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微笑是人际沟通的重要一环:不会笑怎么办

更新时间:2018-7-5 21:03:11 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

The people who cannot smile
微笑是人际沟通的重要一环:不会笑怎么办

Kevin Portillo practises smiling every day at home. Usually after brushing his teeth. Or when stopping by the bathroom, or anywhere with a mirror.

凯文·波蒂洛(Kevin Portillo)每天在家练习微笑。通常是在他刷完牙之后,或是经过卫生间的时候,也就是任何有镜子的地方。

He hooks an index finger into each side of his mouth and pulls gently upward. He puckers his face into a kiss, then opens wide into an O, trying to limber up his facial muscles. He practises both the Mona Lisa – slight, closed-lip – and a wide, toothy smile.

他用食指钩起嘴角两边,轻轻向上拉。他撅起双唇,呈亲吻状,然后张开成O型,尽量让面部肌肉活跃起来。他即练习蒙娜丽莎式的微笑——嘴唇闭合,微露笑意;也练习咧嘴的、露齿的笑脸。

At least, he’s supposed to do his exercises every day. Being 13, he sometimes forgets, though he understands their importance.

最起码,他每天都要锻炼。13岁的他有时候会忘记,但他明白锻炼的重要性。

“I need to stretch my cheeks,” he says. “I do it for a couple minutes. I have to do it every single day.” He exercises so much that his jaw sometimes hurts.

"我需要脸部拉伸,"他说。"我一次会做两三分钟。每天都要做。"他练习过于频繁,导致下颌有时候会痛。

Kevin was born in New Jersey with a rare malignant vascular tumour, a kaposiform haemangioendothelioma, covering the left side of his face, squeezing shut his left eye and pushing his nose to the right. Immediately after his birth, doctors whisked him away to another hospital in another state – the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia. His mother didn’t see him again until he was eight days old.

凯文出生于新泽西州,患有一种罕见的恶性血管肿瘤,卡波西型血管内皮瘤,影响脸的左半边,使得左眼紧闭,挤得鼻子偏向右边。他刚一出生,医生就急忙带他到另一个州的医院去——费城儿童医院。直到他出生后第八天,他的母亲才再次见到他。

The doctor told Kevin’s parents that the chance of him surviving was slim.

医生告诉凯文的父母,他活下去的希望很渺茫。

But survive he did. However, the large tumour and the damage from its treatment prevented him from being able to do one of the most fundamental things humans do.

但是他挺过来了。然而,大的肿块和治疗带来的损伤让他无法做到人类最重要的事情之一:

Smile.

微笑。

On a physical level, a smile is clear enough. There are 17 pairs of muscles controlling expression in the human face, plus a singular muscle, the orbicularis oris, that runs in a ring around the mouth.

在生理层面,微笑呈现的形式十分清楚。有17对肌肉控制着人脸的表情,加上一块单独的肌肉,口轮匝肌,是口唇内的环形肌。

The basic upward curving smile is achieved primarily by two pairs of muscles known as the zygomaticus major and minor. These connect the corners of the mouth to the temples, tugging lips upward – often accompanied, depending on the underlying emotions and thoughts, by the levator labii superioris, raising the upper lip, and other muscles of the face.

基本的嘴角上扬式的微笑主要由两对肌肉来实现,称为颧大肌和颧小肌。这两对肌肉连接口角和太阳穴,向上抻拉嘴唇。视潜在的感情和思绪而定,这个动作常常伴有上唇提肌,使嘴唇和脸部其它肌肉上扬。

It is when we leave the realm of physiognomy, however, that the smile becomes enigmatic. This contraction of various facial muscles resonates across the entire arc of human history, from the grinning Greek kouros sculptures of 2,500 years ago right up to emoji, those little images that pepper our online communications.

然而,正是当我们离开容貌的讨论区域,微笑才变得像谜一样。这种多处面部肌肉的收缩在整个人类历史的眉弓上回荡,从2500年前咧嘴笑的希腊青年雕像,一直到表情符号emoji,这些小图像在我们网上聊天中纷至沓来。

There are differences in gender (generally, women smile more) and culture. Smiles are definitely communicative – people smile more when in public than they do when alone, and more when interacting with others than when not.

