您现在的位置: 纽约时报中英文网 >> 纽约时报中英文版 >> 文化 >> 正文

全球影响力与文化影响力:五个国家塑造世界文化

更新时间:2018-7-14 10:35:43 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

The five countries that set world culture
全球影响力与文化影响力:五个国家塑造世界文化

Global influence is often measured by military, political or economic might, but for some countries, it’s the strength of the culture – its food, fashion or entertainment – that most strongly impacts the wider world.

全球影响力通常以军事、政治或经济力量来衡量,但对有些国家而言,文化的力量,包括食物、时尚以及娱乐,才真正影响着更为广大的世界。

These culturally influential countries were recently ranked by U.S. News and World Report, based on factors like being perceived as prestigious, fashionable, trendy, happy, modern or culturally significant in terms of entertainment. While many of the top 10 countries were in Europe, including Italy, Spain, France and the UK, the list also included Japan (ranking high for being modern and prestigious), Brazil (for its happy populace and entertainment), and the United States (for being modern and culturally influential).

《美国新闻与世界报道》杂志(U.S. News and World Report)近来基于娱乐因素,如声誉、时尚、潮流、幸福、现代或娱乐影响力等,列出了世界各国文化影响力排行榜。前十位国家基本在欧洲,包括意大利、西班牙、法国和英国。上榜的还有日本(因现代化程度高及声誉力强而排名靠前)、巴西(因人口幸福指数和娱乐上榜)和美国(因高现代化和文化影响力而上榜)。

We spoke to residents in the five top-ranked countries, which exemplified these areas of cultural influence, to find out how their nation make a global impact and what it’s like living in a place that defines the international cutting-edge.

我们和前五位国家的国民谈了谈,以此了解这些地区的文化影响力,搞清楚他们的国家如何产生全球影响力,以及生活在世界最前沿有何感受。

Italy

意大利

Famous for designer brands like Valentino, Armani, Versace and Gucci, Italy scored a perfect 10 in being both ‘fashionable’ and ‘trendy’, which hardly surprises residents like Lucio Buffalmano, founder of the ThePowerMoves.com blog, who comes from Abruzzo, east of Rome. “It's a cliché, but Italians do care about what looks nice, and Italians do take more care than most in looking fashionable,” he said.

意大利以华伦天奴(Valentino)、阿玛尼(Armani)、范思哲(Versace )和古奇(Gucci)等知名设计品牌而闻名,在"时尚"和"潮流"上堪称完美。对此,意大利人布法玛诺(Lucio Buffalmano)早就习以为常。他来自罗马以东的阿布鲁佐,是ThePowerMoves.com博客的创始人:"都是老掉牙的说法了,不过意大利人的确很关注外表,也的确在时髦上花更多心思。"

But this notorious attention to detail extends beyond fashion. “Italy has a great impact in everything that has to do with style, from food to furniture,” said Angela Corrias, originally from Sardinia but who now lives in Rome and blogs at Rome Actually.

不过这种对细节的过分关注还衍生到了时尚以外。"从美食到家具,但凡与格调相关,都受到意大利的深远影响,"科莉娅斯(Angela Corrias)说。她来自意大利撒丁岛,现居罗马,是"地道罗马"(Rome Actually)网站的博主。

The country’s food of course claims an outsize influence. To experience the country’s culinary influence first-hand, Corrias recommends heading to capital city Rome. “The financial crisis hit hard, but Romans will never give up on eating out,” Corrias said. “Here you can explore both the traditional flavours and recipes created with a modern twist. Porto restaurant in Prati area, for example, serves a seafood version of the traditional cacio e pepe (pasta seasoned with Roman pecorino cheese and black pepper), and while it might sound weird, the combination of cheese and seafood, it's actually delicious.”

