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西班牙瓦伦西亚大教堂的圣杯为何与众不同

更新时间:2018-6-17 11:03:41 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Is this the home of the Holy Grail?
西班牙瓦伦西亚大教堂的圣杯为何与众不同

It is difficult to enter the Valencia Cathedral without feeling a sense of awe. Upon crossing the threshold, I was greeted with the echoes of a Gregorian chant that reverberated across the vaulted ceiling. Stretched before me was a long procession of archways leading to a single dais on the far side of the cathedral. A small set of steps climbed up to the altar, which was encased by a half dome immaculately adorned with sculptures and paintings depicting scenes of angels and the apostles.

很少有人走进瓦伦西亚大教堂(Valencia Cathedral)时,心中不是满怀敬畏。跨过门槛,唱诗班正吟唱着格里高利圣咏,歌声在拱形天花板上回荡。我穿过一长排拱门,一直走到大教堂末端的讲台。再跨上几个台阶就来到圣坛前,可以看到祭坛上方半圆穹顶,美轮美奂地装饰着描述天使和使徒场景的雕刻和油画。

But I hadn’t come to Spain’s third-largest city for the views of its cathedral. Instead, I made my way to a small room just off to the side, one so nondescript that I’d nearly missed it on first glance. Within this humble chapel, encased in glass just beyond the altar, was the object I was searching for: a single cup, resting upon an illuminated golden pedestal. As legend has it, this is the very cup used by Jesus Christ during the Last Supper – or, as the cup is more commonly known, the Holy Grail.

不过来到西班牙这座第三大城市,我并非是为参观这座大教堂。我走向教堂另一侧的一间小礼拜堂,如此不起眼,我乍一看都未留意到。在这个朴素的小礼拜堂里,圣坛之外的一个玻璃罩子,里面正是我要找的东西,一个杯子,它放在打着光的金色底座上。据说,这就是耶稣基督在最后晚餐上用过的杯子,其更广为人知的名字是——圣杯。

Appearing in stories from the medieval epics of King Arthur and his knights to the silver-screen exploits of Indiana Jones, the Holy Grail has remained one of humanity’s most sought-after treasures, a mysterious relic that straddles the line between fantasy and reality. Though the idea that a chalice used by Christ would be revered and therefore preserved by early worshippers is a plausible one, a magical vessel capable of granting eternal life is never mentioned in the Bible; it’s convention of Arthurian legend, penned by the likes of Chrétien de Troyes and Robert de Boron, two French poets who heavily shaped the development of Arthurian lore in the 12th and 13th Centuries. The first written mention of the grail as we’ve come to know it is in de Troyes’ Perceval, in which it is described not as a chalice but as a serving dish, likely harkening to the magical cauldrons of Celtic myth.

从亚瑟王和圆桌骑士的中世纪史诗,到银屏大戏《夺宝奇兵》(Indiana Jones),圣杯这个神秘文物,跨越幻想和现实的分界线,一直是人们最热衷寻找的宝藏之一。如果是早期的基督崇拜者把他用过的杯子保存供奉起来,是算说得过去的,然而,圣经中从未提到有什么能带来永生的神奇器皿。圣杯会出现在亚瑟王传奇中是出自特鲁瓦(Chrétien de Troyes)和波戎(Robert de Boron)等人的笔下。十二世纪到十三世纪,这两位法国诗人为亚瑟王传奇添加了更丰富的故事情节,也写下了圣杯的故事。现今我们所知圣杯在历史文献中的首次出场,就是特鲁瓦的《帕西瓦尔—圣杯的传说》(Perceval)。不过描述的并非一个杯子,而是一个餐碟,很可能来源于凯尔特神话中的神奇铁锅。

Growing up on the mythical tales of King Arthur, I’ve always been a sceptic; for me, the grail is a literary treasure. Even so, I couldn’t help but feel intrigued by Valencia’s Santo Cáliz (Holy Chalice). There are currently more than 200 claimants in Europe alone, all vying for the illustrious title of Holy Grail, with theories of the relic’s final resting place found everywhere from Scotland to Accokeek, Maryland. Yet out of all the lists of claimants I researched, Valencia’s chalice almost invariably held the top spot. It still manages to attract pilgrims from all over the world, and has even been used ceremonially by both Pope John Paul II and Pope Benedict XVI. Eager for the opportunity to follow in the footsteps of Sir Galahad on my own quest for the grail, I’d come here to discover what makes this cup so special among so many others.

