您现在的位置: 纽约时报中英文网 >> 纽约时报中英文版 >> 文化 >> 正文

寻找有上千年历史的以色列“圣经食谱”

更新时间:2018-8-21 20:06:39 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Israel's millennia-old 'biblical diet'
寻找有上千年历史的以色列“圣经食谱”

Between Jerusalem and Tel Aviv lies a man-made Garden of Eden, dotted with imported Lebanese cedar trees, reconstructed olive and wine presses and reproduced ancient gardens of wild sage and edible flowers. But the nature reserve, known as Neot Kedumim, is more than just a recreation of the landscape of biblical times. Since the 1990s, Israel’s foremost food archaeologist Tova Dickstein has been cultivating it as an open-air laboratory to examine the millennia-old ‘biblical diet’ and the ingredients that are making a comeback in Israeli nouvelle cuisine.

在耶路撒冷和特拉维夫中间坐落着一个人造伊甸园,散布着进口的黎巴嫩雪松树、仿效圣经时代的橄榄油和葡萄酒压汁机,还有种植着野生鼠尾草和可食用花卉的仿古菜圃。虽然与圣经时期的景观类似,但这个被称为以色列圣经时代风物大观园(Neot Kedumim)的自然保护区不仅仅是圣经时代景观的再现。自1990年代以来,以色列最重要的食物考古学家迪克斯坦(Tova Dickstein)就开始把这个伊甸园培育成露天实验室,研究有着数千年历史之久的"圣经饮食"和那些重回以色列新式美味厨房的古老食材。

“The ancient culture was, for a long time, forgotten in Israel,” said Dickstein, explaining that the ancient Israelites ate a far richer and more diverse diet than the hummus, falafel and vegetable diets of early modern-day Israel. At the time of the Bible, ancient Israel was famed for its wine, honey and pomegranates, along with its olive oil, which was used extensively both raw and for cooking the occasional meat and the more frequent stews of legumes like lentils and barley.

迪克斯坦说,"以色列已经把古代文化遗忘多年了"。与现代以色列早期阶段食物中的鹰嘴豆酱、法拉费(falafel,金黄色的油炸蔬菜小丸子,稍带辣味)和素食相比,古代以色列人的食物更丰富、更多样化。在圣经时代,古代以色列以葡萄酒、蜂蜜、石榴以及橄榄油闻名于世。当时橄榄油已广泛应用于生食和熟食,偶尔用来烹调肉类,扁豆和大麦炖豆汤中则经常使用。

Israeli cuisine is currently having its moment on the international stage, but at home, many chefs and food scholars still struggle to determine what makes Israeli cuisine Israeli, or if it even qualifies as a cuisine. As the country splinters along religious, ethnic and political lines, Israel’s iconic foods, from the humble chickpea to the stuffed grape leaf, have been thrust into the centre of heated international debates. Many Palestinian activists, as reported by Haaretz, accuse Israeli chefs of appropriating Palestinian culture, while others, like Dickstein, point to the many influences of the diverse peoples who once inhabited this land on Israel’s culinary history.

目前,以色列美食在国际舞台上已占有一席之地,但在国内,许多厨师和研究食物的学者仍在努力搞清楚到底是什么成就了地道的以色列饮食,或以色列烹调是否真的有资格称之为烹饪。随着这个国家因宗教、种族和政治路线的分裂,以色列的标志性食物——从不起眼的鹰嘴豆泥到葡萄叶包,也被卷入到激烈的国际争论的漩涡中。据《国土报》(Haaretz)报道,许多巴勒斯坦活动家指责以色列厨师挪用巴勒斯坦文化,而像迪克斯坦一样的反对派则认为,以色列的烹饪历史是受到移居该国的多民族的影响。

Dickstein, a secular Israeli who is fascinated by the Bible and its sparse but deeply poetic references to food, sees the national cuisine as a way out of the political morass by uniting people through their food ancestries. She, along with a new generation of academics and chefs, are cooking with ancient grains and herbs, using what they believe are original recipes to help work through the nation's long-unresolved legacy of trauma.