这个国家的美食影响力无与伦比。若想亲身体验该国的烹饪影响之深远,科莉娅斯建议前往首都罗马。"尽管受到经融危机重创,罗马人永远不会放弃外出寻找美食,"科莉娅斯说,"在这里,你既能吃到传统美味,又能探索到现代风味的食谱。比如在普拉蒂地区的波尔图餐厅,能吃到带海鲜的绵羊干酪黑胡椒拌意大利面。听上去很奇怪,不过这种奶酪和海鲜的混合,吃起来十分美味。"

Other interesting cultural destinations for expats include Bologna, also known for its rich gastronomical heritage, and Milan, which is the country’s largest business and fashion hub but also has plenty of top-notch restaurants and a large, lively expat community.

对来自国外的定居者而言,其它有意思的文化地标还有以丰富的传统美食而闻名的博洛尼亚,以及该国最大的商业中心、时尚中心——米兰,那里也有不少顶级餐厅和颇为活跃的外国人聚集区。

France

法国

‘Modern’, ‘prestigious’ and ‘fashionable’ were all areas where France scored high, and the French ‘je ne sais quoi’ is something that people across the world try to imitate. Lifelong Paris resident Roobens Fils didn’t even realise how influential his culture was until he travelled throughout the Middle East and Asia.

"现代"、"声誉"和"时尚"都是法国得到高分的项目,法国人那句"我不知道"(je ne sais quoi)也让世界人民争相模仿。一直住在巴黎的菲尔斯(RoobensFils),在走遍中东和亚洲后,才意识到祖国文化的强大。

“People in very remote places love and are inspired by French food, French art and French fashion. I met people in Iran telling me how they loved Molière! I was shocked! They know Molière in Iran!” said Fils, who blogs about his travels at Been Around the Globe.

"即使是很偏远的地区,人们也热爱法国食物、艺术和时尚,并深受启发。我在伊朗遇到的人告诉我他们有多爱莫里哀!我震惊了!他们在伊朗都知道莫里哀!"菲尔斯说,他在博客"环游世界"(Been Around the Globe)上记录自己的旅行。

Though Paris is the obvious place to experience French culture, from fashion to food, Bordeaux, Lyon and Toulouse are excellent – and smaller – alternatives.

巴黎显然是体验法国文化的好地方,不过从时尚到美食,波尔多、里昂和图卢兹也都是小众优选。

“Bordeaux is a prestigious city, and a lot of good wine is produced in the area,” Fils said. The city also has the most historical buildings in the country outside of Paris. Lyon, France’s third most populous city, is well known for its culinary traditions and has produced a number of three-star Michelin chefs. Toulouse, the capital of France’s southern Occitanie region, prides itself on its 2,000-plus-year history stretching back to the Visigoths and Romans and the accompanying pink terracotta architecture that gives it the nickname ‘La Ville Rose’.

"波尔多声名远播,不少好酒都产自这里,"菲尔斯说。这个城市还有巴黎之外全国最古老的建筑。里昂是法国第三大城市,以其传统美食知名,还培养出一批三星米其林大厨。图卢兹是法国西南欧西塔尼亚地区的首府,历史悠久,可以追溯到2000多年前的西哥特人和罗马人,还保留有粉色陶土建筑,让这里又被称为"粉红之城"。

The French take extreme pride in their identity that has shaped the world, and this includes the French language – which can be challenging for new expats. “Most people in France don't speak English, or broken English. Sometimes they do speak English, they just don't want to,” Fils said. “An expat will have to adapt to France, because French people won't make the effort to adapt to you.”

法国人对于自己塑造世界的影响力极为自豪,尤其是法语(对外国新手来说着实挑战)。"大部分人在法国不说英语,或者英语很差。偶尔他们也会勉为其难说英语,"菲尔斯说,"外国人得适应法国,因为法国人不会花心思来适应你。"

The United States

美国

Scoring highly for being ‘modern’ and ‘influential in entertainment’, the US’ films, music and TV programmes are enjoyed globally. Even when another country does something first, like the reality TV genre that started in the UK, the US is known for making it bigger and more popular worldwide. The country’s tech industry, home to Facebook, Twitter, Google and Amazon, has also left its mark, with billions of people interacting daily with these popular services and social networks.

