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数据披露电影行业的性别平等问题

更新时间:2018-8-12 10:32:00 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

The data that reveals the film industry's 'woman problem'
数据披露电影行业的性别平等问题

Only one female director – Jane Campion – has ever won the Palme d’Or, the top film at the Cannes Film Festival, a fact she calls ‘insane’. And in 2017, Sofia Coppola became only the second woman ever to win the best director prize, for The Beguiled.

坎皮恩(Jane Campion)是唯一一位拿过戛纳电影节最佳影片金棕榈奖的女导演,她以"荒唐"来形容这个事实。2017年,科波拉(Sofia Coppola)凭借《牡丹花下》(The Beguiled)一片,成为了该电影节第二位获得最佳导演奖的女性。

The most prestigious and grandest of film festivals, which celebrates its 71st year this week, is showing it has taken criticisms on board with a diverse, gender-balanced jury of four men and five women, including Cate Blanchett, who is president, Twilight Saga star Kristen Stewart and French actress Léa Seydoux. (Seydoux has the unusual distinction of having won a Palme d’Or as a non-director for her role in Blue is the Warmest Colour, sharing the prize with co-star Adèle Exarchopoulos and director Abdellatif Kechiche in 2013.)

这个最有声望、最为盛大的电影节,今年迎来第71个年头,它显然接受了批评,组成了一个由四男五女组成、具有多样性和性别平衡的评审团,五位女性包括担任评审团主席的布兰切特(Cate Blanchett),出演《暮光之城》(Twilight Saga)的斯图尔特(Kristen Stewart)和法国女演员赛杜(Lea Seydoux)。赛杜曾获非常罕见的荣誉,因为在《蓝色是最温暖的颜色》[Blue is the Warmest Colour]里的表演,而与联袂主演的艾克阿切波洛斯[Adèle Exarchopoulos]及导演柯西胥[Abdellatif Kechiche]在2013年分享了金棕榈奖)。

When it comes to the films, though, things don’t look so equal. Three out of 21 directors in the running for the 2018 Palme d’Or are female: Eva Husson for Girls of the Sun, Nadine Labaki for Capernaum, and Alice Rohrwacher for Lazzaro Felice. Let’s say that again: three out of 21. Men outnumber women six to one.

不过,说到参赛电影,看起来就没有那么平等了。角逐2018年金棕榈奖的21位导演中,只有3位女性:《太阳之女》(Girls of the Sun)的于松(Eva Husson)、《迦百农》(Capernaum)的拉巴基(Nadine Labaki),以及《幸福的拉扎罗》(Lazzaro Felice)的洛尔瓦彻(Alice Rohrwacher)。再说一遍:21比3。男导演是女导演的6倍。

But are other film awards any better? Only one woman has ever won an Oscar for best director, Kathryn Bigelow for The Hurt Locker in 2009. Last year, Rachel Morrison became the first woman ever to be nominated for a cinematography Oscar, for Mudbound. But she didn’t win. Only men have ever won.

其他的电影奖项情况会好一些吗?2009年,毕奇洛(Kathryn Bigelow)凭借《拆弹部队》(The Hurt Locker)一片,成为奥斯卡历史上唯一一位获得最佳导演奖的女导演。去年,莫里森(Rachel Morrison)因为电影《泥土之界》(Mudbound),成为获得奥斯卡最佳摄影提名的首位女摄影师。但她最终还是与这个奖项失之交臂。历史上,获得该奖的无一例外都是男性。

I decided to crunch some numbers to find out which festivals have rewarded the most gender-inclusive films in recent times. The most prestigious prize on offer at any festival is the award for best feature film. That’s best picture at the Academy Awards, the Palme d’Or at Cannes, or Berlin’s Golden Bear. I took the winning feature films at 10 major film festivals and awards – including the Oscars, Golden Globes and Cannes – from 1990 to the most recent year. Then I gathered data on the gender of their leading cast and crew. (I assigned people a gender by matching their first names to the Genderize.io database and by searching for online biographies. I excluded the minority whose gender I could not establish.) This gave me gender data for over 2,000 different people who worked on 243 films, with up to 11 roles per film. That includes up to seven lead acting roles, plus the director and other key crew positions such as writer, editor and cinematographer.

