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回味大航海时代 用旅行指南绘制世界地图

更新时间:2018-9-2 9:47:58 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

The travel guides that charted our world
回味大航海时代 用旅行指南绘制世界地图

Checking a navigation mobile app to quickly establish how to get from point A to point B has become second nature to us. Measured in megabytes, the world now fits in our pockets. It is quite astonishing, then, to see first-hand that only a few centuries ago geographical knowledge was yet to be fully charted, and how religious beliefs and fear of the unknown co-existed with burgeoning scientific know-how.

通过手机里的导航应用来快速查看怎么从A点到B点,已然成了一种习惯。今天,世界化作百万字节,藏在我们的口袋之中。然而我们能惊讶地看到,仅仅几个世纪前,世界版图还未完全绘制出来;那时人类对宗教信仰、对未知的恐惧,与生机勃勃的科学知识共生共存。

“Look here,” said Mattea Gazzola as her gloved hand pointed to the 570-year-old planisfero (a planisphere, or spherical world map) in front of us. “To the east is the Biblical Paradise depicted as a walled town dotted with towers. To the south is an unbearably hot impassable desert, and to the north lies another desert uninhabited due to extreme cold. In the centre of the world is Jerusalem.”

“看这儿,”加佐拉(Mattea Gazzola)用戴着手套的手指着我们面前这幅有570年历史的planisfero(意大利语,球形世界地图)。“画在东边的这个带塔楼的围城小镇,是圣经中的天堂乐园;南边是极热、极难越过的沙漠;北部是人类无法居住的另一个极寒的沙漠。而世界的中心在耶路撒冷。”

This world map, which dates to 1448 and was authored on parchment by Venetian cartographer Giovanni Leardo, is both beautiful and intriguing. Combining Ptolemy’s geocentric model (the idea that the Earth is at the centre of the Solar System), Christian beliefs, pagan symbols, Arabic geographical theories and scientific formulas, it represents the continents as they were then-known by Europeans, surrounded by a big ocean. Six concentric circles drawn around the world and filled in with tiny, neat numbers and letters allow the user to calculate when Easter takes place, the months of the year and the phases of the moon.

这张世界地图可以追溯至公元1448年,由威尼斯制图师利尔多(Giovanni Leardo)用羊皮纸绘制,十分精美、引人瞩目。它融合了托勒密(Ptolemy)的地心说模型(地球处于太阳系中心的思想)、基督教信仰、异教符号、阿拉伯地理理论,还有各种科学公式,代表了当时的欧洲人所知的被大洋包围起来的大陆。地图上还绘制了六个同心圆,围绕着地球,圆内整齐精细地写满数字和字母,好让看图的人计算复活节的时间、每年的月份,以及月相。

The Italian word ‘planisfero’ comes from the Latin planus (flat) and sphaera (sphere), and there are only three known of these world maps hand drawn and signed by Leardo. The oldest one (1442) is held at the Biblioteca Comunale in Verona; the newest (1452) is kept by the American Geographical Society Library; and the middle one (1448) takes pride of place in the collection of the Biblioteca Civica Bertoliana in Vicenza, a smaller Italian city sandwiched between Venice and Verona.

意大利语“planisfero”来自拉丁语planus(平的)和sphaera(球体)。在现在所知的这类地图中,只有三张由利尔多手绘签字。最古老的一幅(1442年)现存于意大利维罗纳的城市图书馆;最近的一幅(1452年)存于美国地理协会图书馆;中间那幅(1448年)是博特利亚纳(Bertoliana)市民图书馆的镇馆之宝,该馆位于维琴察(Vicenza),一个夹在威尼斯和维罗纳之间的意大利小城。

Housed in a former Somascan monastery, the archive of Biblioteca Civica Bertoliana contains thousands of rare books and manuscripts. If placed in a line, they would stretch more than 19km. Over the centuries, these tomes were donated to the library by the rich noble families of Vicenza, a city known for its architectural heritage, historical silk and jewellery trades, as well as its allegiance to the Republic of Venice during its maritime heyday.

