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更新时间:2018-4-19 19:49:15 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

C.I.A. Chief’s Meeting With Kim Jong-un Is Latest Step in Winding Path to Talks

HONG KONG — Mike Pompeo, the C.I.A. director and nominee to be the next secretary of state, traveled to North Korea and met with its leader, Kim Jong-un, the strongest indicator to date that plans for direct talks between Mr. Kim and President Trump are moving ahead.

香港——中央情报局局长、被提名为下任国务卿的迈克·庞皮欧(Mike Pompeo)曾前往朝鲜,并与其领导人金正恩(Kim Jong-un)会晤,这是迄今为止最强的信号,表明金正恩和特朗普总统举行直接会谈的计划正在推进中。

If talks between Mr. Trump and Mr. Kim do happen, they would be the highest-level meeting between the two countries. No sitting president has ever met — or even spoken on the phone — with a North Korean leader.


Here’s a look at previous attempts at dialogue and how the possible summit meeting between Mr. Trump and Mr. Kim came about.




The Brink of War and an Agreement


While no sitting American president has met with a North Korean leader, two former presidents have.


Jimmy Carter met Kim Il-sung, North Korea’s founder, in 1994. Against the wishes of Bill Clinton, then the president, Mr. Carter traveled to North Korea’s capital, Pyongyang, after American intelligence agencies said they believed the North was processing plutonium for use in nuclear weapons.

1994年,吉米·卡特与朝鲜开国元勋金日成(Kim Il-sung)会面。当时美国情报部门表示,他们相信朝鲜正在处理用于核武器的钚,卡特不顾时任总统比尔·克林顿(Bill Clinton)的反对,前往朝鲜首都平壤。

Mr. Carter’s meeting with Mr. Kim, who died three weeks later, set in motion the resumption of talks that led to what was called the Agreed Framework. Under that agreement, North Korea halted the construction of two reactors that could be used to produce fuel for nuclear weapons in exchange for oil and the promise of two light-water nuclear reactors that could produce energy but not weapons fuel.

卡特与金日成(他于三周后去世)的会面启动了谈判的恢复,最后的成果是所谓《框架协议》(Agreed Framework)。根据该协议,朝鲜停止建造两座可用于生产核武器燃料的反应堆,以换取石油;朝鲜还得到承诺,可以建造两座生产能源,但不能用于武器燃料的轻水核反应堆。

President Clinton would later agree to the deal, but Congress often delayed the oil shipments and refused to immediately lift sanctions, and the light-water reactors were never built.




North and South Korea Hold Talks


Kim Il-sung’s son and successor, Kim Jong-il, and the then president of South Korea, Kim Dae-jung, met in Pyongyang in 2000, the first such summit meeting between the leaders of the two Koreas since a war divided the peninsula 50 years earlier.

2000年,金日成的儿子和继任者金正日(Kim Jong-il)与时任韩国总统金大中(Kim Dae-jung)在平壤举行了会晤,这是朝鲜两国领导人在50年前分裂朝鲜半岛的战争后首次进行这样的峰会。

The talks ushered in an unprecedented rapprochement and various joint projects including a factory park in the North Korean town of Kaesong. But the credibility of Kim Dae-jung’s so-called Sunshine Policy was damaged after an investigation revealed that the South Korean government had funneled $450 million to the North shortly before the talks.


Madeleine Albright Visits the North


Kim Jong-il invited President Clinton to North Korea in 2000. Madeleine K. Albright, the secretary of state, went instead. She traveled to Pyongyang in an effort to expand the Agreed Framework to include ballistic missiles, which North Korea was developing and selling abroad.

金正日于2000年邀请克林顿总统访问朝鲜。时任国务卿玛德琳·奥尔布赖特(Madeleine Albright)代他前往。她在平壤努力扩大《框架协议》,争取把朝鲜正在研发和销往海外的弹道导弹也包括在内。

Clinton administration officials said a deal was close, but nothing was concluded by the time President George W. Bush took office in 2001.


2002 - 2006


A Nuclear Bomb Test


The Agreed Framework collapsed in 2002 after the United States confronted North Korea over its secret program to enrich uranium using equipment from Pakistan. The United States stopped oil shipments to North Korea and Pyongyang restarted its nuclear weapons program.


The so-called Six-Party Talks continued fitfully between representatives of North and South Korea, China, Russia, Japan and the United States. The North said in 2005 that it would give up nuclear weapons and its existing nuclear programs in return for security guarantees. North Korea carried out its first nuclear test in 2006.


2007 - 2011


Six-Party Talks Collapse


In 2007, Kim Jong-il and South Korea’s president at the time, Roh Moo-hyun, held the second summit meeting between the two sides. The meeting produced an agreement aimed at expanding inter-Korean ties and easing military tensions along the disputed maritime border on the west coast of the Korean Peninsula. But the deal came at the end of Mr. Roh’s five-year administration and his conservative successor quickly scrapped it.

2007年,金正日和时任韩国总统卢武铉(Roh Moo-hyun)举行了第二次双边峰会。会议达成一项协议,旨在增进朝韩关系,缓和朝鲜半岛西海岸有争议的海上边界的军事紧张局势。但是这项协议是在卢武铉五年执政期即将结束时达成的,他的保守派继任者很快废除了它。

The Six-Party Talks eventually collapsed in 2009, largely over the question of allowing international inspectors into North Korean sites.