亚瑟王传奇伴着我长大,但从小我就一直怀疑故事的真实性。对我而言,圣杯只是文学作品中的宝物而已。即便如此,我还是没忍住对瓦伦西亚大教堂里的圣杯产生了兴趣。光是欧洲,现今就有200多个地方在抢夺圣杯的光辉头衔,关于这个圣物的最终藏身之地,传闻更是从苏格兰排到美国马里兰州的阿克齐克,可谓无处不在。不过在所有我研究过的圣杯名单中,瓦伦西亚的圣杯几乎总是名列前茅。到今天,它还吸引着来自世界各地的朝圣者,而且教宗约翰·保罗二世和本笃十六世都曾在正式仪典用过这个杯子。我很想独自追随亚瑟王时代加拉哈德骑士(Sir Galahad)的步伐去探寻圣杯,所以特地来看一看,这个杯子为何与众不同。

I walked into La Capilla del Santo Cáliz (Chapel of the Chalice) to find it empty. Although my timing was unintentional, I’d arrived at the cathedral in the middle of a mass for Holy Saturday, the day before Easter Sunday, which meant that all the visitors were preoccupied with the ceremony in the adjacent room. A single beam of light streamed down from a stained-glass window far above the altar; the gentle hum of the distant choir was the only sound within the chapel. Though I had come to the place more as a researcher than a pilgrim, it was hard not to be taken by the quiet solemnity of the moment.

我走进圣杯礼拜堂,里面空空如也。虽然我来得随意,却刚好是周日复活节的前一天,和一大群特地来参加圣周六仪式的人们一起进入大教堂,此刻他们正在隔壁的主堂 ,沉浸于仪式中。一束光从祭坛顶上透过彩片玻璃洒下来,小礼拜堂里一片肃穆,唯闻远处唱诗班的歌声。虽然我来到此地是为研究而非朝圣,却很难不被此刻的庄严所打动。

As I approached the altar to inspect the chalice more closely, I found it far more elaborate than I’d anticipated. With two massive gold handles and a base inlaid with pearls, emeralds and rubies, the chalice immediately filled me with a sense of incredulity. Indeed, as anyone who has seen Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade is aware, the Holy Grail should be a simple thing – the cup of a carpenter.

当我走近祭坛仔细端详圣杯,发现它比我所想象的要华丽繁复多了。一看那两个巨大的金色手柄,嵌满珍珠、绿宝石和红宝石的底座,我立刻对这杯子产生了怀疑。但凡看过《夺宝奇兵3》(Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade)这部电影,就知道圣杯是个很普通的杯子——一个木匠做的杯子。

I was later informed by one of the attendants just outside the room that the actual relic is merely the piece at the top, a cup hewn from agate and polished with myrrh. The handles and base, which bear the hallmarks of medieval craftsmanship, weren’t added until much later. My scepticism temporarily assuaged, I turned to the task of discovering how this cup supposedly made the journey from Jerusalem, where the Last Supper is believed to have taken place, to the east coast of Spain.

后来礼拜堂外一位工作者告诉我,真正的圣杯只是杯子这部分,即这只从玛瑙里凿出来、用没药(热带树脂)打磨的杯子。那些具有中世纪工艺特色的把手和底座,是很后来才加上去的。我暂且将疑心按了下去,转而开始探索这只杯子怎么能从耶路撒冷辗转来到西班牙的东海岸,因为总所周知,耶稣的最后晚餐之地是在耶路撒冷。

As with all stories of grail claimants, the tale is convoluted. An attendant of the cathedral was able to provide a basic explanation of how the chalice first made its way out of Jerusalem, some 2,000 years ago.

