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更新时间:2018-6-28 21:14:24 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Has Rome declared an artichoke war?

Think of Rome and chances are that the image of St Peter’s Basilica, one of Christianity most universally known symbols, will cross your mind.


Yet, the bustling streets of LaCittà Eterna are home to another religious group that has left a profound mark on the city’s history. Roman Jews have inhabited the Italian capital since the 2nd Century BC – well before the start of Christianity.


A few minutes’ walk from the imposing Piazza Venezia, close to the Tiber riverbank lies Via del Portico d’Ottavia, the heart of the former Jewish Ghetto that was created by order of Pope Paul IV in 1555 and dismantled when Italian troops seized Rome from Papal rule in 1870.

从庄严的威尼斯广场走几分钟,在台伯河沿岸的是奥克塔维亚门廊街(Via del Portico d'Ottavia)——原犹太人隔都(即隔离区)的中心。罗马的犹太人隔都是由教皇保罗四世在1555年下令建造的;1870年意大利军队占领罗马,将罗马从教皇统治下分离出来时,拆掉了犹太人隔都的围墙。

During springtime, when artichoke season begins, many of the tavernas that populate the narrow, cobbled streets of ‘Il Ghetto’ (as locals call it) try to lure in customers through the proud display of mammole, a local version of the globe artichoke which is mostly found in Rome’s surrounding regions.

春天,到了洋蓟收获的时节,“以色列隔都”(Il Ghetto,当地人这么叫)狭窄的鹅卵石小道上,许多小饭馆开始自豪地展示一种主要产自罗马周边的本地洋蓟——母洋蓟(mammole),以此来招揽食客。

Mammole are the core ingredient in the most iconic dish of Roma-Jewish cuisine, carciofi alla giudia, literally Jewish-style artichokes, a deep-fried artichoke with a tender heart and crispy golden crust that has been a local favourite since at least the 16th Century.

母洋蓟是罗马犹太人名菜“油炸大洋蓟”(carciofi alla giudia,意犹太风味洋蓟)的主要食材。这道菜从意大利语字面上看就是一道犹太人的菜肴,洋蓟经油炸后,菜心鲜嫩、壳瓣金黄酥脆,从16世纪起就是颇受当地人欢迎的名菜。

Nearly every diner orders the crispy carciofi during spring. “It would be extreme to say that a restaurant depends on a single dish,” said Amit Dabush, owner of the popular kosher restaurant chain Ba’Ghetto, which counts three venues in Rome and one in Milan. “But it’s for sure the most demanded item on our menu.”

春季时候,几乎每桌人都会点一道酥脆的油炸大洋蓟。达布施(Amit Dabush)说,“说一道菜撑起一家餐馆可能有些夸张,不过它的确是菜单上最受欢迎的菜”。 达布施是一个很火的犹太洁食连锁餐厅Ba'Ghetto的老板,罗马有三家店,米兰也有一家。

But this spring, things did not run as smoothly for the restaurants of Via del Portico d’Ottavia. A few weeks before the start of Passover – a festival that celebrates the Israelites’ liberation from slavery in Egypt – in late March, Rabbi Yitzhak Arazi, head of imports of the Chief Rabbinate of Israel, declared that Jewish-style artichokes – a staple feature of the local Passover menu – should be considered trayf, or non-kosher.

但今年春天,奥克塔维亚门廊街上的犹太餐厅的生意就没有那么顺利了。在逾越节(庆祝以色列奴隶逃出埃及重获自由)几周前的三月下旬,以色列大拉比院监管进口物资的拉比阿拉兹(Yitzhak Arazi)宣布罗马逾越节菜单上的主要菜肴——油炸大洋蓟可能不符合犹太教教法,是不洁净的食物。

As explained by Piero Stefani, professor of Jewish culture at the University of Ferrara, Jewish Kashrut, a system of rules about food, does not prohibit any vegetable – including artichokes. The problem, he said, is that artichokes may contain worms or other small insects, which are listed among forbidden foods in the Torah.

意大利费拉拉大学研究犹太文化的教授史蒂芬尼(Piero Stefani)认为,犹太教的饮食教规——犹太饮食法并不禁食蔬菜,也不禁食洋蓟。问题在于,他说,洋蓟里可能有小蠕虫、或其他虫子,这些在犹太教经典《托拉》中是被禁食的。

And, indeed, that’s what concerns Rabbi Arazi, who turned his attention to the matter after a canned version of Jewish-style artichokes started to become popular in Israel. “The heart of the artichoke is full of worms, and there is no way you can clean it,” Arazi told Israeli newspaper Haaretz, explaining that the ban should not be considered as a local policy but as an application of Jewish religious law.


Roman Jews did not take it well. Hundreds of people inundated social media with messages of solidarity for the hundreds-year-old dish, from angry posts to love poems and revisitations of popular mottos – the ‘Je suis Charlie’ meme that went viral after the attacks on French satirical magazine, Charlie Hebdo, in 2015 was turned into ‘Je suis carciofo’.


Much of the defence of Jewish-style artichokes is based on a physiological argument: local Roman artichokes have a different structure than other varieties, which makes them worm-proof. “The leaves of local artichokes are very compact,” said Umberto Pavoncello, manager of one of the most popular kosher restaurants of Via Portico d’Ottavia. “That makes them impenetrable to insects.” Besides, no local rabbi has ever raised the issue, something that makes Pavoncello confident about the kosherness of local carciofi.

