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2000–2018:朝韩首脑峰会简史

更新时间:2018-4-27 20:30:52 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

When North Met South: A Short History of Inter-Korean Summits
2000–2018:朝韩首脑峰会简史

HONG KONG — In 2000, Kim Dae-jung, then South Korea’s president, flew to Pyongyang to meet with Kim Jong-il, the leader of North Korea — the first time talks had ever been held between leaders of the two sides.

香港——2000年,时任韩国总统的金大中飞往平壤,与当时的朝鲜领导人金正日见面。这是韩朝首脑首次举行会谈。

The distance between the two airports was just 100 miles. But the flight took more than an hour, because the plane swung out over the sea west of the Korean Peninsula, to avoid crossing the heavily militarized land border.

两个机场之间的距离只有160公里。但飞机却飞行了一个多小时,为了避免飞越高度军事化的陆地边界,飞机绕道从朝鲜半岛以西的海域上空飞行。

On Friday, Kim Jong-un, Mr. Kim’s son and North Korea’s current leader, is expected to walk across that border, where he will be greeted by President Moon Jae-in of South Korea before they sit down for talks on the southern side of the Demilitarized Zone.

预计金正日的儿子、朝鲜现任领导人金正恩周五将步行越过那条边界,韩国总统文在寅将在边境那边迎接他,他们将在非军事区的南方一侧举行会谈。

Friday’s talks, the third summit meeting between the Koreas, could produce a statement about pursuing a peace agreement to end the Korean War of 1950-53, which was paused by an armistice but never formally brought to a close.

周五的会谈是韩朝两国举行的第三次首脑会议,可能会产生一份有关寻求达成和平协议的声明,以正式结束1950至1953年的朝鲜战争。朝鲜战争以停战协定停火,但从未正式结束。

But the meeting will probably be overshadowed by talks yet to come, said Andrei Lankov, a professor at Kookmin University in Seoul.

不过,这次会谈与将要举行的谈判相比可能会显得逊色,首尔国民大学(Kookmin University)教授安德烈·兰科夫(Andrei Lankov)说。

“This summit will not make any important decisions,” he said. “The South Korean government is between a rock and a hard place. It’s not in a position to discuss most of the issues which really matter. It’s kind of a preliminary event to pave the road for a future meeting between President Trump and Kim Jong-un.”

“这次首脑会议不会做出任何重要的决定,”他说。“韩国政府左右为难。它不处在能讨论大多数真正重要问题的位置上。这是为特朗普总统与金正恩未来的会晤铺平道路的初步活动。”

Mr. Trump and Mr. Kim are expected to hold the first-ever meeting between a sitting American president and a leader of North Korea sometime in late May or early June. An exact date and a location have not been announced.

预计特朗普和金正恩将在5月底或6月初举行美国在任总统与朝鲜领导人之间的首次会晤。具体时间和地点尚未公布。

Unlike the talks Friday at the DMZ, the past meetings between leaders of the Koreas were ends unto themselves. And each in its way helped prepare the two sides for Friday’s discussions.

韩朝领导人过去的会晤是以会晤本身为目的的,周五在非军事区举行的会谈将有所不同。韩朝双方都为周五的讨论做了各自的准备。

A breakthrough, six years delayed

推迟了六年的突破性进展

A meeting between the two sides almost happened in 1994, but it was canceled after the death of Kim Il-sung, the founder of North Korea.

韩朝双方曾差点在1994年举行峰会,但由于朝鲜开国领袖金日成去世,会谈被取消了。

When the leaders of the North and South finally met in June 2000, North Korea was emerging from a famine that killed more than two million people. In the South, the former dissident Kim Dae-jung had been elected president. He called for an end to the “Cold War style” of relations in his 1998 inaugural address.

当北南双方的领导人在2000年6月终于见面时,朝鲜刚从一场导致了200多万人死亡的大饥荒中摆脱出来;而在韩国,前异见人士金大中当选了总统。他在1998年的就职演说中,呼吁结束两国关系上的“冷战风格”。

The meeting was a high point of his Sunshine Policy, which held that showering the North with warmth would help it ease out of isolation. The South sent hundreds of thousands of tons of food and fertilizer to the North each year.

此次峰会是金大中“阳光政策”的一个亮点。该政策认为,用温和的态度对待朝鲜,将有助于它摆脱孤立。韩国每年向朝鲜运送数十万吨粮食和化肥。

There were other steps aimed at improving ties, including reunions for about 16,000 members of families divided by the war. A factory park in the North Korean town of Kaesong and a resort area at Mount Kumgang, which opened in 1998, were developed with investment from the South.

