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从开战在即到奥运破冰:美朝韩高层对话史

更新时间:2018-4-19 19:49:15 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

C.I.A. Chief’s Meeting With Kim Jong-un Is Latest Step in Winding Path to Talks
从开战在即到奥运破冰:美朝韩高层对话史

HONG KONG — Mike Pompeo, the C.I.A. director and nominee to be the next secretary of state, traveled to North Korea and met with its leader, Kim Jong-un, the strongest indicator to date that plans for direct talks between Mr. Kim and President Trump are moving ahead.

香港——中央情报局局长、被提名为下任国务卿的迈克·庞皮欧(Mike Pompeo)曾前往朝鲜,并与其领导人金正恩(Kim Jong-un)会晤,这是迄今为止最强的信号,表明金正恩和特朗普总统举行直接会谈的计划正在推进中。

If talks between Mr. Trump and Mr. Kim do happen, they would be the highest-level meeting between the two countries. No sitting president has ever met — or even spoken on the phone — with a North Korean leader.

如果特朗普和金正恩真的能够实现会谈,将成为两国之间的最高级别首脑会议。此前在任美国总统从未与朝鲜领导人见面,双方甚至不曾有电话交谈。

Here’s a look at previous attempts at dialogue and how the possible summit meeting between Mr. Trump and Mr. Kim came about.

以下是此前双方为对话进行的尝试,以及特朗普和金正恩可能举行的首脑会议是怎样发生的。

1994

1994年

The Brink of War and an Agreement

开战在即和一纸协议

While no sitting American president has met with a North Korean leader, two former presidents have.

虽然美国在任总统从未会见过朝鲜领导人,但有两位前总统曾与他们会面。

Jimmy Carter met Kim Il-sung, North Korea’s founder, in 1994. Against the wishes of Bill Clinton, then the president, Mr. Carter traveled to North Korea’s capital, Pyongyang, after American intelligence agencies said they believed the North was processing plutonium for use in nuclear weapons.

1994年,吉米·卡特与朝鲜开国元勋金日成(Kim Il-sung)会面。当时美国情报部门表示,他们相信朝鲜正在处理用于核武器的钚,卡特不顾时任总统比尔·克林顿(Bill Clinton)的反对,前往朝鲜首都平壤。

Mr. Carter’s meeting with Mr. Kim, who died three weeks later, set in motion the resumption of talks that led to what was called the Agreed Framework. Under that agreement, North Korea halted the construction of two reactors that could be used to produce fuel for nuclear weapons in exchange for oil and the promise of two light-water nuclear reactors that could produce energy but not weapons fuel.

卡特与金日成(他于三周后去世)的会面启动了谈判的恢复,最后的成果是所谓《框架协议》(Agreed Framework)。根据该协议,朝鲜停止建造两座可用于生产核武器燃料的反应堆,以换取石油;朝鲜还得到承诺,可以建造两座生产能源,但不能用于武器燃料的轻水核反应堆。

President Clinton would later agree to the deal, but Congress often delayed the oil shipments and refused to immediately lift sanctions, and the light-water reactors were never built.

后来克林顿总统同意了这项协议,但国会经常延迟石油运输,并拒绝立即解除制裁,两座轻水反应堆始终没有建成。

2000

2000年

North and South Korea Hold Talks

朝韩会谈

Kim Il-sung’s son and successor, Kim Jong-il, and the then president of South Korea, Kim Dae-jung, met in Pyongyang in 2000, the first such summit meeting between the leaders of the two Koreas since a war divided the peninsula 50 years earlier.

2000年,金日成的儿子和继任者金正日(Kim Jong-il)与时任韩国总统金大中(Kim Dae-jung)在平壤举行了会晤,这是朝鲜两国领导人在50年前分裂朝鲜半岛的战争后首次进行这样的峰会。

The talks ushered in an unprecedented rapprochement and various joint projects including a factory park in the North Korean town of Kaesong. But the credibility of Kim Dae-jung’s so-called Sunshine Policy was damaged after an investigation revealed that the South Korean government had funneled $450 million to the North shortly before the talks.

这次会谈引发了前所未有的和解,以及在朝鲜小镇开城建设一个工厂园区等各种合作项目。但是,据调查显示,韩国政府在会谈前不久向朝鲜输送了4.5亿美元资金,金大中所谓“阳光政策”的信誉也因此受损。

Madeleine Albright Visits the North

玛德琳·奥尔布赖特访问朝鲜

Kim Jong-il invited President Clinton to North Korea in 2000. Madeleine K. Albright, the secretary of state, went instead. She traveled to Pyongyang in an effort to expand the Agreed Framework to include ballistic missiles, which North Korea was developing and selling abroad.

金正日于2000年邀请克林顿总统访问朝鲜。时任国务卿玛德琳·奥尔布赖特(Madeleine Albright)代他前往。她在平壤努力扩大《框架协议》,争取把朝鲜正在研发和销往海外的弹道导弹也包括在内。

Clinton administration officials said a deal was close, but nothing was concluded by the time President George W. Bush took office in 2001.