表情符号在性别(一般来说,女性微笑更频繁)和文化中存在差异。笑脸肯定能交流思想,人们在公共场合比独处时更容易微笑,在同他人交往中也更容易微笑。

Scientists have shown that smiles are far easier to recognise than other expressions. What they don’t know is why.

科学家表明,笑容比其它表情更容易识别。他们不清楚个中原因。

“We can do really well recognising smiles,” says Aleix Martinez, a professor of electrical and computer engineering at Ohio State University and founder of its Computational Biology and Cognitive Science Lab.

俄亥俄州立大学电子与计算机工程学教授马丁内斯(Aleix Martinez)说,"我们在识别笑容方面的表现很出色。"他还是学校计算机生物与认知科学实验室的创始人。

“Why is that true? Nobody can answer that right now. We don’t know. I can show you an image for just 10 milliseconds and you can tell me it’s a smile. It does not work with any other expression.”

"为什么会这样?目前没有人能回答。只给你10毫秒的时间看一幅图,你就会告诉我那是微笑。没有其它表情会产生这样的效果。"

Bafflingly, fear takes an exposure time of 250 milliseconds to recognise – 25 times as long as a smile. “Recognising fear is fundamental to survival, while a smile…” muses Martinez. “But that’s how we are wired.”

令人费解的是,恐惧的表情要花费250毫秒的时间才能识别出来,是识别微笑所需时间的25倍。"识别恐惧对于生存来说很重要,而微笑呢…"马尔内斯边思考边说。"但那是我们紧张起来的过程。"

Other studies have shown that smiling faces are also judged as more familiar than neutral ones. Scientists such as Martinez theorise that smiles – as well as frowns and other facial expressions – are remnants of humanity’s distant pre-linguistic heritage. Human language started developing as far back as 100,000 years ago, but our facial expressions reach back further still, perhaps as far as some of our earliest human ancestors.

其它研究表明,人们认为微笑的脸庞比不露声色的表情更熟悉。像马尔内斯的科学家们从理论上说明,微笑同皱眉和其它面部表情一样,是人类久远的遗产,早在语言出现之前就已经存在。人类语言开始形成可追溯到100,000年前,但我们的面部表情可延伸到更早的时候,可能和一些最初的人类祖先一样早。

“Before we could communicate verbally, we had to communicate with our faces,” Martinez says.

马丁内斯说,"在用语言交流之前,人类必须用表情交流。"

Interpreting the nuances in a smile is a challenge whether dealing with art history or interpersonal encounters or the cutting edge of artificial intelligence. A 2016 study, for example, questioned thousands of people in 44 cultures about sets of photographs of eight faces – four smiling, four not.

无论是处理艺术史还是人际沟通,或是处于尖端位置的人工智能,描述微笑的差异是个难题。例如,一项2016年的研究向来自44个国家中的几千人提问,关于八张面孔的照片——四张微笑,四张没有。

Most of these people deemed the smiling faces to be more honest than the non-smiling ones. This difference was huge in some countries, such as Switzerland, Australia and the Philippines, but small in others, such as Pakistan, Russia and France. And in a few countries, such as Iran, India and Zimbabwe, there was no trustworthiness benefit to smiling at all.

这些人大部分认为笑脸比非笑脸更加坦率。这一差别在有些国家中十分显着,比如瑞士、澳大利亚和菲律宾,但在有些国家差别不大,比如巴基斯坦、俄罗斯和法国。在少数国家中,笑容根本不值得信赖,比如伊朗、印度和津巴布韦。

Why? That question is also complicated, but in essence, the researchers concluded it has to do with whether a society is set up so that its members assume that other people are dealing with them honestly. “Greater corruption levels decreased trust granted toward smiling individuals,” the authors concluded.

为什么?那个问题也很复杂,但本质上,研究人员总结称,这关乎一个社群建立后,它的成员会不会认为别人和自己是以诚相待。研究人员总结说,"一个国家的腐化程度越高,对于个体露出笑容的信任越低。"

That attitude harks back to a very old view of smiling being opposed to pious solemnity. When piety was an overarching value, smiles were, well, frowned upon as the precursor of laughter, which was held in true disdain. Prior to the French Revolution, broad smiles in art were overwhelmingly the realm of the lewd, the drunk and the boisterous lower classes.