我决定用数字来说话,看看有哪些电影节把奖项给了最具性别包容性的电影。无论是什么电影节,最有分量的奖项都是最佳剧情片。也就是奥斯卡的最佳影片奖、戛纳电影节的金棕榈奖和柏林电影节的金熊奖。我选取了10大电影奖项从1990年到最新年份所有获奖的故事片,包括奥斯卡奖、金球奖、戛纳电影节等等。然后我汇集了这些电影主创人员的性别(我确定性别的方式是,将他们的名字输入Genderize.io的数据库,并且在网上寻找个人资料。少数性别无法确定的我就不予采纳)。我因此获得了2000多人的性别数据,他们来自243部电影,平均每部电影有11个人。包括7个主演,加上导演和其他关键职位,比如编剧、剪辑和摄影师。

The data across all the awards tells an all-too familiar story of gender exclusion. Almost nine in 10 films (89%) have more men in their 10 or so most senior roles, both acting and non-acting. Only 15 films (6%) have more women, and 11 (5%) have an equal gender balance. None have a 100% female leading line-up, although 15 films are exclusively male. They include 2012 Oscar-winner Argo, and Steven Spielberg’s 1998 war epic, Saving Private Ryan.

所有奖项的数据,都讲述了一个众所周知的有关性别排斥的故事。每10部电影中,几乎9部电影(占89%)的主创(包括演员和幕后,人数约为10人)都是男性多于女性。只有15部电影(6%)的主创女性多于男性,11部(5%)男女性别平衡。没有一部全女性的主创阵容,但有15部电影的主创全部是男性。其中包括2012年奥斯卡获奖影片《逃离德黑兰》(Argo)、斯皮尔伯格(Steven Spielberg)1998年的战争史诗片《拯救大兵瑞恩》(Saving Private Ryan)。

On average, about three quarters (74%) of leading cast and crew roles go to men and one quarter (26%) to women. The gender ratio in non-acting roles is especially skewed: 82%-18%. That means women hold fewer than one in five key crew roles. The ratio among acting roles is more equal, at 63%-37%. That is, it’s historically been easier for a woman to have a top film career in front of the camera than behind it, though it’s notable that the most common scenario is one female lead per film – the token woman.

平均而言,约有四分之三的幕前及幕后主创都是男性(74%),四分之一是女性(26%)。幕后人员的性别比例失衡尤其严重:82%比18%。这意味着在幕后的关键岗位上,女性的比例不到五分之一。幕前的比例则较为平等一些,为63%比37%。从历史上看,女性在幕前比幕后更容易出人头地,不过值得注意的是,最常见的是每部电影一个女主角,也就是花瓶角色。

Best picture at the Oscars gets the dud gong for the least gender-inclusive film award. Since 1990, 16% of lead cast and crew working on best picture-winning films have been female – 27% of acting stars and a tiny 9% of those behind the scenes. In contrast, women have held 40% of leading roles in films winning the Golden Leopard at Switzerland’s Locarno Film Festival over the same period. Acting roles approach gender parity, at 46%. Cannes Palme d’Or winning films perform less badly than you might expect, with 28% of top roles held by women.

奥斯卡的最佳影片奖是最不具性别包容性的电影奖。自从1990年以来,赢得最佳影片奖的电影16%的幕前和幕后主创是女性,包括27%的幕前,和微不足道的幕后9%。对比之下,在同一时期,瑞士洛迦诺电影节的金豹奖得奖影片中,女性占幕前幕后主创的40%。幕前占46%,接近性别平等。戛纳金棕榈奖并没有你想得那么糟糕,女性在全体主创中的比例达到了28%。

One pattern catches the eye. Festivals that showcase indie and international films, like Locarno and Sundance, tend to do better than those rewarding Hollywood blockbusters. The Oscars, Baftas and Golden Globes all cluster towards the bottom of the table. “It's at the higher levels of the industry, where the money gets big, that I think it is much harder for women to get a fair deal, or even a look in” says Rebecca Wolff, producer at Grasp the Nettle Films. “They are, by and large, not trusted at the helm of multi-million dollar projects and that has a trickle-down effect on the rest of the industry.” But, she adds, “there are glimmers of hope that this is beginning to change”.