迪克斯坦是一个世俗以色列人,但她却深深着迷于《圣经》,以及其中对食物零落但却充满诗意的描述。她认为,以色列人可以靠祖先的食物团结起来,因此本民族的传统烹调是能够帮助国家走出政治泥沼的一种方式。迪克斯坦和新兴一代的学者和厨师用用他们所坚信的原始食谱烹调古代的谷物和蔬菜,希望帮助这个国家走出长期未愈的历史创伤。

At Neot Kedumim, Dickstein guides biblical nature tours that delve into the histories of the many wild vegetables and herbs on display, explaining their descriptions in the Bible, their harvest cycles and their multiple health and healing properties. She also leads an outdoor biblical cooking workshop, in which visitors use biblical-era tools to recreate ancient recipes, using, for example, sap from fig trees to curdle milk into cheese.

在圣经时代风物大观园里,迪克斯坦带领圣经自然观光团,观看许多圣经时代的野生蔬菜和香草,讲解其历史,解释这些植物在圣经里是如何描述的,以及收获周期和健康与治疗方面的多种功效等。她还开设了一个户外圣经烹饪工作坊,参观者使用圣经时代的工具重新创作古代食谱,比如用无花果树的汁液将牛奶凝固成奶酪。

“When I first started, Israelis didn’t want to talk about [biblical food] because they saw it as a religious thing,” she explained, referring to tensions between Israel’s secular majority and its tiny, ultra-Orthodox minority that wields outsized political power, including in the Israeli restaurant scene. Israel’s Chief Rabbinate has long attempted to block the import of non-kosher foods like shrimp. But Dickstein says that biblical food, deeply connected to the Israeli terroir, may provide a more accessible way for contemporary Israelis to appreciate their complex history in this land.

迪克斯坦解释说,"刚开始时,以色列人不想谈论[圣经食物],他们认为这是一个有关宗教的东西。"她这话是指多数的世俗以色列人和少数极端正统犹太教徒之间的紧张关系。以色列的极端正统犹太教徒拥有远超过其人数的政治影响力,对以色列国家事务常诸多干涉,包括以色列餐厅的食物。以色列首席拉比(Chief Rabbinate)曾长期试图阻止进口不符合犹太教规的食品,比如龙虾。但迪克斯坦说,圣经食物与以色列国土息息相关,可帮助当代以色列人更了解这片土地的复杂历史。

“Like the poet says, ‘Man is nothing without his native landscape’,” she said, quoting one of Israel’s most celebrated poets, Shaul Tchernichovsky.

她引用了以色列最著名诗人切尔尼奇夫斯基(Shaul Tchernichovsky)的一句话,"就像诗人所说,'离开乡土,一无是处'。"

In fact, Dickstein, who works with fellow Israeli and Palestinian food researchers to decrypt the histories and evolutions of local foods, like wild chicory or ancient grains such as millet and barley, is carrying the culinary torch of the country’s earliest secular founders: Jews from all over the world, who from 1948 onwards used food to build national identity.

其实,迪克斯坦正在与以色列和巴勒斯坦的食物研究人员共事,解密当地食物的历史和进化演变,比如野生菊苣或类似小米、大麦的谷物等。她现在高举着以色列建国之初的世俗派建国者们的烹饪火炬,正是这些1948年以后来自世界各地的犹太人用食物建立了国家的认同。

In the 1940s and 1950s, the first waves of Holocaust survivors and immigrants to Israel found an infrastructure-poor Jewish State, plagued by economic isolation, widespread unemployment and a scarcity of meat. Generally, the Holocaust was considered taboo, and, according to Yael Raviv, author of Falafel Nation: Cuisine and the Making of National Identity in Israel, European-Jewish foods, like gefilte fish carp patties, were derided as ‘diasporic’.

在20世纪四五十年代,第一批来到以色列的大屠杀幸存者和移民发现这是一个基础设施匮乏的犹太国家,由于经济孤立、大规模失业和肉类短缺而饱受困扰。当时,大家对纳粹德国的大屠杀是避而不谈。根据《法拉费民族:以色列的厨房和民族认同》(Falafel Nation: Cuisine and the Making of National Identity in Israel)一书的作者拉维夫(Yael Raviv),那些欧洲犹太人的食物,比如鱼丸鲤鱼饼,被戏称为"流散在外的犹太人"。

“In the beginning, there was this desire for erasure of the 2,000 years in which the Jews had been in exile,” she explained.

