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“文金会”,一场外交大秀

更新时间:2018-4-28 19:36:53 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

North and South Korea Summit Is Short on Details, but Long on Theater
“文金会”,一场外交大秀

A handshake across the world’s most heavily fortified border. A lengthy one-on-one conversation on a bridge, beyond the range of microphones. Longstanding enemies on a divided peninsula calling for peace after a year of threats.

一个握手,跨越了世界上戒备最为森严的边界。一场漫长的一对一桥上谈话,超出了麦克风的收音范围。经过了一年的威胁,在这个分裂的半岛上,两个宿敌正在呼吁和平。

Friday’s summit meeting between the leaders of North and South Korea was a master class in diplomatic choreography, with each scene arranged for its power as political theater and broadcast live. In a perilous standoff that has resisted solutions, it was these images that offered hope, much more than the actual results from the meeting — vague pledges to work toward nuclear disarmament and a peace treaty.

周五,朝韩领导人的会晤是一节外交之舞的大师班,每个场景都被用作政治舞台并进行现场直播。在这场一直抗拒去解决问题的危险对峙中,这些画面给人们带来的希望远远大于这次会议的真正结果——向着核裁军以及和平条约努力的泛泛承诺。

The dance between Kim Jong-un, the leader of North Korea, and President Moon Jae-in of South Korea began with a two-step: Each leader crossed the border into the other man’s country before they headed, hand in hand for a few moments, to a meeting in Panmunjom, the truce village at the center of the heavily fortified Demilitarized Zone.

朝鲜领导人金正恩和韩国总统文在寅之间的这场舞蹈开头是两个迈步:两位领导人都跨过了国界走入了对方的国家,握了好一会儿的手,才一同前往板门店举行会议。板门店停战村位于戒备森严的非军事区中心。

From there, the talks unfolded in ways both surprisingly public and surprisingly profound. Few settings present a backdrop more dramatic than the Demilitarized Zone, the bloodstained border that has divided the Korean Peninsula for 70 years and at which the leaders of North and South Korea have never previously met.

自此,谈话的展开既出奇地公开,也惊人地玄奥。几乎没有什么场景能比非军事区这个背景更具有戏剧性了,这个血染的边界分裂了朝鲜半岛70年,朝韩两国领导人也从未在此地举行过会面。

The highlight took place in the late afternoon, when Mr. Kim and Mr. Moon sat at the end of a blue bridge in a wooded area and engaged in what appeared to be deep conversation in full view of journalists’ cameras. They looked less like sworn enemies than members of the same family, separated by a generation. They spoke alone, without aides, for about 30 minutes, a face-to-face discussion that many would have thought impossible only a few months ago.

本次会晤在下午晚些时候最为精彩。金正恩和文在寅坐在林区的一座蓝桥尽头,在记者的镜头下,似乎在进行深入的对话。他们看起来不再像不共戴天的仇敌,而更像是家人,只不过隔了一代人。他们在没有助手的情况下单独进行了30分钟的谈话,这是人们在几个月前还认为不可能发生的面对面商谈。

The world looked on and tried to figure out from their gestures and facial expressions how it was going. Mr. Moon appeared to do most of the talking, with Mr. Kim’s serious mien breaking into quick smiles here and there.

世界在看着,并试图从他们的姿态和面部表情中看出进展。大部分的时间似乎都是文在寅在说话,态度严肃的金正恩则时不时地露出一闪而过的微笑。

In details large and small, the men, each an expert in political messaging, made the most of their shared stage.

在大大小小的细节之中,这两位传递政治信息的专家都充分利用了这个共同的舞台。

For Mr. Kim, it was something of a debut, in which he presented himself to a global audience without the protection of the state media he controls or the filter of visitors such as the basketball star Dennis Rodman, one of the few outsiders who has met him.

对金正恩来说,这可谓首次亮相。没有受他控制的朝鲜官方媒体保护,也没有篮球明星丹尼斯·罗德曼(Dennis Rodman)这样经过筛选的访客——后者是为数不多的几个曾与他见过面的外部人士之一,金正恩就这样出现在了全球观众的面前。

Shifting his weight from side to side while speaking, he projected confidence in a husky voice — a voice usually heard only in prepared speeches broadcast in the North.