博特利亚纳市民图书馆内的档案馆曾经是索玛斯堪(Somascan)修道院所在地,藏有数以千计的珍本书籍和手稿。如果把它们排成一排,能摆19公里长。这些书籍是几百年来,维琴察富裕的贵族家庭捐赠给图书馆的。维琴察闻名于其建筑遗产、历史悠久的丝绸和珠宝贸易,在其海上鼎盛时期曾依附于威尼斯公国。

Now, some of the most precious and intriguing of these books and manuscripts lay on a wide, old-fashioned desk in front of me in the dusky room of the library's archive. Essentially travel guides, these books and maps were used by sailors, academics and travellers in the 15th and the 16th Centuries to navigate and explore the world.

现在,在档案馆一间昏暗的房间里,最珍贵、最有意思的书籍和手稿正摊在我面前宽阔的老式书桌上。15、16世纪的水手、学者和旅行家们把这些书和地图当作旅行指南,来导航和探索世界。

Leafing through them, Gazzola – the library's archivist – told a story.

当我们翻阅这些书籍时,图书馆的档案管理员加佐拉讲述了一个故事。

A new era of mapping the world

一个绘制世界的新时代

Between the invention of the printing press in c. 1440 and the Age of Exploration reaching one of its pinnacles in the late 15th and early 16th Centuries, a revolution took place in the art of mapping and describing the world. First-hand knowledge gained through seafaring, commerce, geographical discoveries, complex mathematical calculations and even religious pilgrimages to the Holy Land came flooding in and changing the outlines of the maps of the times.

公元1440年,印刷机发明出来,到此后的大航海时代,也就是15世纪末16世纪初,绘制描述世界的艺术革命达到顶峰。通过航海、贸易、地理发现、复杂的数学计算,甚至去宗教圣地朝拜获得大量一手知识,改变了当时世界地图的轮廓。

Within 150 years, the geographical model of Leardo's planisfero was left behind, and the world more or less as we know it today emerged.

在150年里,利尔多的球形世界地理模型被人们抛在脑后,一个跟如今的认知差不多的世界出现了。

An important step along the way was the publication (in 1475 in Vicenza) of the first printed edition of Ptolemy's Geography in Latin. Claudius Ptolemy, a 2nd-Century Greco-Roman mathematician, astronomer and geographer, had described the world known to the Roman Empire at the time and assigned geographical coordinates to all places. As such, Earth was a strip of flat land about 70 degrees wide with Cadiz to the west and India or Cathay (China) to the east.

托勒密(Claudius Ptolemy)的著作《地理学》(Geography),其首个拉丁文印刷版本(于1475年在维琴察出版)是发展史上重要的一步。托勒密是公元2世纪希腊罗马的数学家、天文学家和地理学家,他曾描述了当时罗马帝国所知的世界,并为所有地方制定了坐标。据他所言,世界是一片70度宽的平地,最西边是加纳利群岛,最东边是契丹(中国)。

Ptolemy's work was re-discovered by Byzantine scholar Maximus Planudes in the 13th Century, and for hundreds of years Ptolemy was held as the supreme authority on all things cartographic and geographical. Unfortunately, his original maps had been lost, and Planudes recreated them on the basis of the written text and coordinates.

13世纪,拜占庭学者普莱努迪斯(Maximus Planudes)重新绘制出托勒密的作品。数百年来,人们一直将托勒密视为制图学和地理学的至高权威。不幸的是,他的地图原件已不复存在,普莱努迪斯依循文本和坐标,重新进行了绘制。

After Ptolemy's Geography had been translated from Greek into Latin in 1406 by hand, more maps were drawn by many different cartographers based on Ptolemy’s text, coordinates and mathematical calculations. These maps facilitated the exploratory travels during the 15th Century and led to a renaissance in cartography.