有一个模式引人注目。像洛迦诺和圣丹斯这些展示独立电影、国际电影的电影节,往往比那些只奖励好莱坞大片的电影奖项做得更好。奥斯卡、英国电影学院奖和金球奖都在榜单的最下面。"在电影行业的更高层面上,都是大手笔的资金,我认为女性很难得到公平对待,甚至连看一眼都很难。"迎难而上电影公司(Grasp the Nettle Films)的制片人沃尔夫(Rebecca Wolff)说。"总的来说,她们不受信任,数百万美元的项目不会交给她们,这对整个行业都产生了涓滴效应。"但是,她补充说,"现出现了一丝丝希望,这是改变的开始。"

Glacial pace of change

慢如冰川变化的速度

Film is becoming more gender-equal, the data suggests, but only for female crew. And the pace of change is glacial. Recent award-winning films do have a higher proportion of women in senior crew positions than those made a generation ago. But not by much. And the share of lead female actors in these films has remained static over the same period, hovering around 35%. This is in line with a recent San Diego University study that found only 37% of speaking roles in the 100 top-grossing US films of 2017 went to women. It was 24% for protagonists, down 5% compared to the year before.

数据显示,电影在性别比例上越来越趋向平等,但这只适用于幕后团队中的女性。变化的速度非常缓慢。与上一代人相比,在近些年的获奖电影中,担任高级幕后职位的女性比例增加了。但也没有增加太多。在同一时期的获奖电影中,女性主要角色的比例保持不变,徘徊在35%左右。这与圣迭戈大学(San Diego University)最近的一项研究相一致。该研究发现,2017年美国最卖座的百部电影中,只有37%有台词的角色是女性。女性在主角中所占的比例为24%,与一年前相比少了5个百分点。

Where are the female directors?

女导演在哪里?

One of the most striking features of the data is the large gender differences that exist between crew roles. Directing (12% female), cinematography (8%), and film-music composition (6%) roles are the most heavily male-dominated. Cinematography, with its stacks of camera equipment, has traditionally been gendered as a masculine activity – which might be why Rachel Morrison’s Oscar nomination took 90 years to arrive. But why are there so few female directors?

这些数据最为显著的一个特征是,幕后团队中的性别差异非常大。导演(女性占12%)、摄像(8%)和作曲(6%)都是男性占据绝对优势。摄影因为器材笨重的缘故,传统上被视为男性体力活——这可能就是莫里森获得奥斯卡提名用了90年时间的原因。但为什么女导演也这么少呢?

Film critic Anna Smith believes it boils down to unconscious bias. “Some studios might consider a female director more of a ‘risk’ than a male director, whether they admit it or not” she says. “So if a film is directed by a man, and financed by male studio heads, you may be more likely to see a gender imbalance.” The data bears this out. Films with a female director have, on average, more leading female cast and crew (39% excluding the director herself) than films directed by men (28%). A positive takeaway from this is that if there were more female directors, gender equality might improve across the board.

影评人安娜史密斯(Anna Smith)认为,这可以归结为潜意识的偏见。"有些电影公司可能会认为女导演比男导演存在更大'风险',不管他们是否承认这一点,"她说。"所以,如果一部电影男导演执导,资金由电影公司的男性领导提供,那么剧组出现性别失衡也就不奇怪了。"数据证实了这一点。与男性导演的电影相比,在女导演的电影中,女性占幕前幕后的主创比例(39%,不包括导演本人)要高于男导演的片子(28%)。从这个角度说,一个积极的结论是,如果有更多的女导演,性别平等是有可能得到全面改善的。

Another encouraging finding is the better female representation among editors (42% female), production designers (31%) and producers (29%). Nearly half of films here have at least one female editor (46%) and it’s similar for producers (45%). Editing roles have historically been more gender-inclusive: 14 movies edited by women have won Oscars for Best Film Editing, including classics like Star Wars (Marcia Lucas in 1977) and Jaws (Verna Fields in 1975). Thelma Schoonmaker has won three times – for Raging Bull (1980), The Aviator (2004), and The Departed (2006).

另一个令人鼓舞的发现是,剪辑(女性占42%)、美术指导(31%)和制片人(29%)中女性比例更高。将近一半的电影至少有一位女剪辑师(46%),制片人的情况也类似(45%)。从历史上看,剪辑师这个职位更具性别包容性:14部由女剪辑师剪辑的电影赢得了奥斯卡最佳电影大奖,其中包括一些经典之作,像是《星球大战》(Star Wars,玛西亚•卢卡斯[Marcia Lucas],1977)和《大白鲨》(Jaws,菲尔兹[Verna Fields],1975)。

“When women got pushed out of directing back in the late 1920s with the development of the studio system, editing – along with screenwriting – remained a field that women could flourish in, producer Lizzie Francke told Little White Lies. “I think the perception prevailed that editing was like sewing – it was more akin to ‘women’s work’.” A similar perception exists for producers, according to Rebecca Wolff: “Producers are often seen as facilitators, who get stuff done, rather than as captains of the ship (even though we are, just in a different capacity)” she says. A female producer’s “ability to go out and get films made [...] is not scrutinised in the same way as if we were a director or cinematographer.”