That same year, Mr. Clinton traveled to North Korea and met with Kim Jong-il to secure the release of two American journalists, Euna Lee and Laura Ling.

同年,克林顿前往朝鲜并会见金正日,以确保朝鲜释放美国记者李丽娜(Euna Lee)和凌志美(Laura Ling)。

Kim Jong-il died in 2011 and his youngest son, Kim Jong-un, took over control of North Korea.




President Obama Pursues ‘Strategic Patience’


The Obama administration pursued a strategy of escalating sanctions it described as strategic patience, although meetings between diplomats from the two sides continued.


An agreement appeared to be reached on Feb. 29, 2012, under which the North would allow the return of weapons inspectors, and halt its long-range missile and nuclear weapons programs in return for American food aid.


However, the deal died soon after when North Korea launched a rocket to put a satellite in orbit, which the United States considered part of its efforts to develop long-range ballistic missiles.


2016 - 2017


Trump Signals Willingness to Talk


During the 2016 presidential campaign, Mr. Trump said he would be willing to hold direct negotiations with Mr. Kim as part of efforts to halt North Korea’s nuclear program.


He later pushed back against criticism over his willingness to speak with the North Korean leader.


“Who the hell cares? I’ll speak to anybody. Who knows?” Mr. Trump said. “There’s a 10 percent or a 20 percent chance that I can talk him out of those damn nukes because who the hell wants him to have nukes? And there’s a chance — I’m only gonna make a good deal for us.”


After the death of Otto F. Warmbier, a University of Virginia honors student who spent 17 months in North Korean captivity, Mr. Trump condemned the “brutal regime” in North Korea.

弗吉尼亚大学(University of Virginia)优等生奥托·F·瓦姆比尔(Otto F. Warmbier)在朝鲜被囚禁17个月后去世,特朗普因此谴责了朝鲜的“残暴政权”。

Stronger Missiles and More Powerful Nukes


During the first year of Mr. Trump’s presidency, North Korea tested ballistic missiles with increasingly longer ranges that put the United States within reach. The North also carried out its sixth and most powerful nuclear detonation, which the regime claimed was a hydrogen device.


Mr. Trump threatened to assail North Korea with “fire and fury” if the country endangered the United States. Undeterred, North Korea announced it was considering a strike against Guam, where the United States maintains a critical air base, that would create “an enveloping fire” around the Pacific island.


Trump and Kim’s War of Words


In his inaugural speech to the United Nations General Assembly, Mr. Trump vowed to “totally destroy” North Korea if it threatened the United States or its allies. “If the righteous many don’t confront the wicked few, then evil will triumph,” he said.

特朗普首次在联合国大会(United Nations General Assembly)发表演讲时表示,如果朝鲜危及美国或其盟友,他将“彻底摧毁”朝鲜。“如果正义的多数不对抗邪恶的少数,那么邪恶就会胜利,”他说。

“Rocket man is on a suicide mission for himself,” he said of Mr. Kim in September, having debuted the nickname on Twitter earlier that month. Mr. Kim later called Mr. Trump “a dotard.”


Mr. Trump’s United Nations speech came just days after North Korea fired a ballistic missile over Japan.




An Olympic Overture


Two days into 2018, Mr. Trump said American and international sanctions on North Korea prompted talks between North and South Korea — a prospect raised during a speech made by Mr. Kim on New Year’s Day.


Mr. Kim boasted of having a button on his desk from which he could order a strike against the mainland United States. Mr. Trump responded on Twitter that he possessed a “much bigger & more powerful” nuclear button.


Later that month, during his inaugural State of the Union speech, Mr. Trump vowed he would not repeat “the mistakes of past administrations that got us into this dangerous position.”


North Korea agreed to send a delegation to South Korea for the Winter Olympics in February. The move helped ease tensions between the two sides. Kim Yo-jong, Mr. Kim’s sister, went to Pyeongchang, South Korea, for the opening ceremony.

朝鲜同意派一个代表团赴韩国参加2月份的冬季奥运会。此举有助于缓和双方的紧张关系。金正恩的妹妹金与正(Kim Yo-jong)赴韩国平昌参加了开幕式。

Ivanka Trump, the president’s daughter and a senior White House adviser, traveled to South Korea to attend the closing ceremony. Her appearance came after a failed attempt by South Korean officials to coordinate a meeting between Kim Yo-jong and Vice President Mike Pence at the outset of the Games.

特朗普总统的女儿、白宫高级顾问伊万卡·特朗普(Ivanka Trump)赴韩国参加了闭幕式。在她亮相之前,韩国官员试图安排金与正和美国副总统迈克·彭斯(Mike Pence)在奥运会开幕前会晤,但未能成功。

Two top South Korean officials, Chung Eui-yong, national security adviser, and Suh Hoon, the director of National Intelligence Service, traveled to North Korea last month to meet with Mr. Kim and set the groundwork for the overture to Mr. Trump.

上个月,韩国的两名高级官员——国家安全顾问郑义荣(Chung Eui-yong)和国家情报院(National Intelligence Service)院长徐薰(Suh Hoon)赴朝鲜与金正恩会面,为特朗普的提议奠定了基础。