1406年,托勒密的《地理学》经人手从希腊语译为拉丁语。此后许多制图师基于其文本、坐标和数学运算,绘制了大量的地图。这些地图推动了15世纪的探索之旅,还带来了制图业的复兴。

The 1475 Vicenza edition of Ptolemy's Geography didn't include the maps (only his original text and coordinates). Instead, Gazzola showed me a later edition of the seminal work published in Rome on 4 November 1490.The large and heavy tome is interspersed with 31 detailed printed maps which had been coloured by hand in yellow and ochre tones for the lands and blue shades for the seas.

1475年在维琴察出版的托勒密的《地理学》不含地图(只有原始文本和坐标)。加佐拉为我展示了这项开创性成果的后来版本——1490年11月在罗马出版的《地理学》。这本又厚又重的大部头中夹杂着31张详细的印刷版地图,这些地图经印刷后再人工上色,黄色和赭石色为土地,蓝色为大海。

Typically for an incunabulum (the term used to designate the earliest printed books, especially ones before 1501), the book doesn't have a frontispiece. Just like a manuscript, this early edition of Ptolemy's Geography starts directly with the text without any preface.

一般而言,一本古版书(指早期,尤为1501年之前的印刷书籍)没有扉页。这本早期的托勒密《地理学》就像手稿一样,没有序言,直接从正文开始。

“Frontispieces giving the name of the author, the work and the printing date only really started being used after 1500,” Gazzola explained. This is when the Venetian humanist scholar and publisher Aldus Manutius revolutionised the printing world. “The modern book starts with him.” In the era of the Venetian dominance over the Adriatic and the Mediterranean seas, Manutius established the printing office Aldine Press (in Venice), was the first to introduce italics fonts, and published more than 130 books in Greek and Latin.

“1500年以后,才真正有了带作者姓名、书籍名称、印刷日期的扉页,”加佐拉解释道。当时,威尼斯人文学者兼出版商马努修斯(Aldus Manutius)彻底改变了印刷界。“他引领了现代书籍的出版。”在威尼斯人统治亚得里亚海和地中海的时代,马努修斯在威尼斯创办了阿尔定印刷厂(Aldine Press),最先引进了斜体字,并出版了130多本希腊语和拉丁语书籍。

A harbinger of modern-day travel guides

现代旅行指南的先驱

The next travel book Gazzola showed me had a detailed, beautifully printed frontispiece. And a very long title: Quae intus continentur Syria, Palestina, Arabia, Aegyptus, Schondia, Holmiae, Regionum Superiorum Singuale Tabulae Geographicae.

接下来,加佐拉向我展示了一本旅行书,扉页印得十分精美。这本书还有个长长的拉丁文标题:《Quae intus continentur Syria, Palestina, Arabia, Aegyptus, Schondia, Holmiae, Regionum Superiorum Singuale Tabulae Geographicae》。

Written by the Bavarian humanist and theologian Jacobus Ziegler and published in 1532 in Strasbourg, this is a harbinger of modern-day travel guides. The book includes a detailed description of the Biblical lands and aims to help pilgrims on their travels through them. It contains information about the different cities there and the local traditions, thus setting the tone for the millions of travel guides to be published around the world from then onwards.

1532年,巴伐利亚人文主义者和神学家齐格勒(Jacobus Ziegler)撰写了一本书,并在斯特拉斯堡(Strasbourg)出版,这即是现代旅游指南的先驱。这本书包括对圣地的详细描述,旨在帮助朝圣者在旅途中能找对地方。书里还提供了不同城市的相关信息,以及当地的传统,为从此以后在世界各地出版的数百万旅游指南奠定了基调。

Gazzola picked up a small leather-bound book that she described as ‘molto geniale’, or ‘very clever’ in English. This is Cosmographia (also known as Cosmographicus Liber) by the German humanist and print-shop owner Petrus Apianus.