美国的电影、音乐、电视节目都畅行全球,在"现代"和"娱乐影响力"上表现优异。即便是另一个国家首创的活动,比如英国真人秀,也会在美国发扬光大、并被推向全球。该国科技产业也举足轻重,脸书、推特、谷歌和亚马逊等服务及社交网络深受欢迎,每天有数十亿人在使用。

This influential American identity is firmly rooted in the power of possibility and dreaming beyond humble beginnings. “We still believe in the ‘American Dream’ here, which is only possible in what was once a British colony of debtors, slaves, the religiously persecuted and the world’s poor,” said Andrew Selepak, a professor in the department of telecommunication at the University of Florida, and director of the graduate social media programme.

美国历史积淀并不深厚,但美国人怀揣着梦想,觉得一切皆有可能,民族认同感深深根植于这份力量之中,很有影响。"曾经,破产者、奴隶、受宗教迫害者和来自各地的穷人来到这块英国殖民地,但也就是在这里,我们坚信能实现'美国梦'。"塞莱帕克(AndrewSelepak)如是说,他是美国佛罗里达大学通信专业教授、研究生社交媒体项目主任。

New York City, the country’s largest city, exemplifies these values. The words of Frank Sinatra – “If I can make it there, I can make it anywhere” – still apply to the Big Apple, also known as the city that never sleeps. On the opposite coast, Hollywood in Los Angeles produces the entertainment that shapes culture in the US and beyond. “American TV shows and movies made here influence how we talk, dress, what we watch, and who we are,” Selepak said.

美国最大的城市纽约阐释了这些价值。这个城市被称为"大苹果",又叫"不夜城",辛纳屈(Frank Sinatra)的名言"如果在这能成功,那到哪儿都能成功",如今在这里依然适用。在大陆另一端的洛杉矶,好莱坞的娱乐制作正在塑造美国及全世界的文化。塞莱帕克说:"这里制作的美国电视节目和电影影响着我们的穿戴言行,影响着我们收看什么,影响着我们会变成什么样。"

Between the two cities however, is a vast geography that spans oceans, deserts, farmland and mountains. And with more than 300 million residents, the country prides itself on its diversity. “Just like our ethnic backgrounds, we all have different cultural upbringings and values,” said Jon Salas, who lives in Boston and blogs at The Running Publicist. “The same rule applies to the country’s geography. Depending on your personality and what you thrive on, your experience in the US will be different in every city you go to. Miami is not the same as Chicago, nor is New Orleans anything similar to New York City. Each city has been shaped by its history and its people. If you have an experience in one region that wasn’t quite what you were looking for, then give another corner of the country a try.”

在这两个城市之间的大陆上,绵延着荒漠、农田和山脉。美国有三亿多人口,它为自己的多样性感到骄傲。"我们都来自不同的种族,拥有不同的成长环境和文化价值观,"塞拉斯(Jon Salas)住在波士顿,在"奔跑吧公关"(The Running Publicist)网站上写博客,"这也适用于这个国家的地理。每个人的个性和成长环境不同,所以去美国不同的城市,感受也不同。迈阿密跟芝加哥不一样,新奥尔良跟纽约也大不相同。每个城市都受其历史和人民的影响。如果你在一个地方感觉不太对,那就再去这个国家别的地方看看。"

Spain

西班牙

Once one of the world’s largest conquerors and empires, Spain has left a lasting mark across geographies from South America to the East Indies. After Chinese, Spanish is the second most spoken language in the world when measured by native speakers, and the strength of its Spanish-speaking movies, TV and music helped push the country to the top.

西班牙曾是雄霸天下的帝国之一,从南美到南亚和东南亚,他在地图上留下了浓墨重彩的一笔。西班牙语仅次于中文,是世界上母语人数第二多的语言。该语种的电影、电视和音乐也助力该国登上榜单。

“From the Spanish language to religion, cuisine, festivals and many other aspects, wherever I travel it is always pretty easy to find a bit of my country,” said Inma Gregorio, who is from the Galicia region and blogs at A World To Travel.