拉维夫解释说,"最初有种愿望,要抹去犹太人流散世界两千年的历史。"

Raviv says that agriculture was seen as the way to create a link between the hundreds of thousands of new olim, literally translating to ‘those who ascend’ to Israel and used to describe new immigrants and their biblical Israeli ancestors.

拉维夫说,农业被看作是连接成百上千万新欧列姆(olim)的纽带。从字面上来讲,欧列姆译为"回归"以色列的人,专指以色列的犹太新移民和他们在圣经上的以色列祖先。

After the state of Israel was established in 1948, the new olim exalted aubergines, tomatoes and other local produce for their healthful simplicity and local availability. To learn to how to grow and cook the local foods, they looked to Palestinian farmers who had been cultivating the land for generations while Jews had been absent. When Jews arrived, they adapted Palestinian recipes for dishes like falafel, which they topped with nutty tahini and immigrant-imported condiments like schug, a spicy Yemeni pepper sauce.

1948年以色列国家成立后,这批犹太新移民很欣赏茄子、西红柿和其他当地农产品,因为这些食材有益健康,简单易烹调,而且就地生产,可取之不竭。为了学习如何种植和烹饪当地食材,他们向巴勒斯坦农民求教。因为当犹太人流散世界各地时,是这些农民代代耕种这片土地。犹太人抵达后,把巴勒斯坦的食谱,如拉法费,再加以坚果芝麻酱和经由新移民带来的调味品,如舒格(schug),一种也门辣椒酱,做成了新的以色列菜。

But Dickstein says that while hummus was compelling and convenient for the early Israeli narrative, because it tied an already-popular dish to the supposedly ancient Jewish tradition of hummus consumption, the Bible does not actually depict the ancient Israelites as hummus enthusiasts. She estimates that hummus in its current form was likely popularised during the Crusader period from 1099 to 1291 AD, as consequent Holy Land conquerors continued traditions of cultural exchange between the country’s many ethnic groups. But for her, correcting anachronisms, such as hummus’ exclusively Israeli origins, is not meant to change Israeli eating habits, but rather demonstrate their evolutions.

但是迪克斯坦说,虽然在以色列的早期文献记载中,鹰嘴豆泥很有吸引力,是方便食物,据说古代犹太人已有吃鹰嘴豆泥的传统,这是一道家常菜,但不过《圣经》并没有把古代以色列人描绘成鹰嘴豆泥的爱好者。迪克斯坦估计,以现有方式制造的鹰嘴豆泥可能于公元1099至1291的十字军时期才开始流行于巴勒斯坦地区,随后而来的圣地(Holy Land)征服者保持了与多民族进行文化交流的历史传统。对迪克斯坦而言,纠正时代错误,比如澄清鹰嘴豆泥并非只来源于以色列,不是要改变当今以色列人的饮食习惯,只是为了说明饮食习惯的演变。

To make her case, Dickstein relies on the Hebrew Bible, a labyrinthine piece of literature teeming with ambiguity. To interpret the recipes, she cross-checks the Bible with modern people who are replicating or producing some version of the biblical diet. For example, Ezekiel bread features as a rare example of a biblical recipe, in the Book of Ezekiel. There, God instructs the Hebrew prophet Ezekiel: “Take you also to you wheat, and barley, and beans, and lentils, and millet, and fitches, and put them in one vessel, and make you bread thereof...”

为阐述她的观点,迪克斯坦使用了希伯来圣经,这是一部晦涩难懂,充满寓意和含糊两可词义的犹太古文献。为了解读食谱,她向那些复制或生产圣经饮食的现代人多方求证希伯来圣经里的饮食。比如,在《以西节书》(Book of Ezekiel)中提到的以西结面包(一种杂粮面包)就是圣经食谱中的一个罕见例子。在书中,上帝指示希伯来先知以西结:"带上你的小麦、大麦、豆类、扁豆、小米、赤松,把它们装进容器,用来制作面包......"

Today, ‘Ezekial Bread’ is sold in health-food stores across the world, billed as a kind of carb superfood. But Dickstein believes it was never a bread at all, but in its original form consisted of fava beans, millet and nutrient-rich seeds, served alongside an ancient kind of barley bread.

