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阿斯伽迪亚:首个太空社区面临的难题

更新时间:2018-8-28 21:22:04 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Asgardia: The problems in building a space society
阿斯伽迪亚:首个太空社区面临的难题

As of today, I’m an official citizen of two nations. One is the US, which has 325 million citizens and an area of almost 10 million sq km. The other is Asgardia, which has some 246,000 citizens, but physically exists for now only in the form of a 6lb (2.7kg) bread-box-size satellite floating in low-Earth orbit since November 2017.

迄今为止,我是两个国家的正式国民。一个是人口3.25亿,面积近1000万平方公里的美国。另一个是阿斯伽迪亚(Asgardia)国。成立于2017年11月的阿斯迪伽亚有大约24.6万国民,但目前其国土只是一个61磅重(2.7公斤),大小和面包箱相当的卫星,在近地轨道上漂浮着。

One day, Asgardia plans to have an enormous “space ark” orbiting our home world, a colony on the Moon, and perhaps even further in the future on other “celestial bodies”, according to the constitution.

阿斯伽迪亚的宪法宣称,阿斯伽迪亚计划将来会建造一艘环绕地球运行的巨型“太空方舟”,并在月球乃至其他“天体”上建立殖民地。

The nation’s ‘leader’, Igor Raufovich Ashurbeyli, isn’t joking around. According to his CV, the Azerbaijani billionaire has been involved in publishing, telecommunications, science education and in consulting on space threat defence, nanotechnology, and aerospace research. He also rose to become CEO for Almaz-Antey, a large Russian state-owned defense contractor that builds missile systems and other military hardware. After leaving the company, he turned to building cathedrals in Russia.

阿斯伽迪亚的“领袖”阿舒尔贝利(Igor Raufovich Ashurbeyli)并不是在开玩笑。他的简历显示,这位来自阿塞拜疆的亿万富翁涉足出版、电信、科学教育,以及太空威胁防御、纳米技术和航天研究咨询等多个商业领域。他还曾担任俄罗斯大型国有公司Almaz-Antey的首席执行官。Almaz-Antey是一家防务承包商,主要制造导弹系统和其他军事装备。离开该公司后,阿舒尔贝利转而在俄罗斯修建大教堂。

And on 25 June in Vienna, Austria, he became Asgardia’s first “Head of Nation”. His face is on the official Asgardia commemorative coin that guests received at the post-inauguration gala dinner.

6月25日,阿舒尔贝利在奥地利维也纳就任阿斯伽迪亚首任“国家元首”。他的头像被印在阿斯伽迪亚的官方纪念币上。在就职典礼结束后的晚宴上,纪念币发放给了到场的宾客。

The inauguration ceremony this night in Vienna’s magnificent baroque Hofburg Palace includes trumpet fanfares, a girl choir singing the new Asgardia national anthem, and a pre-recorded message from a Russian astronaut on the International Space Station. Then Ashurbeyli, bedecked with an emblem on a medieval-style necklace, gives a speech affirming Asgardia’s noble goals of “peace in space and the prevention of Earth's conflicts being transferred into space”.

当晚的就职典礼在维也纳巴洛克风格的霍夫堡宫举行。典礼仪式上,乐队的演奏炒热了气氛,然后一个少女合唱团演唱了阿斯伽迪亚的新国歌。现场还播放了国际空间站的一名俄罗斯宇航员提前录制的祝贺词。随后,阿舒尔贝利发表演讲,宣布阿斯伽迪亚的崇高目标是“太空和平以及防止地球上的冲突转移至太空”。他戴着一条中世纪风格的项链,上面有一枚徽章。

Afterwards, about 350 guests – citizens, members of parliament, donors, supporters, press and others – are ushered into a huge ornate hall for a three-course dinner. We are entertained by fabulous international musicians and dancers performing everything from classic opera, concerti and ballet, to flamenco, a Japanese folk song and Strauss played on a red electric violin by a strolling musician in thigh-high black boots. These performances were chosen partly to recognize the 12 official languages of Asgardia (English is its working language). Ashurbeyli tells me later that giving the arts a prominent place was important because “weapons divide us and culture unites us”.