很多为油炸大洋蓟的辩护都基于这样一个植物学论据:罗马当地产的洋蓟和其它地方的同类品种结构不同,因而能防虫子。奥克塔维亚门廊街上最红火的犹太洁食餐厅经理帕翁切洛(Umberto Pavoncello),说,“本地洋蓟的叶子很紧密,所以虫子都进不去”。而且罗马当地也从来没有哪位拉比提过这个问题,这让帕翁切洛对洋蓟的洁净很有信心。

Simone Somekh, a writer who published an artichoke defence in the online Jewish magazine Tablet says that the current worm dispute is part of a wider debate about bugs and vegetables. “There are kosher manuals that provide detailed instructions on how to best clean salad, broccoli or cauliflower to prevent insects,” he said, “but sometimes the most orthodox fringes of the community prefer to ban a food item just to be safe.”

作家沙梅赫(Simone Somekh)曾在犹太网络杂志Tablet上撰文为洋蓟声张正义,说当前关于虫子的争论其实是宏观上关于菜与虫的争辩。他说,“关于怎么把莴苣、西兰花、花椰菜里的虫洗掉,犹太洁食手册里提供了详细说明。然而有时候,犹太人中的极端正统教派为了安全干脆完全禁吃这些蔬菜”。

But according to Somekh, Arazi’s preventative ban does not take into account what Jewish-style artichokes mean for the local community. “This is not a war about artichokes,” he said. “It’s about preserving the identity and traditions of local Jews.”


Indeed, the origins of carciofi alla giudia are deeply intertwined with the turbulent history of local Jews. When Pope Paul IV confined Jews inside the Ghetto, he issued a ban over the kind of professions they could practice. Food preparation was one of the few permitted activities, so many Jewish people, mostly women, started to run ‘friggitorie’, food stalls selling fritti (deep-fried foods). Even if friggitorie are not around anymore, their recipes can still be tasted in many kosher restaurants of Il Ghetto which feature them on their menus.


Unlike other local fried foods that were often prepared with pork fat, Jewish fritti were cooked with olive oil both due to kosher rules (pork should not be eaten) and to the Mediterranean influences of Spanish and Sicilian Jews who flocked to the city after they were expelled from the Kingdom of Castile and Aragon in 1492.


This made foods cooked at friggitorie easily identifiable as ‘Jewish’, which is why the contentious artichoke dish is called ‘Jewish-style’ rather than just deep-fried. And indeed, getting the frying process right is key to making a good carciofo alla giudia.


“First you need to remove the harder external leaves and trim the stem with a paring knife,” said Pavoncello, who learned the technique from the women of his family. The trimming, he explained, should be done from the base up in a spiral-like motion to give mammole their distinctive rosebud look. “Then you dip it in medium-heat oil for about 15 minutes.” The artichokes are then drained, dried and fried again, this time for no more than a couple of minutes, in higher heat oil that turns the outer leaves golden and crispy – a distinctive sign of a well-cooked carciofo.


But it was not just artichokes. Jewish friggitorie were able to turn other cheap but nutritious ingredients like courgettes, offal and codfish (the Ghetto was right by Rome’s fish market at the time) into recipes that have become staple items of Roman cuisine, such as fiori di zucca fritti (stuffed courgette flowers), baccalà fritto (fried codfish) and abbacchio fritto (fried lamb).

不过,不仅仅是洋蓟。犹太油炸摊能把其他廉价但营养丰富的食材,如瓜类、动物内脏、鳕鱼(当时隔读挨着罗马鱼市)变成罗马菜系的主要食材,如炸南瓜花(fiori di zucca fritti)、煎鳕鱼(baccalà fritto )和煎小羊排(fried lamb)。

Considering that Jews were prevented from taking part in almost any cultural activity, from art to music to theatre, their gastronomic legacy is incredibly valuable. Much like the landscape of Il Ghetto, where Jewish monuments like the Great Synagogue stand side by side Renaissance gems such as the 16th-Century Turtle Fountain, Jewish and Roman food cultures have merged with one another, giving rise to a distinctive local food culture.

那个时代,从美术、音乐到戏剧,犹太人几乎被禁止参加任何文化活动,因而他们的烹饪遗产就显得极为重要。就像今天罗马犹太区的景貌,大犹太会堂(Great Synagogue)之类的犹太纪念建筑,和16世纪乌龟喷泉之类的意大利文艺复兴精品并挨在一块儿,犹太美食和罗马美食文化也已融合在一起,成为一种鲜明的地方饮食文化。

Ba’Ghetto’s owner, Dabush, said that since Rabbi Arazi’s ban, he has stopped serving carciofi alla giudia in his Milan restaurant, but not in the ones in Rome. “People complain about the lack of Jewish-style artichoke in Milan,” he said, “but they eventually settled for it. In Rome, we would never dare take it off the menu.”


He explained that a few years ago, another kosher dispute, this time about ciambellette (sweet doughnuts eaten during Passover) managed to reach a resolution. The problem in that case was that ciambellette are made using flour, which if not handled properly could leaven – something that is not permitted during Passover.


Dabush now hopes that something similar can happen with the beloved artichoke dish. “Carciofi alla giudia have been standing as the ultimate symbol of Roman-Jewish cuisine for centuries,” he said, adding that it would be unthinkable to run an artichoke-free menu in his venues. “Jewish culture does like compromises, but in this case, I really hope we can find a solution.”


But the dish was not banned. Rome’s rabbinate ruled that its preparation could still take place during Passover, albeit under the supervision of a mashgiach, a person instructed on Kashrut rules.