在谈话中,金正恩不时将身体重心从一条腿转移到另一条腿上,沙哑的声音中传递着自信——这样的声音,通常只会在朝鲜境内播放的有准备的讲话中听到。

Many watching in South Korea saw him as a younger, more heavyset version of his grandfather, North Korea’s founder, Kim Il-sung, and some noted his heavy breathing and wondered about his health.

韩国的许多观众都将金正恩视为他的祖父、朝鲜国父金日成的一个更加年轻、更为敦实的版本。也有人注意到了他沉重的呼吸,好奇他的健康状况如何。

There were glimpses of the absolute authority he wields at home too. Mr. Kim drove to lunch in a Mercedes limousine surrounded by 12 running bodyguards, for instance. And before he signed a guest book in the lobby of the conference hall, North Korean officials rushed to disinfect the desk and chair, as well as the book and a nearby pen. (Even after all that, Mr. Kim used a pen provided by his sister, Kim Yo-jong, the only woman in his delegation.)

从中,也可以窥见他在朝鲜的绝对权威。例如,金正恩在乘坐一辆奔驰豪华轿车前去进午餐时,有12名保镖跑步跟随。当他在会议大厅签署访客留言簿之前,朝鲜官员赶忙为桌椅消毒,包括留言簿和旁边的一支钢笔。(即便如此,金正恩还是用了代表团内唯一的女性——妹妹金与正[Kim Yo-jong]递给他的钢笔。)

At other moments Mr. Kim and Mr. Moon savored the symbolism of their shared history: embracing in front of a painting of Mount Kumgang, a North Korean landmark cherished on both sides of the border, and admiring a wall of calligraphy in hangul, the Korean alphabet.

其他一些时刻,金正恩和文在寅还品味了双方共同历史的象征:他们在金刚山的画作前细细查看,这是双方珍爱有加的朝鲜地标;他们还欣赏了一面写有韩文的书法墙。

Summit meetings are typically staid and closed-door affairs. Details filter out only in jargon-filled communiqués intended to be oblique. Friday’s meeting was almost the opposite, largely held outdoors under a bright spring sun.

首脑会晤通常是枯燥的闭门会议。会议细节只会在拐弯抹角、充满术语的公告中有所透露。周五则几乎恰恰相反,会议的大部分时间都在晴朗的春日户外进行。

The morning was filled with the classics of public diplomacy — broad smiles, long handshakes, even a joke about North Korean missile tests waking the South Korean president early in the morning. But sometimes there was a twist. There was the traditional pomp and pageantry of a South Korean honor guard, but the soldiers wore 19th-century imperial costumes, recalling a time before the peninsula was divided by ideology and war.

这个上午充满了公开外交的经典场景——灿烂的笑容、长时间的握手,甚至还有一个关于朝鲜导弹试验清晨把韩国总统叫醒的笑话。但也有一个令人意外的安排。韩国仪仗队展现了传统的排场和盛况,但士兵们穿着19世纪的皇家服饰,让人想起了朝鲜半岛被意识形态和战争分裂之前的时代。

As the day progressed, the scale of the meetings became more intimate. A large delegation of officials was whittled down before lunch to six people — three South Koreans and three North Koreans, including Mr. Kim’s sister.

随着当天时间的推移,会议的规模变得更加私密。一大批官员代表在午餐前被削减至六人——三名韩国人和三名朝鲜人,包括金正恩的妹妹。

In a lighthearted moment — one of several — Mr. Moon noted how Mr. Kim’s sister stole the show when she visited South Korea for the Winter Olympics in February, prompting laughter from delegates — and a blush from Ms. Kim.

在一个轻松的时刻——这样的时刻出现了几次——文在寅提到,今年2月,金正恩的妹妹来韩国参加冬奥会时抢走了冬奥会的风头,引来了与会代表的笑声,金女士脸红了。

Even the clothing the two leaders wore projected a message. For Mr. Moon, a dark business suit was paired with a light blue tie that echoed the hue used in the Korean Unification Flag, which the countries use when competing together as a single team at international sporting events.

甚至连两位领导人的服饰也传递着信息。文在寅穿的是一套深色西服,搭配浅蓝色领带,与朝鲜统一旗(Korean Unification Flag)的色调相呼应。朝鲜统一旗是这两个国家在国际体育赛事上以一个球队的身份参赛时所用的旗帜。

Mr. Kim wore an austere black Mao-style suit, a message to his citizens that despite being in enemy territory he was still committed to the ideals — and dress — of his grandfather, Kim Il-sung, North Korea’s founder.

