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最适合成功创业的五个国家

更新时间:2018-4-15 8:31:30 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Five countries primed for start-up success
最适合成功创业的五个国家

Starting a business anywhere takes grit, determination and a marketable idea, but certain countries make it just a little bit easier for start-ups to get off the ground.

无论在哪里创业,都需要勇气、决心和一个有市场价值的想法,但在某些国家,创业相对会更容易起步。

U.S. News and World Report recently ranked the best countries for entrepreneurs based on a number of factors, including connectedness to the rest of the world, availability of a skilled and educated workforce, developed infrastructure, a well-developed legal framework, and easy access to capital.

不久前,《美国新闻和世界报道》(U.S. News and World Report)参考多个因素,对最适合创业的国家进行了排名。这些因素包括:与世界其他地区的联系程度、掌握技能及受过教育的劳动力、发达的基础设施、完善的法律框架,以及获取资金的容易程度。

To find out what makes the top countries primed for start-up success, we talked to entrepreneurs in each of them to uncover what business benefits these places offer and why they love living there.

为了找到排名靠前的国家适合成功创业的原因,我们采访了各地的创业者,看看这些地方究竟提供了怎样的商业优势,以及为什么创业者喜欢住在这里。

Germany

德国

With the world’s fourth-largest economy and the largest in Europe, Germany’s mix of transparent business culture, highly educated workforce and start-up friendly policies pushed the country to the top of the index.

作为欧洲最大经济体、全球第四大经济体,德国有着透明的商业文化、受过良好教育的劳动力以及鼓励创业的政策,在这些因素的推动下,该国跃居创业榜榜首。

“Germany has high standards in business culture when it comes to ethics, law and regulations,” explained Irina Graf, who runs event management company The MICE blog and recently moved her company from the UK to Germany.

"就行为准则、法律法规而论,德国有着标准很高的商业文化,"活动管理公司The MICE blog的老板格拉夫(Irina Graf)说。不久前,她刚把公司从英国搬到了德国。

The government also makes it easy to get started with a new venture. “It was incredibly easy to set up a business in Germany. At the time, I paid 20 euros and bam, I had a business,” said Guy Arthur, who runs the eponymous Guy Arthur School of English in Stuttgart. “The government allows for a lot of write-offs in order to keep the business growing, and clients here seem to be loyal as long as you provide them with high-quality service.”

这里的政府对创业也非常友善。"在德国创业太容易了。当时,我付了20欧元,一眨眼,我就有了自己的公司,"阿瑟(Guy Arthur)在斯图加特经营一间以自己的名字命名的英语学校Guy Arthur School of English in Stuttgart。他说,"为了保持业务的增长,政府允许大量的坏账注销,而且只要你能提供高品质的服务,这里的客户似乎都很忠诚。"

Unlike other countries (like the UK) where a single city is the economic hub, Germany has a number of large business hubs, including Berlin, Frankfurt, Munich and Hamburg.

不同于其他国家只有一个经济中心城市(比如英国),德国有柏林、法兰克福、慕尼黑和汉堡等多个商业中心。

This is especially important when testing new products for a global market, according to Jens Wohltorf, CEO and co-founder of Berlin-based chauffeur service Blacklane. “Germany has a large enough market to launch a company and test products. We learned how to launch new cities from Berlin, going further away each time to build relationships with driver partners and acquire new customers,” he said. “After travellers used us in Berlin, Frankfurt, Munich or Stuttgart, they wanted Blacklane rides in London, Milan, New York and Tokyo.”

根据总部位于柏林的招车公司Blacklane的首席执行官、联合创始人沃尔托夫(Jens Wohltorf)的说法,这一点在为国际市场测试新产品时,尤为重要。 "德国拥有足够大的市场,来推出新公司、测试产品。我们学习了如何从柏林起步,推广到新的城市,每次都愈行愈远,与司机打造伙伴关系,并获得新客户,"他说。"旅行者在柏林、法兰克福、慕尼黑或斯图加特使用过我们的服务后,希望在伦敦、米兰、纽约和东京也有Blacklane。"

English is also widely spoken in Germany – it is the primary business language at Blacklane and many other start-ups – which makes it easier to build a multinational company and attract diverse talent.