这种看法让人想到一个非常古老的观点,即认为笑容是反对虔诚的庄严。当虔诚是一个国家最主要的价值时,微笑就会被当做是大笑的前兆而遭到反对,认为是一种大不敬。法国大革命以前,绝大多数艺术中的咧嘴大笑涉及下流的、醉醺醺的和喧闹的底层阶级。

Eastern religions, however, often use the smile to denote enlightenment. The literal name of the thousand-year-old Flower Sermon, which describes the origin of Zen Buddhism, is “Pick up flower, subtle smile”. The Buddha and various religious figures were depicted with serene smiles, though the original Buddhist texts are as devoid of smiling as Western scripture. Jesus weeps but never smiles.

然而,东方的宗教常常用微笑来表示觉悟。有千年之久历史之久的《拈华微笑》(Flower Sermon,禅宗佛教中的起源故事),按字面意理解是"拈花,微笑"。对佛陀和若干宗教人物的描述带有平静的笑容,而最初的佛经和西方的圣典一样没有提及微笑。耶稣会哭泣,但从不会微笑。

Nor did Kevin Portillo, not fully. At five weeks’ old he was already a week into chemotherapy with vincristine, an anticancer drug so powerful it can cause bone pain and skin rashes. Doctors warned his mother, Silvia Portillo, that the treatment might leave him blind, or deaf, or unable to walk.

凯文·波蒂洛也不会,他不能完整地微笑。在他出生后的第五周,就已经用长春新碱进行了一周化疗,这一抗肿瘤药物非常强劲,能引起骨痛和皮疹。医生们提醒他的母亲西尔维娅·波蒂洛(Silvia Portillo),称治疗可能导致失明、失聪,或无法行走。

Whether stunted due to the tumour or killed by the chemotreatment, Kevin’s seventh cranial nerve withered. That nerve originates at the brainstem then branches out across the face. It is susceptible not only to tumours, as in Kevin’s case, but also to rare conditions such as Moebius syndrome, a congenital facial paralysis caused by missing or stunted cranial nerves. You can’t smile, frown, or move your eyes from side to side.

无论是肿瘤导致的生长不良还是化疗的扼制作用,凯文的第七根颅神经萎缩了。那根神经起源于脑干,扩大到整个面部。它不但容易受肿瘤的影响,导致凯文这样的病症,也容易受罕见症状的影响,比如引发莫比斯综合症,这是一种由颅神经缺失或发育不良导致的先天面部瘫痪。患此病症将无法微笑、皱眉或控制眼球的转动。

“You essentially have a mask on your face,” says Roland Bienvenu, 67, a Texan with Moebius syndrome.

德克萨斯州人比安弗尼(Roland Bienvenu)今年67岁,患有莫比斯综合症,他说,"基本上你的脸是一副面具。"

Without being able to smile, others “can get the incorrect impression of you”, he says. “You can almost read their thoughts. They wonder, ‘Is something wrong with him? Has he had an accident?’ They question your intellectual ability, think maybe he’s got some intellectual disability since he’s got this blank look on his face.”

没有办法微笑,人家"会对你产生错误的印象," 安弗尼说。"你几乎能猜出他们的疑惑,'这个人是哪里出了毛病吗?他发生过什么意外吗?'他们质疑你的思维能力,觉得你可能有某种智障,因为脸上表情茫然。"

The challenges stemming from lack of a smile are frequently compounded. When people have a medical condition severe enough to keep them from smiling, other difficulties tend to be involved.

由于不能笑而出现的问题总是很复杂。当人们身体上产生的某种状况严重到阻碍微笑,其它困难也会牵扯进来。

“He was different than the other kids,” says Silvia of her son Kevin. “He was fed for four years through the G-tube in his stomach. He wasn’t able to have a normal life, because every few hours he had to be connected to the machine to be fed.” Little kids, being curious, would look and ask what happened to him, she says.

西尔维娅说到她的儿子凯文,"他和其他孩子不同。他四年来一直用胃管辅助进食。无法拥有正常的生活,因为每隔几小时就要连到机器上进食。"小朋友们很好奇,会看一看,然后问他怎么了。

But even once Kevin was able to eat food, go to school and enjoy usual childhood pastimes – he became passionate about soccer and playing the drums – he still felt the tremors of having a half-smile in a world solidly established upon “a cultural expectation of pearly perfection”, as Richard Barnett writes in his book The Smile Stealers.