金正恩穿的是朴素的黑色毛式夹克,向他的国民传递这样的信息:尽管身在敌国的领土上,他仍致力于他的祖父、朝鲜开国者金日成的理想,传承着他的服饰。

The day began with Mr. Kim stepping over the concrete slab that marks the border between the two countries, becoming the first North Korean leader to set foot in the South. (That achievement may soon be overshadowed by his meeting with Mr. Trump, when he would become the first North Korean leader to meet with a sitting American president.)

在这一天的开始,金正恩跨过了标志着两国边界的混凝土板,成为第一位踏上韩国领土的朝鲜领导人(这个成就可能很快就会被他与特朗普的会晤盖过风头,届时他将成为首位会见在任美国总统的朝鲜领导人)。

Inside Peace House, the building in which a meeting of top-level officials took place, even the décor was chosen for its political optics.

在和平之家(Peace House)的内部——两国曾在这里举行过一场高层官员会晤——甚至连装潢用品的选择都具有政治意味。

The table and chairs inside the meeting room were designed with a pattern evoking two bridges coming together, foreshadowing the bridge on which the two men would later hold their one-on-one conversation.

会议室里的桌椅布置像两座连接在一起的桥,预示着两人之后会在桥上进行一对一的交谈。

At another moment infused with symbolism, the men replanted a tree with soil and water taken from both sides of the border. It was originally planted in the DMZ in 1953, the year the Korean War effectively ended in an armistice.

在另一个充满象征意义的时刻,两位领导人用从边界两侧取来的土和水重新种下了一棵树。那棵树最初是1953年在非军事区种下的,当时朝鲜战争实际上根据停战协议停止了。

As the cameras rolled, the two leaders unveiled a new plaque dedicated to “peace and prosperity.”

在照相机和摄像机的记录下,两位领导人揭开了一块颂扬“和平与繁荣”的新牌匾。

An army of journalists recorded the words. Just yards away, two actual armies stood at the ready, much as they have for 70 years.

一大群记者记录下了这些话。就在几码远外,两支真正的军队整装待命,就像他们70年来所做的那样。

North Korea’s state-run media had yet to report on the summit meeting as of Friday night. South Korean officials said the North was expected to broadcast edited footage from the meeting at a later time.

截至周五晚间,朝鲜官方媒体还没有对这次峰会进行报道。韩国官员表示,预计朝鲜会在晚些时候播放这次会晤的剪辑片段。

But Mr. Kim took the time to thank the journalists covering the meeting — a surprise gesture from a country where there is no freedom of press.

不过,金正恩花了一些时间,感谢报道这次会议的记者们——对一个没有新闻自由的国家的领导人来说,这是一个令人惊讶的举动。

“If all North and South Koreans can travel freely on the path I took today, if Panmunjom becomes a symbol of peace, not of painful division, the two Koreas with their one blood, one language, one history and one culture will prosper for thousands of generations,” he said after signing the joint declaration with Mr. Moon.

“如果所有朝鲜人和韩国人可以在我今天走过的路上自由通行,如果板门店能成为和平的象征,而不是痛苦分裂的象征,那么,流着同样的血、说着同一种语言、拥有同样的历史和文化的朝韩将会世代繁荣,”金正恩在与文在寅签署联合声明后表示。

Mr. Kim’s wife, Ri Sol-ju, and the South Korean first lady, Kim Jung-sook, joined their husbands for dinner, where Mr. Kim spoke again. “We are protagonists of history,” he said. “We are shouldering missions that no one else is going to carry for us.”

金正恩的妻子李雪主(Ri Sol-ju)和韩国第一夫人金正淑(Kim Jung-sook)与她们的丈夫一起共进晚餐,金正恩再次发表讲话。“我们是历史的主角,”他说,“我们肩负着其他任何人都无法替代的使命。”

The day ended with a farewell ceremony outdoors set to a mix of modern K-pop and traditional Korean folk music. Mr. Moon and Mr. Kim held hands as they stood looking on.

这一天以室外告别仪式结束,现场演奏的既有现代韩国流行音乐,也有朝鲜传统民族音乐。文在寅和金正恩手牵着手站立观看。

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