然后,由国民、议员、捐款人、支持者、媒体和其他来宾组成的大约350名宾客被领进一个风格华丽的大厅,享用有三道菜的晚宴。国际著名的音乐家和舞蹈家为我们带来了精彩的表演,从经典歌剧、协奏曲、芭蕾舞,到弗拉明戈舞、日本民歌和一名穿着黑色长筒靴在舞台上踱着步的音乐家用红色电子小提琴演奏的施特劳斯名曲。组织者选择这些节目部分是为了表明阿斯伽迪亚有12种官方语言(英语为工作语言)。阿舒尔贝利后来告诉我,突出艺术的地位很重要,因为“武器让我们四分五裂,文化让我们团结一心”。

It all seems grandly utopian, but how does Asgardia plan to rise above the long history of our planet’s conflicts?

这一切似乎是十足的乌托邦式的,但阿斯伽迪亚打算如何超越人类在地球上有着漫长历史的冲突呢?

The word “Asgardia” comes from “Asgard”, a mythical Norse world where gods reside. Ashurbeyli calls the modern Asgardia a “kingdom”, but his title is not king; it is “Head of Nation”. According to Asgardia’s constitution, this position lasts for a five-year term, and the office holder may be re-elected until he or she reaches the maximum age of 82. Successors are nominated by the head of nation, the space council and parliament.

阿斯伽迪亚“Asgardia”这个词来自“Asgard”(阿斯加德),指的是北欧神话故事中众神在古斯堪的纳维亚的居住地。阿舒尔贝利称阿斯伽迪亚是一个“王国”,但他的头衔并不是国王,而是“国家元首”。阿斯伽迪亚的宪法规定,国家元首任期5年,担任此职务者可连任,直至82岁。继任者由国家元首、太空理事会和议会提名。

After dinner, Ashurbeyli stands by his table and speaks briefly with each of the citizens who’ve lined up to have a word and take a selfie. Mitchell Brogan, an Asgardian from Canada who works in cryptocurrencies and blockchain, says he was nervous meeting the Head of Nation, but Ashurbeyli put him at ease and even “allowed me to teach him how to fist bump”.

晚宴过后,阿舒尔贝利站在桌旁,同排队等候与他交谈和自拍的每一个国民进行了简短交流。来自加拿大的阿斯伽迪亚国民布罗根(Mitchell Brogan),从事加密货币和区块链行业。他说,见到国家元首时他很紧张,但阿舒尔贝利让他放松了下来,甚至“允许我教他怎么碰拳祝贺”。

Later, Ashurbeyli sits for one-on-one interviews with the press, using a Russian-English translator. When we meet, I tell him I am a citizen of Asgardia. “Hello, Asgardian!”, he says in English, managing a smile. Ashurbeyli, who’s descended from an Azerbaijani noble family, tells me that he chose to call his new nation a “kingdom” partly because “I like United Kingdom”, and partly because the word “contains something magical. Don’t you think there’s something romantic about it? It’s like ‘Kingdom Come’, a kingdom in heaven, not on Earth.”

之后,阿舒尔贝利坐了下来,在一名俄英翻译的协助下接受媒体一对一的采访。轮到我时,我告诉他我也是一名阿斯伽迪亚国民。他一边用英语说“你好,阿斯伽迪亚人”,一边在脸上挤出了一个微笑。身为阿塞拜疆贵族之后的阿舒尔贝利告诉我,他之所以称自己的新国家为“王国”部分原因是“我喜欢英国联合王国”,还有一部分原因是这个词有某种魔力。你不觉得这很浪漫吗?就像“天国”,是天堂里而不是地球上的一个王国。

Ashurbeyli is a Christian, but he has decreed all religions and political parties “are banned on Asgardia” as a way of leaving behind Earthly conflict. In spite of these decrees, he says “Asgardia is a pure democracy”.