但其实等到凯文能够吃东西,去上学,玩玩一般童年的娱乐(他很热衷于英式足球和击鼓),他仍感受得到半个笑容的肌肉震颤,而这个世界牢固地建立在"珠玉般无暇的文化期盼"上,如巴内特(Richard Barnett)在他的《微笑杀手》(The Smile Stealers)一书中写道。

“I couldn’t smile on my left, I only smiled on my right,” says Kevin. “My smile was weird… people kept asking what happened to me, why I'm like this. I keep telling them I was like this when I was born.”

凯文说,"我的左脸不能笑,我只能用右脸。我的笑容很古怪…人们总是问我怎么了,为何会这样。我总是告诉他们,我出生时就是这样。"

Facial paralysis carries no telltale equipment, unlike some other disabilities, and is rare enough that the unaffected population is not generally familiar with the conditions that cause it, whether congenital or appearing later in life.

面部瘫痪没有携带泄露真情的生理设备,与其它一些身心障碍不同。十分罕见,未受影响的人群通常不了解诱发该疾病的因素,也不明白是先天的还是后天出现的。

One of the latter is Bell’s palsy, an inflammation of the sheathing around the facial nerves on one side that paralyses half the face, causing the eye and corner of the mouth to droop. It usually strikes men and women between the ages of 15 and 60.

一种后天的情况是贝尔麻痹,是单侧面部瘫痪的周围性面神经的炎症,导致眼部和口角下垂。男性和女性通常在15-60岁发病。

In most cases temporary, Bell’s palsy generally slowly goes away as mysteriously as it arrives. Doctors suspect it is caused by a viral infection. There are also traumatic events – car wrecks, sporting accidents – that damage nerves and muscles in the face, plus congenital irregularities such as cleft palate.

在大多数病例中贝尔麻痹是临时出现的,通常会慢慢褪去,像病如何来一样神秘。医生们怀疑是一种病毒传染所致。也有发生外伤的情况,比如撞车事故或运动意外,会破坏面部的神经和肌肉,加上先天的失常,比如腭裂。

A common condition that can also affect the smile is stroke. A sagging smile or face drooped on one side is one of three signs that a person has had a stroke and needs immediate emergency care (the other two are weakness or numbness in one arm and slurred or garbled speech).

还有一种影响微笑的常见情况是中风。松垂的笑容或单侧面部下垂是三种迹象之一,说明患者中风了,需要马上紧急治疗(其它两种迹象是单臂软弱或麻木,还有说话含糊或混乱)。

While losing a smile is a serious blow at any age, it can have a particular impact on younger people, who are starting out, forming the bonds that will carry them through the rest of their lives.

失去微笑对任何年纪的人群都是严重的打击,但对年轻一点的人来说,会有特别的影响,因为他们刚刚步入社会,需要建立维系一生的纽带。

“It’s a huge problem,” says Tami Konieczny, supervisor of occupational therapy at the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia (CHoP). “When you look at somebody, the first thing you see is their face, their ability to smile or not smile, or an asymmetrical smile. It’s your social world.

费城儿童医院(CHoP)职业疗法的监督员科涅茨尼(Tami Konieczny)说,"这是个很大的问题。你看一个人时,最先看到的是他们的脸,他们能不能笑,或者是不对称的笑容。这就是社交。"

“If someone can’t read your facial expressions, then it’s difficult to be socially accepted. It’s hugely devastating for kids. I had kids photoshopping their pictures. They are taking mirror images of their good side and copying it, photoshopping their own pictures before posting them to social media.”

"如果别人不能理解你的面部表情,那就难以受到社会的接纳。这对于小孩子来说是相当可怕的。我们的孩子把他们的照片进行图像处理,拍下自己好的那一半面容,然后复制进行图像处理,再把照片发布到社交媒体上。"

Photoshopping might work on Facebook. But fixing a smile bisected by nerve damage and subsequent muscle loss is far more complicated. Sometimes, it requires multi-stage plastic surgery spread out over a year or more.