加佐拉拿起一本皮革包边的小书,说这本书“molto geniale”,“非常聪明”的意思。这是德国人文学家和印刷厂老板阿皮安努斯(Petrus Apianus)的《世界志》(Cosmographia,意大利语为Cosmographicus Liber)。

Known for his works in the fields of mathematics, cartography and astronomy, Apianus published Cosmographia in 1524. It was one of the first works to base geography on mathematics and measurements. Such was its success that it was reprinted 30 times in 14 languages. The one I was looking at was a first edition in Latin printed in 1540 in Antwerp (one of the three leading centres of early European printing, along with Venice and Paris).

阿皮安努斯以其在数学、制图学和天文学领域的作品而闻名,并于1524年出版了《世界志》。该书是最早以数学和测量为基础的地理学书籍之一。如此成就也使得此书被译为14种语言、重印了30次。我所看到的是1540年在安特卫普(比利时城市Antwerp,与威尼斯、巴黎并称早期欧洲印刷三大中心)印刷的第一版拉丁文版本。

Exploring astronomy and navigation, Cosmographia is notable for its use of volvelles, wheel charts with rotating parts. Made by layering several pieces of printed paper, the volvelle forms a complicated instrument – an early example of a calculator or an analogue computer – that allows the user to determine the position of the stars, lunar phases and the zodiacal signs, as well as other important factors for sea travel.

用来探索天文和航海的《世界志》,因其需要使用三星仪(带有旋转部件的轮盘)而著称。将几张印纸层叠压缩后,三星仪形成了一个复杂的仪器(早期的模拟计算机),能让用户明确星星的位置、月相、黄道十二宫等航海所需的重要事宜。

“Preparing the wooden plates to print the different parts of the intricate volvelles would take weeks,” Gazzola said while gently flipping the top layer of one of these devices to show me that the paper used for its construction was printed with music notes on the reverse. Print shops at the time would recycle even the smallest scraps due to the high price of paper.

“印刷这件精细的三星仪的部件,需要好几周时间来准备木质板材,”加佐拉一边说,一边轻轻翻转其中一个装置的顶层,向我展示用于其构造的纸张在反面还印有音乐笔记。由于纸张太贵,当时的印刷厂连最小的废料都要回收。

Apart from four volvelles, Cosmographia is also famous for containing a world map, which is one of the earliest to show in detail the entire east coast of North America.

除了四个三星仪之外,《世界志》还以包含世界地图而闻名,书中有最早详细展示整个北美东海岸的地图之一。

Geographic knowledge was constantly expanding at the time. One of the contributing factors for this was the technical travel literature – a body of abacus books, port tariffs, multilingual glossaries, maps and pilot books – helping the Italian Maritime Republics explore and control the merchant and military naval routes in the Mediterranean.

地理知识在当时不断扩展。原因之一是技术类旅游文献(一大堆算盘书、港口关税、多语言词汇表、地图和领航书籍)推动了意大利海事共和国对地中海商船和海上军事航线的探索和控制。

Cartographers working on ships produced detailed nautical charts. Gazzola picked up a portolano, a hand-drawn parchment map outlining all known Mediterranean ports, coastal cities, naval routes, docking areas and compass roses.

在船上工作的制图员制作了详细的航海图(意大利语portolano)。加佐拉拿起其中一张手绘的羊皮纸地图,上面列出了所有已知的地中海港口、沿海城市、海军路线、停靠区和罗经盘。

Little icons indicated the character of each place. For example, there were drawings of a camel, a lion and an ostrich on the African coast. Colourful flags flapped above turreted city icons, and countless place names neatly traced the coastlines.

小图标显示了每个地方的特征。例如,在非洲海岸画有骆驼、狮子和鸵鸟,有的地方画有彩旗飘飘的塔楼城市图标,沿着海岸线整整齐齐标注着无数的地名。

The portolano dates to the second half of the 16th Century. As it was a work tool, it was not signed by its author and changes could be freely made to it in accordance with the navigational needs of the ship on which it was used.

航海图可以追溯到16世纪下半叶。鉴于它是一种工作用具,没有作者签字,因此使用的船只可以根据航行需求对其自行更改。

The first coffee table book?

第一本休闲读物?