和所有自称是真身的圣杯故事一样,瓦伦西亚圣杯的来龙去脉也颇为复杂。大教堂的一位讲解员给我们简单讲解了瓦伦西亚圣杯大约在2000年前是如何流落出耶路撒冷的过程。

“St Peter, the first pope, took the cup to Rome,” she explained. “The popes were the only people who could give mass, so St Peter and the rest of popes used the grail for the Eucharist, considering it the one Christ used. Then, when the Emperor Valerian began to persecute the Christians [from 257 AD], it was sent to Huesca, Spain, because it was no longer safe in Rome.”

她解释说,“第一任教宗圣彼得把杯子带到了罗马。当时教宗是唯一能举行主持弥撒的人,鉴于这个杯子基督曾用过,圣彼得和历任教宗也就在弥撒的圣餐礼中使用这个杯子。之后,从公元257年开始,罗马皇帝瓦勒良(Emperor Valerian)开始迫害基督徒,圣杯放在罗马已经不安全了,便送往西班牙的韦斯卡(Huesca)”。

She went on to explain that the chalice supposedly rested in Huesca for a few hundred years, before being moved again during the Umayyad conquests of the 8th Century, nestled in the cliff-side monastery of San Juan de la Peña in northern Spain for fear of plundering.

讲解员接着解释道,圣杯估计在韦斯卡藏了几百年,直到公元8世纪,阿拉伯帝国的倭玛亚王朝征服西班牙,为防圣杯被掠夺,基督徒又将圣杯转移到西班牙北部,藏于圣胡安德拉佩纳(San Juan de la Peña)的悬崖修道院中。

Granted, accounts of these first thousand years of the grail’s journeys are beyond anyone’s ability to verify. The more reliable records of this chalice appear in 1399, when it became part King Martin of Aragon’s royal reliquary. According to the cathedral’s records, after Alfonso the Magnanimous took the throne in 1416, the reliquary was moved to Valencia and later given to the cathedral as a payment for a debt. Though the chalice was spirited away a few more times on the occasion of war, it inevitably returned to the Valencia Cathedral in 1939 – this time for good.

诚然,关于瓦伦西亚圣杯最初一千年的漂泊之旅,没有任何人能够证明。其较为可靠的记录首次出现在1399年。这年,瓦伦西亚圣杯出现在阿拉贡国王马丁一世的圣遗物匣中。根据大教堂的记录,1416年阿方索五世即位后,遗物匣运到了瓦伦西亚,后来交给大教堂以偿还债务。尽管战争时期,圣杯曾数次神秘失踪,最终还是宿命般于1939年回到瓦伦西亚大教堂,此后再未离开。

Though an elaborate account, the story alone was not enough to make me believe this was the one true grail. After all, nearly all the grail claimants boast complex tales of how the relic was carried across seas and over mountains. Since none of the accounts can be verified, what has made so many believe that this is the one?

虽然记载十分详实,仅凭这个故事还不能让我相信这就是真正的圣杯。毕竟,几乎所有自称是真圣杯的都有一个吹嘘如何越洋过海,翻山越岭、辗转旅程的故事。既然没一个叙述可得以证实,那为何有许多人会相信我面前这个杯子是真的呢?

The main detail that sets the Valencia chalice apart is the style and craft of the agate cup, which Spanish archaeologist Antonio Beltrán, who studied the chalice in 1960, claims indicates an origin somewhere between the 2nd Century BC to the 1st Century AD, likely from a workshop in the Middle East. The archaeological assessment suggests that this cup fits the bill, at least geographically and chronologically. Though far from definitive proof, the findings certainly bolster the chalice’s claim.

