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赌球算什么 看看印度古老箭术的赌博游戏

更新时间:2018-5-29 21:23:02 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

In India gambling with bows and arrows
赌球算什么 看看印度古老箭术的赌博游戏

Walking through Police Bazar shopping district in Shillong, the capital of India’s north-eastern state of Meghalaya, I came across dozens of small kiosks selling what seemed to be lottery tickets. My curiosity was piqued by the blackboards hanging unassumingly in front of each one, where numbers were scrawled in white chalk. There was a muted excitement among the small groups of people gathering around the counters.

走过西隆市(印度东北部梅加拉亚邦省会)的"治安集市"(Police Bazar)购物区,我撞见了几十个好像在卖彩票的小报亭。每个报亭前都不惹眼地挂着一个黑板,上面有白粉笔潦草书写的数字。聚在附近的人脸上都洋溢着兴奋之情。这一下子就激起了我的好奇心。

I stopped at one of the kiosks, where the young lady in charge asked me if I had already chosen my number for the day’s teer lottery. Given that this was my first time, I decided to refrain.

我在一间报亭前驻足,年轻的老板娘问我是不是已经选好了今天迪尔博彩的数字。想想自己是头一遭遇到这种事,还是算了。

Named after the Hindi word meaning ‘arrow’, teer is an almost-daily activity in Shillong – a game of chance born from a skill that Meghalaya residents have practiced for centuries: archery. Spectators choose a number between one and 99; professional archers fire arrows at a target, and if the last two digits of the total number of arrows to hit the target matches your number, you win.

"迪尔"(teer)这个词在印地语中的意思是"箭",是一种看运气的游戏,几乎融入了西隆人民的每日生活。迪尔起源于梅加拉亚邦居民数百年来的一种技艺——箭术。参与赌注的观众在1到99中选一个数字,专业弓箭手朝目标物射箭,如果射中箭靶的箭加起来总数的最后两位数跟你选的数字是一样,那你就赌赢了。

Later that afternoon, Shillong’s former polo field, now home to the Khasi Hills Archery Sports Institute, was a beehive of activity: there were even more kiosks here accepting bets, while chai and snack vendors did brisk business. Around 50 archers squatted in a semi-circle facing a half-metre-tall cylindrical target made of bamboo thatch, chewing on paan (betel leaf) with reddened teeth.

那天下午晚些时候,卡西山箭术体育学院(西隆原先的马球场)里门庭若市。这里做博彩生意的小报亭更多,茶点小摊生意也很红火。大约50位弓箭手以蹲踞的姿势,成半圆围着一个半米高竹叶制作的圆柱状箭靶,他们嘴里还嚼着槟榔,露出血红的牙齿。

All of a sudden, an anxious silence fell on the sportsmen and the onlookers alike. At the referee’s count, each of the archers simultaneously shot 30 times at the target. A barrage of arrows flew in front of our eyes, most hitting the cylinder with precision.

突然,运动员和观众都安静了下来,气氛很紧张。随着裁判高喊数数,所有弓箭手同时开射,每位要射30箭。一阵箭雨掠过我们眼前,绝大多数精准地射中了圆柱。

Among people of the Khasi tribe of Meghalaya, which translates from Sanskrit lyrically as ‘the abode of clouds’, archery has been both a sport and a form of defence for several centuries. Meghalaya – like India’s other north-eastern states – remains somewhat isolated and largely pastoral, with Shillong as its only major urban centre. While modern customs have replaced many of traditional aspects of the culture here, a pervasive fascination for archery remains, even when the rest of the country has turned its attention to cricket.

对梅加拉亚邦的卡西族(Khasi)人,箭术不仅仅是一种运动,也是几百年来的防御方式。卡西这个词来源于梵语,翻译得唯美点就是"云端"。梅加拉亚邦和印度东北很多邦一样比较偏远,大都是乡野,只有西隆是唯一的城市中心。现代生活方式取代了这里许多传统文化,但卡西族们对箭术的日常爱好倒是留存了下来,即使印度其他地方的人们已经把视线转向了板球。

“Archery actually has ancient roots in the Khasi community, with several popular tales and myths around this sport,” said Professor Desmond L Kharmawphlang, head of the Department of Cultural and Creative Studies at Shillong’s North-Eastern Hill University.

西隆东北山大学文化与创意研究系主任卡马弗朗(Desmond L Kharmawphlang)教授说:"其实射箭在卡西族群中有悠久的历史根源,关于这项运动,有一些家喻户晓的神话故事。"

According to Kharmawphlang, legend has it that archery was a gift from the gods to the Khasi people of this region. It was received by Ka Shinam (known locally as the ‘reigning goddess’), who passed the divine bow and arrows to her sons U Shynna and U Batiton. The boys played with these weapons and became skilled marksmen over time.

在卡马弗朗提到的传说中,箭术是神祇送给此地卡西族的礼物。当地人称为"统治女神"的歇南(Ka Shinam)收下后把圣弓箭传给了自己的儿子仙那(U Shynna)和巴蒂顿(U Batiton),兄弟俩把玩着这些武器,慢慢成了神射手。

This purportedly divine skill lives on in Meghalaya today, instilled in Khasi boys at a young age. Kharmawphlang explained that when a boy is born, a naming ceremony known as ka jer ka thoh involves placing a bow and three arrows before the baby, indicating his role as a warrior and protector. The first arrow signifies his land, the second his clan and the third himself. Upon his death, the same bow is placed by the body, the weapon preserved safely inside his home since his birth, while the arrows are shot into the sky to accompany his soul to the heavens.