Unlike the portolano, the next book Gazzola showed me was devised as a splendid forerunner of coffee table books. Called Theatre of the World (in Latin, Theatrum Orbis Terrarum), it is the first true modern atlas. Written by the Flemish scholar and geographer Abraham Ortelius, it was originally printed in 1570 in Antwerp. For the first time, one book contained the whole of Western European geographic knowledge in both text and maps. The maps, based on the work of the best cartographers, were uniformly scaled and printed using copper plates and then hand-coloured with paints that still look incredibly bright and fresh.

与航海图不同,加佐拉向我展示的下一本书是休闲读物的精美雏形。这本书最初于1570年在安特卫普出版,由佛兰芒学者和地理学家奥特利乌斯(Abraham Ortelius)撰写,名为《世界剧场》(拉丁文,Theatrum Orbis Terrarum),是第一本真正的现代地图集。在此之前,还没有哪本书的文本和地图像它一样,包含了整个西欧的地理知识。当时最好的制图师制作了书里的地图,用铜板匀称地缩放和印刷,再手工上色,直到今天,其色泽都无比鲜亮。

Such was the Renaissance hunger for geographic and scientific knowledge of the rich middle classes – who valued books as a symbol of knowledge – that the atlas was repeatedly reprinted in Latin, French, German and Dutch among other languages.

这就是文艺复兴时期富裕中产阶级对地理和科学知识的渴望,他们将书籍视为知识的象征。这些地图集被译为拉丁语、法语、德语和荷兰语,一再重印。

At the time of its many publications between 1570 and 1612, Theatre of the World was a highly valued and rather expensive book that the rich merchants and noblemen of Europe liked to add to their prized collections. Nowadays, it is considered the zenith of 16th-Century cartography.

公元1570年至1612年期间,许多出版物纷纷面世,《世界剧场》是一本非常重要且相当昂贵的书,欧洲的富商和贵族都喜欢购入,以丰富自家的藏品。 如今,它被视作16世纪制图业的巅峰。

Many of the maps contained in it are based on sources that no longer exist or are extremely rare. The names of the geographers and cartographers both used as sources by and known to Ortelius were provided in an extensive list called Catalogus auctorum tabularum geographicarum (Catalogue of the Authors of the Geographical Maps) in the Theatre of the World.

《世界剧场》中的许多地图如今已不复存在,或者极其罕有了。奥特利乌斯将书中所用到的和他知道的地理学家、制图师的名字列在一份超长名单中——《地理地图作者名录》(Catalogus auctorum tabularum geographicarum)。

In 1570, the list in the first edition included 87 names;  in just over three decades it had grown to 183 names. Among them, for example, is the naturalist Charles de l'Écluse (better known by his Latin name Carolus Clusius) who published one of the earliest books on Spanish flora and whose work inspired the map of Spain in Ortelius’ Theatre of the World.

在1570年,第一版的名单中包含87个名字,短短三十多年后,已发展到183个名字。比如其中的博物学家德·塞克斯(Charles de l'Écluse,拉丁名Carolus Clusius更为人所知)出版了一本关于西班牙植物的早期书籍,启发了奥特利乌斯绘制《世界剧场》中的西班牙地图。

The atlas is astonishing to look at. Apart from depicting strictly geographical features, each map is also adorned with detailed drawings of local customs as well as phantasmagorical creatures. The edition kept at the Biblioteca Civica Bertoliana is from 1592 and it contains 108 maps. It represents the world much as we know it today.

地图册看起来十分惊人。除了严谨描绘的地理特征外,每张地图还配有当地习俗和离奇生物的详尽描绘。存于博特利亚纳市民图书馆的是1592年版本,含有108张地图。地图册里展示的世界和我们今天所知的已经差不多了。

Curiously enough, a map of South America features a small drawing of Victoria, one of Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan's five ships and the first to successfully circumnavigate the world. Coincidentally, a notable passenger on Victoria was one Antonio Pigafetta, Magellan's diarist and one of only 18 people to return from the daring expedition. Born in Vicenza, Pigafetta's name is still very much known and respected in the city.

