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一个中产六口之家,为何要发动自杀式爆炸袭击?

更新时间:2018-5-29 19:53:08 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

After an Indonesian Family’s Suicide Attack, a Quest for Answers
一个中产六口之家,为何要发动自杀式爆炸袭击?

I stared at the two boys in the photograph because I have two boys. But it was the little girls who commanded attention. They were tiny and big eyed, like fawns. Their red veils were trimmed with gold. Each seemed to be holding a flower.

我盯着照片上的两个男孩看,因为我也有两个儿子。但照片中的小女孩引起了我的注意。她们年龄尚小,睁着大大的眼睛,像小鹿一样。红色的头巾镶着金边,两人似乎都拿着一枝花。

My colleague, Muktita Suhartono, and I had come to Surabaya, an Indonesian city with alleyways of terra cotta roofed homes, largely on the basis of a single photo. It was a normal family portrait of a father, mother, two sons and two daughters.

主要是基于一张照片,我和同事穆克蒂塔·苏哈托诺(Muktita Suhartono)来到印度尼西亚的泗水市,这里到处是红瓦房小巷。这是一张普通的全家福,上面有父亲、母亲、两个儿子和两个女儿。

On May 13, the entire family of six blew themselves up in coordinated suicide attacks on three Christian churches in Surabaya, killing a dozen bystanders and injuring at least 40 more. The boys were 15 and 17 when they died, the girls 8 and 12.

5月13日,泗水的三座基督教教堂发生有组织的自杀袭击,这一家六口引爆了自己,造成十几名无辜民众死亡,至少40人受伤。死去的两个男孩一个15岁,一个17岁,两个女孩一个8岁,一个12岁。

As a parent, I wanted to understand what had compelled this family to erase itself from the earth. Every explanation seemed inadequate.

我也是为人父母者,所以我想知道,究竟是什么促使这一家人让自己从地球上消失。似乎哪个解释都不充分。

After his death, the father, Dita Oepriarto, was accused by the Indonesian police of having been the leader of the Surabaya chapter of a local Islamic State-linked terror group, Jamaah Ansharut Daulah. But it is one thing to martyr yourself. It is quite another to take your whole family with you.

这一家人中的父亲迪塔·厄普利阿尔托(Dita Oepriarto)在死后被印尼警方指控是该国与伊斯兰国(Islamic State)勾结的恐怖组织“神权游击队”(Jamaah Ansharut Daulah)泗水分支的头目。但自己殉难是一回事,带上一家人和你一起完全是另一回事。

The church bombings were followed by two more incidents in which Surabaya families detonated deadly explosive devices.

在教堂爆炸事件之后,泗水又出现了两起一家人引爆致命爆炸装置的事件。

During the course of a few days of reporting, Tita and I spoke with dozens of people who knew Mr. Oepriarto and his family. They painted a portrait of normalcy — of girls on bicycles, of boys learning to drive the family car. The mother, Puji Kuswati, was, by all accounts, chatty and friendly.

在几天的报道过程中,我和蒂塔采访了几十个认识厄普利阿尔托一家的人。他们描述的是一幅正常的画面:两个女孩骑自行车,两个男孩在学开家里的车。所有人都说,母亲普伊·库斯瓦蒂(Puji Kuswati)健谈、亲切。

Nor were there many clues on the quiet Surabaya lane where Mr. Oepriarto was born and lived with his young family before moving to another neighborhood seven years ago. With the exception of one elderly woman who said that Mr. Oepriarto’s mother had refused to shake her hand because she was a Christian, the consensus was that the family respected the multireligious nature of the community.

在厄普利阿尔托出生的那条小巷里,线索也不多。他和家人一直生活在那里,直到七年前搬去另一个社区。除了一个老太太说厄普利阿尔托的母亲曾经因为她是基督徒而拒绝和她握手外,受访者一致认为厄普利阿尔托一家尊重该社区的多元宗教特征。

Neighbors noted that when Mr. Oepriarto was growing up, his mother and sisters did not cover their hair, as is the tradition with more conservative Muslims.