克林顿政府官员说,双方已接近签署一项合约,但到2001年乔治·W·布什总统就职时,没有取得任何成果。

2002 - 2006

2002年-2006年

A Nuclear Bomb Test

核弹试验

The Agreed Framework collapsed in 2002 after the United States confronted North Korea over its secret program to enrich uranium using equipment from Pakistan. The United States stopped oil shipments to North Korea and Pyongyang restarted its nuclear weapons program.

2002年,美国对朝鲜使用巴基斯坦设备进行铀浓缩的秘密计划加以质问,《框架协议》随之瓦解。美国停止向朝鲜输送石油,平壤重启核武器计划。

The so-called Six-Party Talks continued fitfully between representatives of North and South Korea, China, Russia, Japan and the United States. The North said in 2005 that it would give up nuclear weapons and its existing nuclear programs in return for security guarantees. North Korea carried out its first nuclear test in 2006.

朝韩、中国、俄罗斯、日本和美国的代表继续进行着所谓的六方会谈。朝鲜于2005年表示,它将放弃核武器及其现有的核计划,以换取安全保证。朝鲜在2006年进行了第一次核试验。

2007 - 2011

2007年-2011年

Six-Party Talks Collapse

六方会谈破裂

In 2007, Kim Jong-il and South Korea’s president at the time, Roh Moo-hyun, held the second summit meeting between the two sides. The meeting produced an agreement aimed at expanding inter-Korean ties and easing military tensions along the disputed maritime border on the west coast of the Korean Peninsula. But the deal came at the end of Mr. Roh’s five-year administration and his conservative successor quickly scrapped it.

2007年,金正日和时任韩国总统卢武铉(Roh Moo-hyun)举行了第二次双边峰会。会议达成一项协议,旨在增进朝韩关系,缓和朝鲜半岛西海岸有争议的海上边界的军事紧张局势。但是这项协议是在卢武铉五年执政期即将结束时达成的,他的保守派继任者很快废除了它。

The Six-Party Talks eventually collapsed in 2009, largely over the question of allowing international inspectors into North Korean sites.

六方会谈最终在2009年破裂,主要是在允许国际观察员进入朝鲜的地点方面无法达成一致。

That same year, Mr. Clinton traveled to North Korea and met with Kim Jong-il to secure the release of two American journalists, Euna Lee and Laura Ling.

同年,克林顿前往朝鲜并会见金正日,以确保朝鲜释放美国记者李丽娜(Euna Lee)和凌志美(Laura Ling)。

Kim Jong-il died in 2011 and his youngest son, Kim Jong-un, took over control of North Korea.

金正日于2011年去世,他的小儿子金正恩接掌朝鲜。

2012

2012年

President Obama Pursues ‘Strategic Patience’

奥巴马总统追求“战略耐心”

The Obama administration pursued a strategy of escalating sanctions it described as strategic patience, although meetings between diplomats from the two sides continued.

尽管双方外交官之间的会谈仍在继续,但奥巴马政府推行了一项制裁升级战略,并称之为“战略耐心”。

An agreement appeared to be reached on Feb. 29, 2012, under which the North would allow the return of weapons inspectors, and halt its long-range missile and nuclear weapons programs in return for American food aid.

2012年2月29日,双方达成一项协议,朝鲜将允许武器调查员重新进入该国,并停止其远程导弹和核武器计划,以换取美国的粮食援助。

However, the deal died soon after when North Korea launched a rocket to put a satellite in orbit, which the United States considered part of its efforts to develop long-range ballistic missiles.

然而,随着朝鲜发射火箭,将一颗卫星送入轨道,这项交易也很快以失败告终,美国认为此次发射是朝鲜远程弹道导弹开发计划的一部分。

2016 - 2017

2016年-2017年

Trump Signals Willingness to Talk

特朗普表示愿意对话

During the 2016 presidential campaign, Mr. Trump said he would be willing to hold direct negotiations with Mr. Kim as part of efforts to halt North Korea’s nuclear program.

在2016年总统竞选期间,特朗普表示,为停止朝鲜核计划,他愿意与金正恩进行直接谈判。

He later pushed back against criticism over his willingness to speak with the North Korean leader.

后来,他驳斥了对他愿意与朝鲜领导人对话的批评。

“Who the hell cares? I’ll speak to anybody. Who knows?” Mr. Trump said. “There’s a 10 percent or a 20 percent chance that I can talk him out of those damn nukes because who the hell wants him to have nukes? And there’s a chance — I’m only gonna make a good deal for us.”

“谁在乎呢?我愿意和任何人对话。谁知道呢?”特朗普说,“我有10%或20%的机会可以说服他放弃该死的核武器,因为谁他妈希望他有核武器呢?是有机会的——我只会为我们争取一笔好交易。”

After the death of Otto F. Warmbier, a University of Virginia honors student who spent 17 months in North Korean captivity, Mr. Trump condemned the “brutal regime” in North Korea.