阿舒尔贝利信奉基督教,但他已下令“在阿斯伽迪亚禁止”一切宗教和政党,以期避免地球上的宗教和政治冲突。尽管颁布了诸如此类的法令,但阿舒尔贝利说“阿斯伽迪亚完全是一个民主国家”。

But if you look at the the constitution, the head of nation holds the power to disband parliament.

但要是你看看阿斯伽迪亚的宪法,就会发现国家元首有权解散议会。

Jeremy Saget is one of 146 members of Asgardia’s parliament. The French medical doctor, long interested in space travel and space medicine, says the “kingdom” identity was troubling at first, but he believes in the concept of a constitutional monarchy. “What’s important is someone to set the right tone”, says the MP, who once applied to be an astronaut for the European Union.

法国医生萨吉特(Jeremy Saget)是阿斯伽迪亚的146名议员之一。他向来对太空旅行和太空医学感兴趣。他说,“王国”这种国体起初的确让他感到困扰,但他相信君主立宪制的概念。这位曾申请成为欧盟宇航员的议员说,“重要的是有人定下正确的基调。”

Asgardia’s 246,000-odd citizens come from all over the world. Arlene Buklarewicz lives in Hawai‘i. She’s a nurse, end-of-life caregiver and volunteer at the Imiloa Astronomy Center in Hilo, Hawaii. She didn’t come to Vienna, but explained to me by email that she became an Asgardian citizen because she saw “a chance to truly form an ‘enlightened’ nation that has the opportunity to start with a clean slate”.

阿斯伽迪亚的逾 24万6千国民来自世界各地。布克莱雷维奇(Arlene Buklarewicz)生活在夏威夷,是一名护士,也是一名临终看护。她还是夏威夷希洛艾米洛天文中心(Imiloa Astronomy Center)的志愿者。她没有来维也纳躬逢其盛,但她在电子邮件中向我解释说,她成为阿斯伽迪亚公民是因为看到了“真的有机会从一份清白的蓝图开始,成立一个 '开放国家'的可能性”。

She wants to see “if ritual and the tendency toward the supernatural is wired into our DNA, or if we can start fresh with the beauty of enlightened imagination in the formation of a new concept of ‘nation’”.

她想看看“超自然惯例和倾向是刻在了我们的DNA里,还是我们可以重新开始,通过形成新的国家概念的形式,体验开明想象的美好。”

Buklarewicz is among a significant minority of Asgardia’s citizens: she’s a woman. About 85% of citizens (and 72% of MPs) are men. Why so few women?

布克莱雷维奇属于阿斯伽迪亚国民中的一个极少数群体:女性。大约85%的国民(72%的议员)是男性。女性为何这么少?

The wife of MP Elshad Kaziev – who asks to be identified only as Kate – has an opinion: “My immediate thought is that boys are more interested in science fiction. Whether you like it or not, women are less interested.”

议员卡齐耶夫(Elshad Kaziev)的妻子有自己的看法:“我首先想到的是男性对科幻小说更感兴趣。不管你爱不爱听,女性兴趣不那么大。”她要求只能用凯特(Kate)称呼她。

Would she move to the ark, if given the chance? “Oh yes. I’m adventurous”, she says without hesitation.

如果有机会的话,她会搬到这艘方舟上去吗?“嗯,会的。我喜欢冒险,”她毫不犹豫地说。

Her husband also says he would leap at the chance to go into orbit. Kaziev - half-Azeri, half-Russian – became an Asgardian citizen and member of parliament because of his childhood. “Inside our home courtyard, we had Russian, Azerbaijani, Jewish, Armenian, all in the same apartment building living in peace,” he says. He wants Asgardia to be the same.

她丈夫也说他会抓住机会,进入太空。拥有一半阿塞拜疆血统和一半俄罗斯血统的卡齐耶夫之所以成为阿斯伽迪亚国民和议员是因为他童年的经历。他说,“我家院子里有俄罗斯人、阿塞拜疆人、犹太人、亚美尼亚人,所有人都住在同一栋公寓楼里,大家和睦相处,”他想让阿斯伽迪亚也成为这样一个地方。

To become a citizen, people like me simply have to provide our details on the website, and click a box that says we agree with the constitution, which we can read online. It’s as easy as creating a Facebook account.