"从西班牙语到宗教、美食、节日和其它方方面面,无论我走到哪,总能看到关于祖国的点点滴滴。"格雷格里奥(Inma Gregorio)来自西班牙加利西亚地区,是"旅行世界"(A World To Travel)网站的博主。

Spain’s tapas culture is one that has spread internationally, but continues to connect people locally. “Food here is a way of living,” said Andre Arriaza, who lives in Barcelona and is the founder of Barcelona Eat Local Culinary Experiences. “Eating is sharing, either with a bunch of friends, or with all the strangers that are around you, whom always engage in chit-chat,” he said.

西班牙小吃(tapas)文化畅行全球,不过在本地也依然在凝聚人心。"这里的食物是一种生活方式,"阿里亚萨(Andre Arriaza)说,他住在巴塞罗那,是"巴塞罗那本地烹饪美食体验"(Barcelona Eat Local Culinary Experiences)网站的创建者。"饮食也是在分享,不论是和一群朋友,还是和身边的陌生人,反正我们西班牙人总是在边吃边聊。"

This kind of socialising is key in a country that always puts family and friends before work, with long lunches (including the sobremesa) and family gatherings the norm. “We work to live, not otherwise,” Gregorio said. “Even during last year’s [constitutional] crisis, bars were full day in and day out.”

这个国家的人在工作前总是和家人朋友一起吃很久的午餐,还要吃餐后小甜点(sobremesa),家庭聚会也形成了这种惯例。这种社交对西班牙而言颇为重要。"我们工作是为了生活,而非其他,"格雷戈里奥说,"即使是去年的(宪法)危机时期,酒吧也白天晚上都是人。"

It’s a welcome change to expats like Cory Varga, a UK citizen who has lived in Seville for the past six months and blogs at You Could Travel. “We love living in Spain because everyone seems really relaxed. The attitude towards life is that it should be savoured and enjoyed.”

这对像沃尔高(Cory Varga)这样的外国定居者而言是一种令人欢欣鼓舞的变化。他是英国人,最近六个月住在塞维利亚,在"你也能旅行"(You Could Travel)网站上写博客。"我们喜欢住在西班牙,因为每个人看起来都很放松。他们对待生活的态度是,应该去品味和享受。"

This isn’t easy for all expats, who must adjust to more easy-going schedules and late dinner starts. Knowing Spanish also makes life a bit easier for expats, but it’s not a huge barrier; most cities have lots of Spanish language schools and residents will usually try and help. “Spanish people are friendly,” said Bernard Sury, originally from Brussels and currently lives in Valencia, and is the co-founder GuruWalk. “Even if they don't understand you, they'll try to help you anyway.”

不过也并非所有的外国人都觉得容易,毕竟你要适应随心所欲安排的日程表,晚餐开始的也很晚。若是他们懂西班牙语,生活会容易一点,不过就算不懂,问题也不大。大部分城市有西班牙语言学校,当地居民一般也会试着帮忙。"西班牙人很友好,"舒里(Bernard Sury)说。他来自布鲁塞尔,现居瓦伦西亚,是旅游网站"行走大师"(GuruWalk)的联合创始人:"即便他们听不懂你的话,也会尽力帮你。"

The United Kingdom

英国

Ranking high for the ‘prestigious’ label, UK residents take pride in their ability to combine a strong work ethic, creativity and an openness to change to produce new innovation. “We have some of the finest universities in the world, and an entrepreneurial flair,” said London resident and author Ian Hawkins. “Don’t forget, machine code, the computer and www were all invented by Brits.”