"在20世纪20年代后期,随着电影片厂系统逐渐体系化,女性被赶出导演领域,而剪辑以及剧本创作仍然是一个女性可以大展身手的领域,"制片人丽兹弗兰克(Lizzie Francke)告诉《小小的善意谎言》杂志(Little White Lies)。"在我看来,人们普遍认为剪辑就像缝纫——它更像是'女人干的活'。"电影制片人丽贝卡沃尔夫认为,对于制片人也有类似的看法。她说:"制片人往往被视作协调者,把事情都处理好,而不是像一艘船的船长(虽然我们的工作性质也类似,不过是以一种不同的能力),"一位女制片人"抛头露面、让片子拍完的能力……不会像女性导演或摄影师那样被人评头论足。"

Sets appeal

片场的诉求

But what will encourage more women into less traditional crew roles, like directing? On-set childcare could be one solution. Women in the creative industries are, as in other areas, forced to take a break from work to have families at what would be “usually the prime moment to drive their career forward”, according to Wolff. British actress Charlotte Riley believes making film and TV sets “more family friendly” would allow talented women to reach top positions.

但是,要如何鼓励更多女性进入不那么传统的幕后职位,比如导演?片场的托儿服务,可能是一个解决方案。丽贝卡沃尔夫认为,创意行业的女性跟其他领域的女性一样,在"通常是事业发展的最佳时刻",却被迫暂时离开职场而投身家务。英国女演员莱利(Charlotte Riley)认为,如果影视剧片场能更友好地对待有家室之累的女性,将有助于具才华的女性获得高层职位。

Cultural change is needed at all levels, says critic Anna Smith: “We need big awards ceremonies like the Oscars to acknowledge more female directors and cinematographers to encourage young women entering the industry. But we also need the culture to be more welcoming of those who already exist – while there are open-minded men in the industry I've also heard anecdotal stories of male crew who've talked back to and undermined female directors and cinematographers, and that's not on.”

影评人安娜史密斯说,在各个层面都需要进行文化变革:"我们需要奥斯卡这样的大型奖项来表彰更多的女导演和女摄影师,从而鼓励年轻女性进入这个行业。但我们也需要对那些已在业内的女性更加包容尊重的文化——虽然在这个行业里有一些思想开放的男性,但我也听到过一些关于男性幕后工作人员顶撞女导演、女摄影师,暗地里搞鬼的事情,这是不可接受的。"

Last year at the Cannes Film Festival, a visibly shaken Jessica Chastain criticised the ‘disturbing’ portrayal of female characters in the programme. “I do hope that when we include more female storytellers we will have more of the women that I recognise in my day-to-day life” represented on screen, she said. Women who “are proactive, have their own agency, don’t just react to the men around them.”

去年的戛纳电影节上,美国演员杰西卡查斯坦(Jessica Chastain)明显受到了刺激,她批评参赛影片对女性角色的刻画"令人不安"。她说,"我确实希望,当我们纳入更多的女性叙事者时",呈现在银幕上的,"是我在日常生活中会看到的女性"。这些女性"积极主动,有自己的力量,不只是听命于周围的男性"。

In 2018, post-#MeToo, the mood feels different. Sundance has already awarded four female directors this year. There’s the gender-balanced Cannes jury. Even the share of women voting in the Oscars is increasing.

2018年,在#MeToo运动后,整个氛围大为改观。圣丹斯电影节今年把四个奖颁给了女导演。戛纳电影节的评审团在性别上更加平衡。就连女性在奥斯卡投票中占的比例也在增加。

But let’s be clear: until now the top awards on offer at film festivals have been grossly biased towards men. Not because they are better actors and film-makers, but because more men have made and starred in films.

但我们需要明确的一点是:到目前为止,各大电影节最有分量的奖项都严重偏向男性。这并非因为他们是更好的演员和电影制作人,而是因为制作、出演电影的男性占了多数。

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