’s just before 1pm and hungry guests are starting to emerge out onto the wooden decking at the back of the Victoria Falls Safari Lodge in Zimbabwe. A few have already settled in for lunch, sipping beer and delving into their sandwiches and salads in the sunshine. At the waterhole below, a few warthogs can be seen trotting around, stopping every now and then to munch some grass. It’s a normal setting - until you look up. Overhead, the sky is filled with several hundred vultures, swooping in giant concentric circles.

还不到下午一点,津巴布韦维多利亚瀑布撒法里俱乐部酒店(Victoria Falls Safari Lodge)后面的木地板露台,已陆续有饥肠辘辘的客人出现。有些已经坐下来开始午餐,沐浴在阳光下小酌啤酒,吃着三明治和沙拉。下面的水池边上有几头疣猪,来回走动,不时停下来吃草。这一切似乎是寻常景象,但你抬头一看,就会发现惊人奇观。天空中有几百只秃鹫,围成巨大的同心圆正在向下俯冲盘旋。

They too have arrived for their midday snack. Every day the team at this hotel places last night’s leftover meat out for the vultures to eat. They call it the ‘Vulture Restaurant’ and it’s a vital part of protecting these birds, who have become some of the most endangered species in Africa.

秃鹫也是到时来此吃午饭。每天酒店有个团队会把前一天晚上剩的肉拿出来喂秃鹫,他们称之为"秃鹫餐厅",这对保护秃鹫——非洲最濒危的物种之一非常重要。

A 2015 report by Darcy Ogada of The Peregrine Fund, a US-based conservation organisation focusing on endangered birds of prey, shows that eight of Africa’s vulture species have declined by an average of 62 per cent in the past 30 years, for some species that number is as high as 80 per cent. The threats facing these creatures are extensive, from habitat loss to being killed for spiritual reasons. In some cultures it is believed that sleeping with a vulture head under your pillow will allow you to see into the future.

2015年,任职于美国猛禽保护组织——游隼基金(The Peregrine Fund)的奥加达( Darcy Ogada)报告指出,过去30年间,八个品种的非洲秃鹫数量平均减少62%,一些品种数量减少甚至高达80%;秃鹫面临着各种各样的威胁,包括栖息地丧失或是因人类迷信通灵而惨遭杀害。据非洲一些文化传统,人们认为枕头下放秃鹫脑袋睡觉可以预知未来。

In Zimbabwe, where poaching of elephants and rhinos is a major issue, poisoning posts a significant threat to the birds. “[In recent years] poachers have realised they can use poison to kill animals. It’s effective because it’s silent and therefore doesn’t attract much attention. When the vultures eat the carcasses they die too,” says Roger Parry, Wildlife Manager at Victoria Falls Wildlife Trust, a not-for-profit organisation in Zimbabwe. Knowing that circling vultures can attract the attention of the park rangers, poachers will sometimes even poison an entire water source, to kill the vultures in advance.

在津巴布韦,偷猎大象和犀牛是重大问题,毒杀这些动物也严重威胁到鸟类的生存。帕里(Roger Parry)是津巴布韦非营利性组织——维多利亚瀑布野生动物信托基金(Wildlife Manager at Victoria Falls Wildlife Trust)的野生动物管理员,他说,"(近些年来)偷猎者意识到了能通过下毒捕杀动物,没有声音不会引起注意,十分有效。秃鹫吃了中毒死亡的动物尸体也会死亡。"知道盘旋在动物尸体上的秃鹫会引起公园管理员的注意,偷猎者有时甚至会给整个水源下毒,提前杀死秃鹫。

Of all scavenger species, poisoned carcasses pose a particular threat to vultures because they are social creatures and eat in large groups (known as a wake) of up to 100. In 2013, 500 vultures were killed after feeding on the carcass of a poisoned elephant in Namibia, and in May 2017, 94 critically endangered African White Backed Vultures were found dead on the Zimbabwe/Mozambique border, killed the same way.

在所有的食腐动物中,有毒的尸体尤其威胁秃鹫生存,因为秃鹫是群居生物,通常一大群(也叫一醒(wake))最多可达100只秃鹫一起进食。2013年,纳米比亚500只秃鹫吃了中毒的大象后死亡。2017年5月,94只严重濒危的非洲白背秃鹫在津巴布韦与莫桑比克交界以同样的方式被杀害。

Human-wildlife conflict also plays a part in the plight of vultures in Zimbabwe and beyond. “We get massive losses [of vultures] through predators killing local’s livestock. The community then puts out poisoned bait to kill the predators, vultures eat the dead predator and die too,” says Parry.

人类与野生动物的矛盾也是津巴布韦及其他地区秃鹫生存困境的原因之一。帕里说,"肉食动物会捕杀当地牲畜,当地人因此用毒饵杀死这些猛兽,而秃鹫吃了这些中毒动物的尸体,也会死亡,就这样我们失去了很多秃鹫。"

The Vulture Restaurant initiative is part feeding programme, part education programme. By attracting the birds to the Vulture Restaurant every day the team can ensure they’re regularly getting a safe meal, and while the birds are there they can educate tourists from all over the world about these creatures, increasing awareness and support for the cause in the process.