要成为阿斯伽迪亚国民,像我这样的人只需在网站上提供详细资料,并在一个框里打钩,表明我们同意阿斯伽迪亚的宪法。宪法的内容可在网上查看。整个过程就像创建Facebook账户一样简单。

I was thrilled to become a citizen, despite knowing that my new nation only exists for now as a mini-satellite not much bigger than a Rubik’s Cube.

我对成为阿斯伽迪亚国民感到兴奋不已,尽管我知道这个新国家目前只是一个不比魔方大多少的迷你卫星。

But what about that constitution? Ashurbeyli says it was carefully developed by him and a handful of international jurists who’d studied other constitutions. Their document then was approved by us citizens – although a condition of being granted citizenship was checking the box that said we approve the constitution.

但宪法又是如何产生的呢?阿舒尔贝利说,宪法是由他和几位国际法学家在对其他宪法进行了一番研究后精心制定的。然后,我们国民批准了他们起草的文件——但实际情况是,勾选批准宪法的选项是获得国民身份的条件之一。

The Asgardia Constitution mostly reads like a utopian manifesto: inspiring and impractical. A few excerpts from the nearly 9,000-word document:

阿斯伽迪亚宪法大部分条款都像是一份乌托邦宣言:鼓舞人心却不切实际。下面是从近9000字的宪法中节选出来的条款:

Among the Supreme Values: “peace in space and peaceful settlement of the Universe”.

最高价值观包括:“太空和平与和平定居宇宙”。

“All citizens of Asgardia are equal, irrespective of their Earthly country of origin, residence, citizenship, race, nationality, gender, religion, language, financial standing, or any other attribute.”

“阿斯伽迪亚全体公民无论来自地球上的哪个国家、居住在哪里、是哪个国家的公民,无论种族、民族、性别、宗教、语言、财务状况或其他任何属性,一律平等。”

“Asgardia shall be a nation of the supremacy of science and technology, and a nation of ideas”.

“阿斯伽迪亚当是一个科技领先,思想繁荣的国家。”

“Any persecution for expression of views and convictions shall be prohibited, provided that such views do not contain propaganda of immorality; seek to undermine or diminish Supreme Values; threaten national security; incite violence and strife; demean the honour and dignity of individuals; disclose restricted information...”.

“禁止对表达观点的行为进行迫害和定罪,条件是此类观点不宣传不道德行为,不寻求颠覆或削弱最高价值观,不威胁国家安全,不煽动暴力和冲突,不损害个人荣誉和尊严,不泄露受限制信息……”

The constitution also contains some other red flags for utopians:

宪法中也有一些反乌托邦的内容:

“To ensure information security, the Government regulates the circulation of certain types of information”.

“为确保信息安全,政府有权监管特定类型信息的传播。”

Asgardia’s “legal instruments” include not only “referendum decisions” and “Acts of Parliament”, but also “decrees of the head of nation”.

阿斯伽迪亚的“法律文书”不仅包括“公投决议”和“议会法案”,还包括“国家元首颁布的法令”。

Also, Asgardia’s head of nation has the constitutional power to nominate his successor “on the basis of genealogy or on any other basis”. Candidates may also be nominated by the parliament and the Supreme Space Council”, but it’s the Head of Nation who appoints the Chairman of the Space Council, which “is a special governance body” that reports to, guess who, the Head of Nation.

宪法还规定阿斯伽迪亚的国家元首有宪法权力“根据家族或其他标准”提名继任者。议会和最高太空理事会(Supreme Space Council)也可提名候选人,但作为“特殊管理机构”,太空理事会的主席由国家元首任命。猜猜主席向谁汇报?答案是国家元首。

The Head of Nation also “appoints and removes” the supreme justice of the court and the prosecutor general. Additionally, he or she “has the right to veto candidates” for other top positions, including the National Bank of Asgardia and justices of the court. And to “dissolve Parliament”.