英国在"声誉"这个标签上名列前茅。英国人能把强烈的职业道德、创造力和变革开放结合起来,以此创新。这一点让其国人十分自豪。"我们有世界上一些顶尖大学,还有企业家精神,"住在伦敦的作者霍金斯(Ian Hawkins)说,"别忘了,机器代码、电脑和万维网都是英国人发明的。"

The influence and flexibility of the English language has allowed Britain to thrive as a place where people come to create a new future. “Our language is rich in its borrowings from other languages, and generous in its acceptance of people learning it,” Hawkins said. “My Venezuelan friend arrived in London 11 years ago with £700 in his pocket and no English. Today he’s a business consultant and operates more than 30 restaurants and shops. Anyone can come to Britain and be as British as British can be. If you don’t believe me, we can talk about it over curry.”

英语的影响力和灵活性使得英国蓬勃发展,成为人们创造未来之地。"我们的语言很会借鉴别的语言,难度低、学的人多,"霍金斯说,"我有一个朋友11年前揣着700英镑,从委内瑞拉来到伦敦,不会英语。今天他成了一名商业顾问,经营着30多家餐馆和商店。任何来到英国的人都能像变成地道的英国人。你不相信我的话,我们可以边吃咖喱边聊。"

Expats should know that Brits don’t always say what they mean, so you may need to read between the lines. “It is important to look for the nuances in language and body language,” said Australian Amanda O’Brien, who blogs at The Boutique Adventurer. “‘I’m not sure’ often means ‘no’.”

外国移民得知道,英国人并非想什么说什么,所以你得了解他们的言外之意。"寻找语言和肢体语言之间的细微差别,很要紧,"来自澳洲的奥布莱恩(Amanda O'Brien)是"冒险家商店"(Boutique Adventurer)网站的博主,她说,"'我不太确定'通常意味着'不'。"

“The English often mean the precise opposite of what they say,” Hawkins added. “It’s a language full of puns, double meanings and innuendos.”

"英国人所言和所想有时候完全相反,"霍金斯补充道,"这门语言充满双关、影射和反讽。"

As the country’s business and financial centre, London remains a top destination for working expats. Though the city suffers from a lack of affordable housing, its abundance of museums, concert venues and theatres provides just the right environment to keep residents at the cutting edge of culture.

伦敦作为该国商业和金融中心,现在依然是全球外派工作人员的目的地之一。虽然房价高昂,但这里有各种博物馆、音乐演奏厅和剧院,提供了良好的环境让居民处于文化的最前沿。

“Samuel Johnson famously said ‘When a man is tired of London, he is tired of life’,” said current resident Gregory Golinski, originally from Paris. “I couldn't agree more. There are so many attractions here that you can choose to visit a different place every weekend; you don't have to do the same thing twice.”

"塞缪尔·约翰逊有这么一句名言'一个人厌倦了伦敦,也就厌倦了生活',"来自巴黎定居于伦敦的格林斯基(Gregory Golinski)说,"这话我完全同意。这里有很多景点,可以每周去一个新地方,不用担心会重复。"

But the cutting edge doesn’t end in in the capital. Edinburgh punches above its weight in terms of cultural influence, hosting the Fringe Festival, the world’s largest arts festival, as well as being the ‘birthplace’ of Harry Potter. Birmingham in the heart of the country is another contender. “From clubbing to orchestras, Birmingham has a fantastic culture,” Hawkins said. “Famously, the city has more canals than Venice, and the jewellery quarter is where cutting edge fashion meets traditional skills.”

然而首都并非文化最前沿。爱丁堡主办了世界上最大的艺术节——艺穗节,并且还是哈利波特的"家乡",这个城市因其文化影响力而更胜一筹。位于国土中心地带的伯明翰也是一个有力对手。"从俱乐部到乐队,伯明翰拥有灿烂的文化,"霍金斯说,"众所周知,这个城市的运河比威尼斯还多,而且珠宝区更是前沿时尚和传统技艺相融合的宝地。"

“全文请访问纽约时报中文网,本文发表于纽约时报中文网(http://cn.nytimes.com),版权归纽约时报公司所有。任何单位及个人未经许可,不得擅自转载或翻译。订阅纽约时报中文网新闻电邮:http://nytcn.me/subscription/”

相关文章列表