说来也奇怪,南美洲的地图上有一幅画有“维多利亚号”的小画,这是葡萄牙探险家麦哲伦(Ferdinand Magellan)的五艘船之一,也是第一艘成功环绕世界的船。无独有偶,船上一位著名的乘客是《麦哲伦日记》的作者皮加菲塔(Antonio Pigafetta),也是这次无畏远征最后返还的18人之一。皮加菲塔出生于维琴察,今天,那里的人们依然熟知并敬重这位先人。

The first voyage around the world

首次环球之旅

“Here it is,” Gazzola said and pulled out one last book. “The First Voyage Round the World.”

“给你看看,”加佐拉边说边拿出最后一本书,“第一次环球旅行。”

This is Pigafetta's account of Magellan's circumnavigation. Between 1524 and 1525, Pigafetta wrote his memoirs on the historic journey, drawn up from the meticulous diaries that he’d kept over the three years of travel. The original diary of the first voyage around the world was given as a gift to Emperor Charles V, who ruled over the Spanish Empire and the Holy Roman Empire, and subsequently vanished, the Spanish court likely wanting to obliterate the merits of the Portuguese Magellan.

这是皮加菲塔对麦哲伦环球航行的记录。在1524年至1525年间,皮加菲塔为这次史上相当有名的旅程写了回忆录,材料是他在三年的旅程中小心保存的日记。首次环球旅行的原始日记曾作为礼物送给统治西班牙帝国和神圣罗马帝国的查理五世,但后来这份日记却不见了,可能西班牙朝廷想要抹去葡萄牙人麦哲伦的功绩。

Antonio Pigafetta was an inconvenient witness to what happened during the expedition, and was hastily dismissed by the Spanish emperor. However, on 5 August 1524, the Senate of the Republic of Venice granted Pigafetta the privilege of printing his diary.

皮加菲塔作为探险之旅的一名尴尬见证者,被西班牙皇室匆匆驱走。不过1524年8月5日,威尼斯共和国参议院又授予他印刷日记的特权。

The Biblioteca Civica Bertoliana keeps a later 18th-Century edition of Pigafetta’s diary with colour illustrations. Reading this extraordinary book gives us a first-hand understanding of Magellan’s achievement and the incredible hardship his crew suffered. From Magellan discovering the Pacific Ocean for Europe and giving it a name in line with its mild and gentle character (pacifico means ‘peaceful’ in Spanish and Portuguese) to important observations made by Pigafetta about the flora, fauna and the anthropology of the new lands, the text is peppered with geographic facts that propelled Europe’s scientific knowledge forward.

博特利亚纳市民图书馆保存了一本18世纪后期的皮加菲塔彩色插画版日记。阅读这本离奇的书,我们了解了麦哲伦的成就,以及他的船员遭遇的极度艰辛。从麦哲伦为欧洲人发现太平洋,并根据其温和太平的特征为其命名,到皮加菲塔对新大陆的动植物、人类的重要观察记录,该文本中丰富的地理真相推动了欧洲的科学知识向前迈进。

Of course, the most important finding made was that Earth is indeed round, and Magellan’s crew (according to Pigafetta’s calculations) covered 14,460 leagues (43,400 miles) to prove this.

当然,最重要的发现是,地球确实是圆的。麦哲伦的船员(根据皮加菲塔的计算)航行了60440公里,证实了这一点。

Centuries after these seminal travel books and maps were first drawn and printed, it is quite incredible to think about the jumps in human knowledge our world has experienced since then. Like bright lights in a deep fog, they led the world’s navigators, explorers, travellers and scientists step by step forward, charting the world and allowing us to have it at our fingertips today.

从这些开创性的书籍和地图的首次绘制印刷,到今天已经过去几个世纪。很难想象世界从那时起,人类知识文明经历了这样大幅度的跳跃发展。就像在浓雾中的明亮灯塔一般,这些书与图,引领着世界各地的航海家、探险家、旅行家和科学家一步步向前,一点点描摹出世界,让今天的我们触手可及。

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