还有其他旨在改善关系的措施,包括安排大约1.6万名因朝鲜战争而分裂的家庭成员团聚。朝鲜开城工业园区和1998年开放的金刚山度假胜地都是用韩国的投资开发的。

Kim Dae-jung was awarded the Nobel Prize in 2000, in part for his work toward reconciliation with North Korea.

金大中被授予2000年的诺贝尔奖,部分原因是他致力于与朝鲜和解。

But the North continued its efforts to develop nuclear weapons. Even after it acknowledged that in 2002, the South kept sending aid. The Sunshine Policy, and the 2000 summit meeting in particular, fell under harsh scrutiny after it emerged that the South had paid the North $450 million before the talks.

然而,朝鲜却在继续其发展核武器的努力。即使在2002年朝鲜承认这一点之后,韩国仍继续为朝鲜提供援助。阳光政策、尤其是2000年的峰会在后来受到了严格的审视,因为在举行会谈之前,韩国曾向朝鲜支付了4.5亿美元。

A second meeting, and plans soon dropped

第二次峰会,但随后的计划很快就取消了

The second inter-Korean summit meeting occurred in 2007, near the end of the five-year presidential term of Kim Dae-jung’s successor, Roh Moo-hyun. North Korea had conducted its first nuclear test in 2006, raising questions about what the South was getting for its aid.

第二次韩朝首脑会议是在2007年,金大中的继任者卢武铉的五年总统任期即将结束时举行的。朝鲜在2006年进行了该国的第一次核试验,引发了人们对韩国给予朝鲜援助得到了什么的质疑。

With the likelihood of an electoral victory by conservative political rivals who were expected to end the Sunshine Policy, Mr. Roh saw the meeting as a chance to steer the future of the South’s ties with the North.

当时,虽然预计将要结束阳光政策的保守派竞争对手很可能在总统大选中获胜,但卢武铉认为,举行峰会将为引导韩朝关系的未来提供机会。

“It was clear his party was going to lose in a landslide, and he understood that the conservatives had a very different idea of how to deal with North Korea: pressure, sanctions and Cold War,” Mr. Lankov said. “In order to prevent that, he made a last-ditch effort to prevent a slide back to mutual hostilities. He went to North Korea to basically sign a lot of agreements about future economic development.”

“很明显,他的政党将会以压倒性的劣势败选,他知道,保守派在如何应对朝鲜上有非常不同的想法:压力、制裁和冷战,”兰科夫说。“为了防止这种情况发生,他为防止形势倒退到双方相互敌对,做了最后的努力。他去了朝鲜,基本上签署了很多关于未来经济发展的协议。”

The conservatives did win the subsequent election, and the Sunshine Policy was declared over in 2010. But projects outlined in 2007, then shelved, could be revived by Mr. Moon and Kim Jong-un, including plans to reduce the potential for conflict in the sea west of the Korean Peninsula, where deadly clashes between the two countries have taken place.

保守派的确赢得了随后的大选,阳光政策于2010年宣告落幕。不过,2007年被搁置了的初步计划,可能会被文在寅和金正恩恢复,包括在朝鲜半岛以西海域减少潜在冲突的计划,韩朝之间已经在那个区域发生过多次致命冲突。

One other significant legacy from 2007 is Mr. Moon himself. He was chief presidential secretary to Mr. Roh and led preparations for his meeting in Pyongyang with Kim Jong-il.

2007年的另一个重要遗产是文在寅本人。他曾在卢武铉手下担任青瓦台秘书长,主持了卢武铉在平壤与金正日会晤的准备工作。

While Mr. Moon has been in office for less time than Kim Jong-un or even Mr. Trump, he has deep experience with the sort of issues he will face Friday, said Gordon Flake, a Korea specialist at the University of Western Australia.

虽然文在寅的上台时间比金正恩、甚至比特朗普还要晚,但文在寅对自己在周五将面临的问题有深刻的经验,西澳大利亚大学(University of Western Australia)的朝鲜问题专家戈登·弗莱克(Gordon Flake)说。

“Moon Jae-in, whether you love him or hate him, he’s a South Korean president who is not naïve, who is highly experienced,” he said. “He saw the full arc of inter-Korean relations: naïve, Pollyannaish introduction, to deeply disenchanted antagonism at the end.”

“不管你对文在寅是爱还是恨,他都不是一位幼稚的韩国总统,他经验非常丰富,”弗莱克说。“他见识过韩朝关系变化的整个弧线:从天真、盲目乐观的初次经历,到最终不再抱有幻想的高度敌意。”

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