邻居指出,在厄普利阿尔托的成长过程中,他的母亲和姐妹并没有遵照更保守的穆斯林信奉的传统,把头发遮起来。

At the children’s experimental private school, run by a moderate Muslim social organization, Heru Tjahyono, the innovation director, described the interfaith activities he had designed, such as field trips to local churches and temples.

在孩子们就读的私立实验学校,创新总监赫鲁·家约诺(Heru Tjahyono)介绍了他设计的跨宗教活动,比如去当地的教堂和寺庙实地考察。这所学校由一个温和的穆斯林社会组织开办。

“If this family turned out to be terrorists,” he said, “then anyone could be a terrorist.”

“如果这一家人证明是恐怖分子,”他说,“那任何人都可能是恐怖分子。”

Mr. Oepriarto’s radicalization seems to have occurred when he was at one of Surabaya’s best public high schools and joined an outside Quranic recitation group that preached extremist ideology. What would have happened if the cleric who led that group had been moderate instead?

厄普利阿尔托的激进化似乎发生在他就读泗水最好的公立高中之一,并加入一个宣扬极端主义思想的校外古兰经朗诵社团期间。如果领导该社团的神职人员是温和派,情况会怎样?

Three days after the church attacks, the authorities had constructed a plywood wall to block Mr. Oepriarto’s house from view. But the police stationed in front of the home were friendly. They offered us a chair on which we could stand to peer in.

教堂袭击发生三天后,当局筑起了一道胶合板墙,把厄普利阿尔托的房子围了起来,不让外界看到。但部署在房屋前面的警察态度友好。他们给了我们一把椅子,让我们可以站在椅子上朝里看。

On the veranda, I saw signs of middle-class domesticity: a purple bicycle, children’s flip-flops and rows of bottled drinking water meant for a dispenser. Someone loved the girls enough to buy them bike helmets.

在走廊上,我看到了中产阶级家庭生活的特征:一辆紫色的自行车、孩子们的人字拖和成排桶装饮用水。有人很爱两个女孩,给她们买了自行车头盔。

Mr. Oepriarto’s neighbor, Wery Tri Kusuma, said his wife’s last interaction with Ms. Kuswati, the mother, came just one day before the family blew itself up. Ms. Kuswati came over to tell Mr. Kusuma’s wife that she didn’t need to knock if she felt like picking some sour star fruit that grew from a tree on Mr. Oepriarto’s land.

厄普利阿尔托的邻居韦里·特里·库苏马(Wery Tri Kusuma)说,他妻子和这一家人中的母亲库斯瓦蒂的最后一次互动就发生在他们引爆自己的前一天。库斯瓦蒂过来对库苏马的妻子说,如果她想从厄普利阿尔托家的一棵树上摘些杨桃,不需要敲门打招呼。

“It was like she knew what was going to happen, and she was giving us permission to take what we liked after they were gone,” Mr. Kusuma said. “They were very good neighbors.”

“就像她知道要发生什么事情一样,她允许我们在他们去世后拿走喜欢的东西,”库苏马说。“他们是非常好的邻居。”

But good parents they were not. The speculation among academics and analysts studying radicalization was that Mr. Oepriarto and Ms. Kuswati thought their family would reunite in heaven, a place they could best reach as a family through jihad.

但他们不是好家长。研究激进化问题的学者和分析人士猜测,厄普利阿尔托和库斯瓦蒂认为,他们一家会在天堂里团聚,他们最好以一家人的身份通过圣战前往天堂。

As journalists, we try to understand — though not necessarily condone — the factors motivating a person’s actions. But no explanation can rationalize turning your own children into suicidal jihadists. Tita and I went to Surabaya looking for answers. Visiting the children’s school and home, talking to their friends and family, I realized that we would never know the truth.

作为记者,我们试图理解——尽管不一定宽恕——促使一个人做出某些行为的因素。但什么理由都无法合理解释把自己的孩子变成自杀式圣战分子的行为。我和蒂塔去泗水寻找答案。在探访了孩子们的学校和家,并与他们的朋友和家人交谈过后,我意识到,我们永远都不会知道真相。

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