国家元首有权“任命和罢免”最高法院法官和总检察长。此外,国家元首还“有权否决其他高层职位候选人”,包括阿斯伽迪亚国家银行(National Bank of Asgardia)和法院的法官,并有权“解散议会”。

Clearly, the Asgardia constitution gives strong powers to its chief executive.

显然, 阿斯伽迪亚宪法赋予了国家元首极大的权力。

The first meeting of Asgardia’s parliament takes place the day before the inauguration. The session is closed to Asgardian citizens, closed to the public, closed to the press. Members of parliament (elected by fellow citizens online) are told not to share anything specific with anyone. Afterwards, in the spectacularly majestic Baroque halls of Vienna’s Hofburg Palace, I ask several MPs how the meeting went.

阿斯伽迪亚议会的第一次会议在就职典礼的前一天召开。会议未向阿斯伽迪亚国民、公众和媒体开放。议员(由阿斯伽迪亚国民在网上选举产生)被要求不得向任何人透露会议详情。会议结束后,在霍夫堡宫宏伟壮观的巴洛克风格大厅里,我向多名议员询问会议的情况。

Member of parliament John Fine, from the US, accompanied by his wife and daughter dressed in fluffy lace princess dresses, says the session covered lots of ground, and a few laws were passed. But he “can’t talk about what was discussed”.

来自美国的议员法恩(John Fine)说,会上讨论了多项议题,并通过了一些法律,但他“不能透露讨论内容”。他身边是穿着蓬松蕾丝公主裙的妻子和女儿。

Fellow MP Linda Jack says MPs were gagged from sharing any specifics of the session. Before meeting her fellow lawmakers, she was sceptical about them. “Is it going to be a load of Trekkies?” she wondered. Instead, she found “a whole range of intelligent people”.

另一名议员杰克(Linda Jack)说,议员被禁止泄露会议细节。在见到其他议员之前,她对他们心存怀疑。“会不会是一群太空旅行迷,”她心想。但结果,她发现他们“全都是聪明人”。

MP Svetlana Bronnikova says the extended 12-hour session of parliament “was very intense”. She’s a clinical psychologist and Russian citizen now living in the Netherlands. She found her colleagues “very dedicated, ready to change something”.

议员(Svetlana Bronnikova)说,时间延长至12个小时的会议开得“非常紧张”。她是一名临床心理学家,也是一名现居荷兰的俄罗斯公民。她发现自己的同事“非常专注,做好了变革的准备”。

Would she want to make a new home on the space ark? “Absolutely”.

她愿意在这艘太空方舟上建立新家吗?“当然愿意。”

The parliament’s closed-door policy isn’t a one-off. All subsequent sessions of the parliament will also be behind closed doors “unless stated otherwise”, says Asgardia spokesperson Yasmin Perez.

议会的闭门政策不是一次性的。阿斯伽迪亚的发言人佩雷斯(Yasmin Perez)说,议会今后的所有会议均将闭门进行,“除非另有说明”。

Ashurbeyli says he admires the constitutional monarchy of the UK. But in the UK any member of the public can walk into the Houses of Commons and Lords to see democracy in action, warts and all.

阿舒尔贝利说他赞同英国的君主立宪制。但在英国,民众中的任何一员都可以毫无顾忌地走进议会下议院和上议院,亲眼目睹民主制度的运转。

In his inauguration speech, the head of nation described his vision of Asgardia as “a reflection of humanity’s beautiful and ancient dream of a divine and peaceful land in Heaven… a place where there is no pain or hatred, just love and joy”.

在就职演说中,这位国家元首描述了自己对阿斯伽迪亚的设想,称其“反映了人类在天上建立一个没有痛苦和仇恨……只有爱与欢乐的和平国家的美好而又古老的梦想”。

They’re lovely words, but they hide an obvious truth. Whether anyone ever ends up living on Asgardia’s ambitious space ark is one thing – whether the reality matches the utopian ideal may be another.

话虽动听,但其掩盖了一个显而易见的事实。最终是否有人入住阿斯伽迪亚野心勃勃的太空方舟是一回事,而现实与这个乌托邦式的理念是否相符可能又是另一回事。

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