瓦伦西亚圣杯与众不同的主要细节在于其玛瑙杯体的工艺与风格。西班牙考古学家贝尔特兰(Antonio Beltrán)曾于1960年研究过瓦伦西亚圣杯。他声称,这个杯子可能来源于公元前2世纪到公元1世纪中东的一个工场。尽管没有绝对权威靠谱的证据,这项考古评测表明,至少在地理和历史年代上,这个杯子与传说的圣杯是吻合的,这些都为西班牙圣杯巩固了身份。

As I stared at the agate cup resting in its glass case, there was one thought that continued to occupy my mind. If this was in fact the Holy Grail, one of the most legendary artefacts of all time, could it really be this easy? This was supposed to be the cup sought after time and time again by the heroes of old, only ever attained by those of purest heart – and yet here it was, not buried within the deep recesses of some distant cave but resting in a city centre surrounded by cafes filled with people casually sipping espressos.

当我注视着玻璃柜中的玛瑙杯,我的脑海中一直有这样一个想法。如果这真的是圣杯,这件有史以来最传奇的手工艺品,事情会如此简单吗?它本应让古代的英雄们前仆后继地追寻不断,最后只有灵魂最纯洁的英雄才能得到。而现在,圣杯却没有深埋于某个偏远之地的山洞中,而是身处闹市,周遭都是咖啡馆,坐满闲散地呷着浓缩咖啡的游客。

As I made my way to leave, I asked one of the attendants her opinion. After all, weren’t the stories of noble quests in pursuit of the Holy Grail not somewhat tarnished by the fact that it was here simply for all the world to see?

离开前,我问一位讲解员她怎么看。把圣杯放在这里让全世界的人观赏,这难道不是有点玷污了那些追寻圣杯的伟大传奇吗?

“I think the mystery remains,” she said with a smile that made me feel it was not the first time she’d heard the question, “After all, this isn’t even the only Holy Grail in Spain. You have to choose which is the real one for yourself.”

“我觉得仍有神秘之处“。她笑着说,让我觉得这不是她头一遭被人问到这个问题,”毕竟,甚至在西班牙这都不是唯一的圣杯。哪一个是真圣杯,得要你自己选择相信”。

Later on, when doing some more research, I learned what she meant. In 2014, two historians published Kings of the Grail, a book in which they claim to have found the true grail in the Basilica of San Isidoro of León in northern Spain. The pair cited two recently discovered ancient Egyptian manuscripts as the source of their discovery. Just as with Valencia’s chalice, the new claimant had a detailed history behind it, and was also scientifically dated to the appropriate timeframe.

此后研究多了,我便明白了她的意思。2014年,两位历史学家发表了《圣杯之王》(Kings of the Grail)一书,声称于西班牙北部巴西利卡(Basilica)的莱昂圣伊西多罗大教堂(San Isidoro of León)找到了真正的圣杯。两人引用了近来发现的古埃及手稿作为其发现真圣杯的证据来源。就如同瓦伦西亚圣杯,这个新圣杯也有详细的历史依据,并科学地符合圣杯所在的历史年代。

Though the new discovery throws the Valencia chalice’s claim into contention, I couldn’t help but feel an odd sense of reassurance. For me, the true wonder of the Holy Grail was never in the finding, but in the searching. The treasure isn’t the cup, but the stories we have crafted around it throughout time. I felt content knowing that so long as new contenders continue to appear, the mystery will endure, the legend will survive and the quest for the Holy Grail will go on.

虽然这一新发现令瓦伦西亚圣杯陷入质疑争论,我却忍不住感到一种奇异的安慰。对我而言,圣杯之奇妙并非在于发现,而在于寻找。珍贵的也非这个杯子,而是从始至终人们赋予它的故事传奇。我感到很安慰,只要新的竞争者不断出现,这种神秘、这段传奇、还有对圣杯的追寻,都会一直存续下去。

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