如今,以西结面包在世界各地的健康食品商店里都有出售,被誉为是有利健康的碳水化合物超级食品。但迪克斯坦认为,原来根本不是面包,而是用蚕豆、小米和营养丰富的果仁做成的食物,与一种古代大麦面包一起食用。

“The word ‘bread’ in biblical Hebrew translates to ‘hearty stew,” Dickstein explained.

迪克斯坦解释说,"在圣经的希伯来语中,'面包'应该译为'大锅炖菜'。

She says her suspicions were confirmed on a visit to modern Crete, where she found a similar dish made of precisely those ingredients. It’s known as ‘palikaria’ and is served during feast times, including on 5 January, ahead of the Christian Epiphany holiday, as well as during Lent, Dickstein says. She believes the dish was originally a Cretan food, brought over to Israel by the Minoans, an Ancient Greek civilisation whom archaeologists believe were among the most influential outside civilisations in the ancient Israelite city-state of Canaan, and whom Ezekiel actually mentions encountering in the Bible.

迪克斯坦说,她对以西结面包的质疑在一次到现代克里特岛(Crete)旅游时获得证实。她在那里发现了正好是按圣经中以西结面包的材料做成的一道菜。迪克斯坦说,这道菜被称为"palikaria",在宴会期间供应,包括一月五日主显节前夕和大斋期。她认为,这道菜原本是克里特岛的食物,通过米诺斯文明(古希腊文明的一种)传到以色列。考古学家认为,米诺斯文明是古代以色列的迦南城邦之外最具影响力的外来文明,而先知以西节也在《圣经》中提到了与米诺斯文明相遇的场景。

In its various manifestations, cross-border culinary movement has always been the hallmark of Israeli cooking, said Moshe Basson, an Israeli chef who migrated from Iraq in the 1950s. His Jerusalem restaurant, The Eucalyptus, serves ‘a modern interpretation of biblical cuisine’, much of which was concocted over a lifetime of discovering similarities between the recipes of his Iraqi grandmother and those of his Palestinian and Mediterranean neighbours – all cooking styles with centuries-old biblical roots. Basson developed a love for foraged herbs like wild sage and lemon verbana that the Iraqi Jews had fallen out of touch with while living outside of Israel for millennia. And he applied modern techniques and ingredients to reinvent dishes, like his salmon sashimi, which is lightly splashed with nettle oil, a plant extract consumed here for centuries for its detoxification and other healthful properties.

以色列厨师巴森(Moshe Basson)在20世纪50年代从伊拉克移民来到以色列,他说,各种证据显示,跨境厨艺流动一直都是以色列烹饪中的一个特点。巴森开了一家名为桉树(The Eucalyptus)的耶路撒冷餐厅,供应"圣经厨房烹制的现代食物",许多都是巴森花费毕生精力从他的伊拉克祖母与巴勒斯坦和地中海邻居那里探索来的食谱——所有的烹饪风格都源自有着千年历史之久的圣经传统。巴森培养了一种寻找食用草类的爱好,他发掘了野生鼠尾草和柠檬马鞭草,伊拉克犹太人离开以色列后在长达千年的时间都未曾接触过这些香草植物。巴森应用现代烹饪技术和食材再造菜品,比如他的三文鱼刺身,他在这道菜上淋上一点点荨麻油。由于荨麻油的戒毒功效和健康属性,这种植物萃取物已经在以色列使用了上千年之久。

Among Eucalyptus’ signature dishes is the siege-era mallow, in reference to the role of the wild leafy green during the 1948 Israeli-Palestinian battle for Jerusalem, when the city was under siege and food supplies were so low that Israelis had no choice but to eat the iron-rich plant. Such vegetables were once considered weeds and the domain of Palestinian traditional kitchens, he says, but have gained new prominence as Israeli cuisine has found its footing in recent years by looking toward its own ancient roots.