直到今天这种据说十分神圣的技艺依然长存于梅加拉亚邦,并会在卡西族男孩幼年时候灌输给他们。卡马弗朗解释道,男孩出生时会有一个命名仪式,称之为卡杰卡托(ka jer ka thoh),其中一环就是在孩子面前摆一张弓和三支箭,表明他作为战士和守护者的身份。第一支箭代表他的土地,第二支代表他的部落,第三支代表自己。在他去世时,那张从他出生起就郑重存在家中的弓,就会摆在他的遗体旁,而三支箭则射向天空,以陪伴他的灵魂到达天堂。

The modern history of archery in this region can be traced back to the tribal chieftains’ resistance against British invaders. In April 1829, the warrior ruler U Tirot Sing Syiem helmed an army of archers to defend the north-east territories against the invading British, and defeated them using only their bows and arrows. Although he was eventually captured after the British successfully took control of the region, U Tirot Sing Syiem remains respected as one of the region’s bravest freedom fighters.

在此地,弓箭的近代史可以追溯到部落酋长对英国侵略者的抵抗。1829年4月,战士首领赛伊姆(U Tirot Sing Syiem)率领一只弓箭手组成的军队保护东北领土免遭英国侵略者的入侵,仅凭弓和箭就打退了敌人。虽然最后英国人成功控制整个地区,赛伊姆不幸被俘虏,但他依然被人尊为该地最勇猛的自由斗士。

Over time, with the integration of Meghalaya into independent India, the use of the bow and arrow declined, and archery turned purely into a leisure activity. Shillong and other villages across the state host large competitions, often held on festival days, that are a matter of great pomp and prestige, with competitors travelling from all over the region to compete. Victors walk away with cash prizes and sometimes even corporate sponsorship offers.

随着时间的流逝,梅加拉亚邦逐步融入了独立的印度,弓箭的使用已见衰退,射箭纯粹变成一种休闲活动。西隆和梅加拉亚邦很多村庄经常在节日举办大型比赛,盛况空前、声名远播,参赛者从四面八方赶来比赛。赢家不仅能带走现金大奖,有时候甚至还会收到企业的赞助。

It did not take long for gambling to creep into these contests. Originally banned by the Meghalaya government, but now blessed for its contribution to the state’s economy, teer has become engrained in the fabric of life here, with hundreds of people gathering at Shillong’s polo ground most afternoons to watch the spectacle.

而赌博很快也渗入这些比赛。虽然一开始受到梅加拉亚邦政府的明令禁止,现在它却因对国家经济的贡献而获得支持。迪尔博彩已经深入人心,几乎每天下午都有数百人聚集在西隆马球场观看这一盛况。

According to local government estimates, there are more than 5,000 bookies operating in Meghalaya, with 1,500 in Shillong alone. Betters can gamble any amount of money starting from 1 rupee (roughly one pence), going up to 500 rupees (less than £5.50). Winners see their investments multiply several times over – up to 80 rupees for each rupee initially bet.

据梅加拉亚邦政府估算,全州有5000多人从事博彩行业,光西隆就有1500人。赌徒下注数额随意,从1卢比(大约一角人民币),到500卢比(50人民币不到)皆可。赢家可以坐等筹码翻数番,每投入1卢比,最多可翻番到80卢比。

Amrita Das, a prominent travel blogger who grew up in Shillong and returns several times a year to visit her parents, told me that while she places bets three to four times a year, her father has gambled regularly in teer for many years now. “As a child I always saw these numbers on blackboards hanging outside really small shops, and when I grew up to understand it, I found it alluring and wanted to try my luck,” she said.

知名旅行博主达丝(Amrita Das)在西隆长大,每年回乡几次看望父母。她说自己一年下注三四次,而她父亲已经定期玩迪尔博彩很多年了。她说:"小时候我总是看到很小的店子外面挂着黑板,上面写着这些数字,长大后看懂是怎么回事,觉得很有趣,就想试试自己的运气。"

After all the arrows had been fired, I watched the crowd gather around as the referees counted the final number of arrows embedded on the target. Mobile phones rang ceaselessly as hopefuls outside the stadium (and even outside Shillong) sought news of the outcome. The total number of arrows embedded on the target was 766, so those who had bet on 66 had cause for jubilation.

所有的箭都射出后,我看着人群聚集起来,裁判开始数射中目标的箭加起来有多少。手机铃声此起彼伏,满怀希望的人们在场外甚至西隆市外等待着结果。射中目标的箭总数为766,所以那些给66下注的人估计要欢天喜地了。

Kharmawphlang says that teer has ensured the tradition of archery is preserved, while government-regulated archery clubs ensure that the skill is taught and practised properly. “When the government began to take interest in teer and ordered that archers should be part of organised clubs, it ensured that some discipline and training was brought into archery,” he explained. Now it is not just Khasis, but young people from all the regional communities who are interested in archery, he added.

卡马弗朗说,迪尔博彩的确让箭术这一传统得以保存。政府规管的射箭俱乐部也让这一技艺能正确地传授和练习。他解释道:"政府开始对迪尔博彩感兴趣,并命令弓箭手要加入规范的俱乐部,这就确保了射箭这一行业有了纪律、多了训练。" 他补充道,现在不仅仅是卡西人,还有其他族裔的一些年轻人也对箭术感兴趣。

As for me, I was caught up in the excitement of the victors as they walked away from the field. Meanwhile, the others shrugged their shoulders, and made plans to return the next day.

而我呢,看着赢家们离开马球场,也感染了他们的兴奋之情。至于那些下注未中的人,则耸耸肩,打定主意明天再来。

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