图像处理可能在Facebook上发挥作用。但是神经损伤和其后的肌缺失把笑容分为两部分,修复起来复杂得多。有时候,需要多阶段的整容外科手术,跨度为一年或以上。

“It’s incredibly important to be able to interact with humans on a face-to-face basis,” says Ronald Zuker, a Canadian plastic and reconstructive surgeon who pioneered facial reanimation procedures. “If you don’t have the ability to smile, you are at a disadvantage. People cannot understand your inner emotions. They mistake your appearance for being disinterested, or not too bright, or not very involved in the conversation.”

加拿大整容与复原外科医生扎克(Ronald Zuker)开发了面部复活的小程序,他说,"能够与人面对面交流非常重要。如果你没有微笑的能力,就会处于不利境地。人们不能明白你的内心情感。你的外貌让他们误认为对话题不感兴趣,或者不太聪明,或者和对话没什么关系。"

Still, some parents prefer to wait until their children are older and can participate in the decision.

不过,有些家长更想等到子女大一点后,可以参与做决定。

“If families want to wait, that’s perfectly fine,” says Zuker. “Sometimes when a kid is nine or 10 they look in the mirror and say, ‘You know, I really want this surgery.’ That’s the time to do it.”

扎克说,"如果家人想等一等,完全没问题。有时,当小孩9岁或10岁时,会看着镜子说,'你懂的,我真的想做整容手术。'那就是时候到了。"

Which is what happened with Kevin. He was doing well, “even with that scar on his face, has always been popular at school”, says his mother. “He’s always been a happy kid.”

凯文就是这样。手术很理想,他的母亲说,"虽然脸上有处疤,但他在学校还总是很受欢迎。他一直都是一个快乐的孩子。"

But there were kids that made fun of him, she says. One day when he was about nine, he was sad. “I said, ‘What happened to you?’ He said, ‘Some kids, they’re not my friends. They laugh at me because I look funny.’ It was really hard for us as parents.”

但是会有取笑他的小朋友,她说。大概是9岁的某一天,凯文感到难过。"我问,'你怎么啦?'他说,'有些小朋友,他们不是我的朋友。他们笑话我,因为我看上去怪怪的。'这对我们家长而言真的很难处理。"

At age 10, Kevin told his parents that he wanted to do what most people do without giving it a second thought. He knew it would be a long, painful, difficult procedure, but it was one he wanted to undergo.

10岁时,凯文对父母说,无需多虑,他想去做大多数人做的事。他知道那会是一个漫长、痛苦和艰难的过程,但他想承受的。

In October 2015, Phuong Nguyen, a plastic surgeon and reconstructive surgeon at CHoP, began work by removing a section of sural nerve from Kevin’s right ankle and attaching it to the working right side of his face, running it underneath his upper lip, to the paralysed left. He then let it regrow for almost a year, the nerve fibres advancing about a millimetre a day (about 24,000 times slower than a snail’s pace).

2015年10月,一位费城儿童医院整容与复原外科医生努仁(Phuong Nguyen)开始手术,从凯文的右脚踝处取出一部分腓肠神经,接到他右半边正常的脸上,沿着上唇穿过来,通到瘫痪的左半边。接着让这条神经生长约一年,神经纤维大约每天上涨1毫米(约比蜗牛速度慢24,000倍)。

During that time, doctors would periodically tap areas of Kevin’s cheek, to see if the nerve was taking. “When it tingles, you know the nerve is growing,” says Nguyen.

那段时间里,医生会定期轻敲凯文脸上的地方,看看神经有没有见效。努仁说,"如果感到刺痛感,那就是神经正在长。"

Removing that nerve did cause a small patch of skin on Kevin’s ankle to go numb. But as he was still growing, the numb patch began to shrink as the neural network took over its function.

取出的那部分神经导致凯文脚踝处的一小块皮肤变麻木。但是由于凯文仍在成长,随着神经网络取代这部分神经的功能,麻木的皮肤开始变小。

Once Nguyen was certain the nerve was in place and functioning, it was time for the second stage of the surgery.

一旦努仁确认神经能够使用并发挥作用,就到了第二阶段手术的时候。

One morning in August 2016, he took a purple marker and drew a pair of parallel lines, marking the location of a prime artery, and an arrow: the vector Kevin’s smile would take.