弗吉尼亚大学(University of Virginia)优等生奥托·F·瓦姆比尔(Otto F. Warmbier)在朝鲜被囚禁17个月后去世,特朗普因此谴责了朝鲜的“残暴政权”。

Stronger Missiles and More Powerful Nukes

更强大的导弹和更有威力的核武器

During the first year of Mr. Trump’s presidency, North Korea tested ballistic missiles with increasingly longer ranges that put the United States within reach. The North also carried out its sixth and most powerful nuclear detonation, which the regime claimed was a hydrogen device.

在特朗普担任总统的第一年里,朝鲜试射的弹道导弹射程越来越远,将美国置于它的打击范围之内。朝鲜还进行了第六次也是威力最大的一次核爆炸试验,朝鲜政府宣称它是一枚氢弹。

Mr. Trump threatened to assail North Korea with “fire and fury” if the country endangered the United States. Undeterred, North Korea announced it was considering a strike against Guam, where the United States maintains a critical air base, that would create “an enveloping fire” around the Pacific island.

特朗普威胁称,如果朝鲜危及美国,他将以“炮火和怒火”攻击朝鲜。朝鲜没有被吓倒,宣称它在考虑打击关岛,让这个太平洋岛屿“陷入烈焰包围”。美国在关岛设有一个重要的空军基地。

Trump and Kim’s War of Words

特朗普和金正恩的唇枪舌战

In his inaugural speech to the United Nations General Assembly, Mr. Trump vowed to “totally destroy” North Korea if it threatened the United States or its allies. “If the righteous many don’t confront the wicked few, then evil will triumph,” he said.

特朗普首次在联合国大会(United Nations General Assembly)发表演讲时表示,如果朝鲜危及美国或其盟友,他将“彻底摧毁”朝鲜。“如果正义的多数不对抗邪恶的少数,那么邪恶就会胜利,”他说。

“Rocket man is on a suicide mission for himself,” he said of Mr. Kim in September, having debuted the nickname on Twitter earlier that month. Mr. Kim later called Mr. Trump “a dotard.”

“火箭人正在执行自杀任务,”特朗普去年9月在提到金正恩时说。当月早些时候,他首次在Twitter上给金正恩起了这个外号。后来,金正恩称特朗普是“老糊涂”。

Mr. Trump’s United Nations speech came just days after North Korea fired a ballistic missile over Japan.

特朗普在联合国发表讲话几天前,朝鲜让一枚弹道导弹飞越日本上空。

2018

2018年

An Olympic Overture

奥运会上的友好姿态

Two days into 2018, Mr. Trump said American and international sanctions on North Korea prompted talks between North and South Korea — a prospect raised during a speech made by Mr. Kim on New Year’s Day.

2018年的第二天,特朗普表示,美国和国际社会对朝鲜的制裁促使朝鲜和韩国进行了会谈——金正恩在新年致辞中提出了会谈的前景。

Mr. Kim boasted of having a button on his desk from which he could order a strike against the mainland United States. Mr. Trump responded on Twitter that he possessed a “much bigger & more powerful” nuclear button.

金正恩夸耀称自己的办公桌上有一个按钮,他可以按下按钮,下令对美国大陆进行打击。特朗普在Twitter上回应称,他有一个“更大且更有威力”的核按钮。

Later that month, during his inaugural State of the Union speech, Mr. Trump vowed he would not repeat “the mistakes of past administrations that got us into this dangerous position.”

当月晚些时候,特朗普在首次发表国情咨文时表示,他不会重复“往届政府犯下的错误,那些错误让我们陷入这种危险的境地”。

North Korea agreed to send a delegation to South Korea for the Winter Olympics in February. The move helped ease tensions between the two sides. Kim Yo-jong, Mr. Kim’s sister, went to Pyeongchang, South Korea, for the opening ceremony.

朝鲜同意派一个代表团赴韩国参加2月份的冬季奥运会。此举有助于缓和双方的紧张关系。金正恩的妹妹金与正(Kim Yo-jong)赴韩国平昌参加了开幕式。

Ivanka Trump, the president’s daughter and a senior White House adviser, traveled to South Korea to attend the closing ceremony. Her appearance came after a failed attempt by South Korean officials to coordinate a meeting between Kim Yo-jong and Vice President Mike Pence at the outset of the Games.

特朗普总统的女儿、白宫高级顾问伊万卡·特朗普(Ivanka Trump)赴韩国参加了闭幕式。在她亮相之前,韩国官员试图安排金与正和美国副总统迈克·彭斯(Mike Pence)在奥运会开幕前会晤,但未能成功。

Two top South Korean officials, Chung Eui-yong, national security adviser, and Suh Hoon, the director of National Intelligence Service, traveled to North Korea last month to meet with Mr. Kim and set the groundwork for the overture to Mr. Trump.

上个月,韩国的两名高级官员——国家安全顾问郑义荣(Chung Eui-yong)和国家情报院(National Intelligence Service)院长徐薰(Suh Hoon)赴朝鲜与金正恩会面,为特朗普的提议奠定了基础。

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