秃鹫餐厅保育行动既是喂食项目,也是教育项目。吸引秃鹫每天来秃鹫餐厅进食,该团队能保证它们能定期吃到安全的一餐,也能让来自世界各地的游客增加对这种鸟类的了解,从而提高他们保护秃鹫的意识及吸引他们支持保护秃鹫的事业。

Back at the Victoria Falls Safari Lodge the vultures sense that their meal is about to be served and the huge birds begin to swoop down from the skies and settle in the trees. Their broad, strong wings are perfect for gliding through the sky with minimal effort, but coming in to land is less elegant. One by one they slam into the branches with some force, taking a moment or two to compose themselves and get their feathers back in place. There are no tablecloths or sunshades here, just an open patch of ground that marks Vulture Restaurant HQ, with tiered seating in front of it for guests to watch.

回到维多利亚瀑布撒法里俱乐部酒店,大量的秃鹫已知它们就要开饭了,这些巨禽纷纷从空中盘旋而下停在树梢上。秃鹫有着宽大有力的翅膀,在天空中翱翔毫不费力,但是落地就不那么雅观了。它们一只接一只猛力拍打着树枝,要稍带片刻才平静下来、合上翅膀。这里没有桌布也没有遮阳伞,只有一块标着秃鹫餐厅总部的空地,前面是阶梯式座位便于顾客观看。

Although most tourists come to this part of the world to visit the astounding sight of 5 million cubic metres of water crashing down at Victoria Falls every minute, the vulture experience has grown in popularity and is now packed every day. “We have days where we have to limit the number of people going down [to the viewing area] because it gets so busy,” says Ross Kennedy, CEO of Africa Albida Tourism, which runs the lodge.

虽然大多数游客来这里是为了维多利亚瀑布,欣赏每分钟500万立方米的水量跌落悬崖的宏伟奇观,但是观赏秃鹫也越来越受欢迎,现在每天都挤满了看客。经营酒店的非洲爱比达旅游(Africa Albida Tourism)首席执行官肯尼迪(Ross Kennedy)说,"有些日子还要限制观看区的人流量,因为实在太忙了。"

‘Lunch’ is served by Wildlife Supervisor Moses Garira who sees himself as something of a vulture daddy-figure. He has the unenviable task of wandering out into the middle of the clearing with a cool-box full of meat, dropping the contents onto the ground and running for his life as the 200-odd vultures swoop in for their feeding frenzy. It’s a remarkable scene as the mob of huge birds crash and pounce on top of one another, screeching and squaking as they clamber in and fight over the meat, ripping away at muscle with ease. No one, surely, would volunteer for this role, but Garira rather enjoys it. “It feels great to be so close to the birds, I feel like I am part of them – it’s not scary at all,” he says, earnestly. Back in the safety of the viewing seats, he spends the next 15 minutes or so telling the onlookers about the importance of vultures to human health, and why we need to protect them.

野生动物监督员加里拉(Moses Garira)负责为秃鹫上"午饭",他把自己看作秃鹫的爸爸。这是一份危险差事。他将一冷藏箱的肉拿到空地中间,把肉倒出来后,赶紧跑走逃命,因为立刻会有200多只秃鹫飞下来抢食。场面十分壮观,成群的巨禽互相撞击,冲挤抢食,发出尖锐利叫声,然后毫不费力地撕开肌肉。当然,没有人会自愿做这份工作,但是加里拉却十分享受。他真挚地说,"能离秃鹫这么近感觉很好,我觉得自己是它们的一部分,一点儿都不吓人。"回到安全的观看座位区后,加里拉会花15分钟左右的时间向观众们讲述秃鹫对人类健康的重要性以及我们为什么要保护秃鹫。

Often considered to be creepy, disgusting creatures mainly because of their scavenger tendencies, it turns out humans have got it all wrong when it comes to vultures. “Part of the educational challenge is to get people to realise these birds are not horrible - they are extremely important. They’re beautiful birds, and they are hugely important in terms of their role cleaning up the dead carcasses in the bush,” says Parry. Notably, they’re safely able to digest nasty bacteria like Anthrax, where other scavengers are not. Without vultures, there’d be a lot more disease in the world.

人们通常认为食腐动物恐怖又恶心,但秃鹫事实上并非如此。帕里说,"教育的难点之一就是让人们意识到秃鹫并不可怕,反而极其重要。秃鹫很漂亮,清理荒野尸体的工作十分重要。"值得一提的是,秃鹫能安全消化其他食腐动物不能消化的有害细菌,比如炭疽杆菌。如果这个世界上没有秃鹫,会有更多的传染病发生。

But will the vulture restaurant actually be able to make a significant difference to the plight of vultures in Zimbabwe? Kerri Wolter, CEO of Vulpro, a South African vulture conservation organisation, believes it can play an important part when teamed with other solutions like government funding for conservation and harsher penalties for killing vultures. Improving the general public’s awareness and support is a big part of the battle, and the vulture restaurant achieves this. “If we are going to win, we have to get people to like vultures,” she says.

但是秃鹫餐厅能真正改变津巴布韦秃鹫的生存困境吗?南非秃鹫保护组织秃鹫大师(Vulpro)的首席执行官华德(Kerri Wolter)认为如果能与其他措施相结合就能起作用,比如政府资助秃鹫保护以及严惩捕杀秃鹫的行为。提高公众意识和赢得公众支持是保护秃鹫之争的重要部分。她说,"如果我们想取得成功,我们得让大家爱上秃鹫。"

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