2016年8月的一天早晨,他拿起紫色的记号笔,画下一组平行线,标记主动脉的位置,还有一个箭头:凯文的微笑会带有的向量。

Nguyen removed a 12cm (4.8in) segment of muscle, along with a section of artery and vein, from the inside of Kevin’s left thigh, securing it in place with a customised split that hooked into Kevin’s mouth.

努仁从凯文左大腿的内侧取出12厘米长(4.8英寸)的肌肉切面,包括动脉和静脉部分,牢牢地固定在凯文嘴里的腭裂处。

Over the next year, Kevin began to get motion on the left side of his mouth.

到了第二年,凯文的嘴部左侧开始有了活动。

“It’s really kind of a magical thing,” says Nguyen. “We do this procedure, a number of hours and effort, using not a small amount of resources. We don’t know if it works or not.

努仁说,"这真是有点魔力。做这一步小程序,需要几个小时的努力,花费也不少。不知道会不会管用。"

“I saw him post-operatively within the first couple of weeks, he looked like he had this big bulgy thing in his cheek. Nothing was moving. All of a sudden, he was smiling. It was a really incredible moment.”

"术后的头两周里,他看起来像脸上还是鼓胀的。没有能动的肌肉。突然间,他就微笑起来。真是个难以置信的时刻。"

Kevin needed regular occupational therapy sessions to get to where he is today. He performs exercises and puts on purple latex gloves to pull at the inside of his cheek. One exercise involves putting a surface EMG – an oblong black sensor that reads electrical activity in the muscle – onto Kevin’s left cheek so he can play video games by smiling and relaxing.

凯文需要经过定期几次职业疗法才能达到今天的样子。他做一些练习,带上紫色的乳胶手套拉一拉脸里面的肌肉。有一个练习是在左脸放上表皮肌电图仪,那是一种长方形的黑色感应器,描记肌肉活动的生物电流。这样他就能以一种轻松的方式打电子游戏,还会记录笑容。

Physical rehabilitation is the part of the surgical process that often gets overlooked, but it can make the difference between success and failure.

物理康复是外科手术过程的一部分,常常受到忽视,但是却是成败的关键。

“It’s huge, particularly with facial palsy,” says Nguyen. “You can do technically very sound surgery on two completely different patients and have two completely different outcomes based on how involved they are with their own therapy.”

"这是大事,尤其对于面部瘫痪," 努仁说。"你可以为两位完全不同的患者做技术上非常成功的外科手术,但他们参与各自疗法的程度如果不同,会产生截然不同的结果。"

How does Kevin feel about being able to fully smile after a lifetime of not being able to?

长这么大终于能完整地微笑了,凯文感觉如何?

“I do it automatically,” says Kevin. “Sometimes when somebody says a joke. It actually feels great now. Before it felt weird to not smile. Smiling with both sides of my mouth at same time, I feel I’m one of the other people who smiles right.”

凯文说,"有时当别人说了一个笑话,我自然就笑了。现在感觉很棒。以前无法微笑的感觉很奇怪。嘴角两边同时微笑,我感觉我像其他人一样,能正确微笑了。"

His mother remembers the moment she noticed.

凯文的母亲回想起她发现。

“We were at the table, we were eating,” says Silvia. “And then we said, ‘Kevin, are you moving there?’”

西尔维娅说,"我们当时在餐桌前吃饭。然后问道,'凯文,你那里能动了?'"

And how does his new smile affect Kevin’s life?

凯文的新笑脸对他的生活有什么影响?

“Before, I was actually shy,” he says. “Right now, I’m less shy, more active.”

他说,"我以前很腼腆。现在不那么害羞了,也更加主动。"

“I used to have trouble expressing my emotions. Now people know if I’m smiling or laughing. When I laughed, before, I laughed weird. And right now, they know, bit by bit, that I was trying to smile, I was expressing my laughter and my smile. When I play soccer, and score a goal, I’m happy. I’m smiling, to tell everybody I scored.”

"我过去总是在表达情感时遇到困难。现在人们知道我是在微笑还是哈哈笑。以前我微笑时显得很奇怪。现在呢,他们知道,一点一点地,我在努力微笑,我在表达我的笑声和笑容。踢足球时,还是得分时,我很开心。我微笑着,对大家表示我得分了。"

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