在桉树餐厅的招牌菜中,有一道菜叫"围城时代锦葵",这是指 1948年第一次中东战争以巴双方争夺耶路撒冷期间一种起了很大作用的野生绿叶蔬菜(leafy green)。当耶路撒冷城被围困,粮食供应短缺之时,以色列人别无选择,只能靠这种富含铁元素的植物为生。这种蔬菜曾经被视为野草,常见于巴勒斯坦地区的厨房。巴森说,随着近年来以色列菜肴在追根溯源中站稳脚跟,这种蔬菜也重获盛誉。

Basson says that Israeli cuisine is less about recipes than it is about psychologically unpacking and reliving memories. “The people who come to my restaurant are coming to remember their different lives,” he told me on the restaurant’s outdoor patio as he picked a piece of dried oregano, known as za’atar in Arabic and as hyssop in biblical Hebrew, and which is often used to season Israeli salads.

巴森说,相比品尝美食,以色列烹饪更在意从心理上开启和释放记忆。他在餐厅外的院子里对我说,"来我的餐厅吃饭的客人是为了重温生活中的多姿多彩。"他随手摘下了一片干牛至草叶,这种薄荷叶香草在阿拉伯语中称为za'atar,圣经的希伯来语叫作牛膝草,通常用来调制时令以色列沙拉。

Contemporary Israeli cuisine has changed dramatically since the 1980s and 1990s, when Israel’s food scene was dominated by hotel restaurants and European-trained chefs that emphasised technical precision and the use of heavy, often cream-based sauces. Only in the past two decades has Israeli food moved toward lighter, more locally connected foods that resonate closer with the biblical diet, conceived as more appropriate for Israel’s hot climate and laid-back mindset, says Amos Sion, an Israeli chef at the Helena Restaurant in Caesarea.

20世纪八九十年代以来,以色列的当代菜肴发生了巨大变化。之前,酒店餐厅和欧洲培训的厨师掌控了以色列食物,这些厨师强调烹调技术上的火候,并以重口味的奶油酱汁为主要调料。但在过去的二十年,以色列食物已经转向清淡口味,并使用与圣经饮食异曲同工的本地食材。一位以色列厨师锡安(Amos Sion)在凯撒利亚(Caesarea)的海伦娜餐厅(Helena Restaurant)说,这一点更适合以色列的炎热天气和悠闲心态。

“Once, chefs tried to replicate French cooking, but there was always this feeling of searching,” said Sion, who trained in France but is inspired by the recipes of traditional fishmongers and farmers from nearby Arab villages and serves up dishes like Arab-style fish stew with Swiss chard and warm tahini, or fennel, sheep’s cheese and pomelo salad. “Israeli cuisine is still in its infancy. Maybe in another 40 years we’ll have something to call ‘Israeli cuisine’,” he said.

锡安说,"这里的厨师曾经都是照着法国烹饪依样画葫芦,不过还是有种进行探索的感觉。"他曾在法国接受厨艺培训,在传统鱼贩和附近阿拉伯村庄农民的食谱启发下,他的餐厅供应阿拉伯风格的瑞士甜菜和热芝麻酱炖鱼,还有茴香、羊奶酪和柚子沙拉等选择。他说, "以色列美食仍处于起步阶段。也许再过40年,我们会成就真正的'以色列美食'。"

Dickstein says that the uptick in Israelis signing up for her biblical cooking workshops at Neot Kedumim, all of whom express a desire to understand, appreciate and name their foods as ‘Israeli’, indicate that ‘Israeli cuisine’ has already arrived.

迪克斯坦说,越来越多的以色列人报名参加她在圣经大观园里开设的圣经烹饪工作坊。报名者都渴望理解与欣赏烹饪之道,他们称烹调的食物是"以色列菜",这表明"以色列美食"已经到来。

“For the first time, we’ve started to understand that what we eat is from our ancient past, but it’s also from what exists today or what will exist in the future,” Dickstein said. “We have a role to play here that’s not about just eating, but in understanding this land that nourishes us.”

迪克斯坦说,"我们开始明白,我们所吃的食物不仅源自古老的过去,也与今天的社会息息相关,并会在将来发展演变。我们的目的不仅是为了推广饮食,更是为了理解这片滋养我们的土地。"

“全文请访问纽约时报中文网,本文发表于纽约时报中文网(http://cn.nytimes.com),版权归纽约时报公司所有。任何单位及个人未经许可,不得擅自转载或翻译。订阅纽约时报中文网新闻电邮:http://nytcn.me/subscription/”

相关文章列表