德国人普遍能说英语,英语也是Blacklane和许多初创企业的主要商业语言,因此这里更容易打造跨国企业,吸引各路人才。

Even so, Germany does have some challenges for new business owners, particularly its complex tax code that almost always requires hiring an accountant or tax advisor. Graf also noted that VAT must be reported for companies whose revenue exceeds 17,500 euro compared to £85,000 (around 97,500 euro) in the UK, which can add additional administrative work at an earlier stage of the business. Housing shortages are also starting to become a problem in Berlin and other metros due to population growth, increased immigration and lack of new construction, though cost of living still remains low compared to other European capitals.

即便如此,对于新企业创办人来说,德国还是存在一些挑战,尤其是复杂的税法,几乎总是需要聘请会计师或税务顾问。格拉夫也说,收入超过1.75万欧元的公司必须申报增值税(VAT),而在英国,收入超过8.5万镑(约合9.75万欧元)的企业才需要申报。在创业之初申报增值税,会增加额外的行政工作。由于人口增长、移民增加和新建设不足,住房短缺在柏林以及其他大都市也开始成为一个问题,不过与其他欧洲各国首都相比,这里的生活成本仍然低廉。

The creative spirit in Germany fuels both professional and personal life, particularly in Berlin, according to Wohltorf. “Berlin has art and culture around every corner,” he said. “It surrounds you at the city’s museums and galleries, beer gardens, markets, cafes, parks and festivals.”

沃尔托夫表示,德国的创意精神为职场生活和个人生活都提供了动力,尤其是在柏林。"在柏林,艺术和文化随处可见,"他说。"博物馆、画廊、露天啤酒花园、市场、咖啡馆、公园和各种节日围绕着你。"

Japan

日本

Japan has long been a paradox in the business world, where a traditionally risk-averse culture has also spawned world-changing innovation. “Old technology such as faxes are ubiquitous, yet we are also surrounded by examples of cutting-edge robots and some of the coolest and most advanced ideas and gadgets,” said Joanna Crisp, general manager at travel company PEAK DMC Japan, Intrepid Group, who is originally from Australia and is now based in Kyoto.

一直以来,日本在商界是一个矛盾的存在,害怕冒险的传统文化也催生出改变世界的创新。"像传真这样的古老技术无所不在,但同时,我们也被诸如尖端机器人和一些最酷、最先进的理念和设备所包围,"旅游公司Intrepid Group旗下的PEAK DMC Japan总经理克里斯普(Joanna Crisp)说。她来自澳大利亚,现居京都。

To many businesspeople in Japan, the country is also on the brink of a major cultural shift. While people once preferred to join a big multinational corporation with the promise of lifelong employment, today’s youth leans toward smaller, more entrepreneurial companies. “Some of the barriers that were there in the past are being removed,” Crisp said. “There are more incubators, more funds for start-ups and better networking between people working in start-ups.”

对于在日本的商人来说,这个国家也正处在一个重大文化转变的边缘上。虽然人们曾经倾向于加入可以干一辈子的跨国大企业工作,但如今的日本年轻人更倾向于规模更小、更具创业精神的公司。"过去存在的一些障碍正在消除,"克里斯普说。"现在出现了更多的孵化器、创业资金,有利于在初创企业工作的人建立更好的人际关系。"

The economy’s heart is in Tokyo, where a sizeable expat community makes it easier for foreigners to make professional connections. “Tokyo has plenty of international opportunities for people to be involved and connected to each other, while also having unique experiences only accessible in Japan and created by Japanese culture,” said Japanese native Kohei Kurihara, who is co-founder and CMO of collaboration platform CollaboGate.

东京是日本的经济中心,那里生活着许多外籍人士,这使得外国人容易建立起职业上的交往关系。"东京有大量的国际机会,让人们参与其中,互相联系,也有许多只有在日本才能获得的、由日本文化所创造的独特体验,"合作平台CollaboGate的共同创始人和首席营销官、土生土长的日本人栗原(Kohei Kurihara)说。

While English is spoken by some in Tokyo and the government is actively training more English speakers in preparation for the 2020 Olympic Games, learning the Japanese language and social mores are essential for any entrepreneur in Japan. “To be successful you need to be able to read between the lines and learn the hidden layers of Japanese business and social etiquette,” Crisp said.

尽管东京有些人会说英语,而且为了2020奥运会,政府也在积极培训,让更多人能开口说英语,但学习日语和社会习俗对于想在日本创业的人来说至关重要。克里斯普说:"要想取得成功,你需要能够读懂字里行间的意思,了解日本社会和社交礼仪台面下的东西。"

Opportunities to escape the busy pace of start-up life is one of the perks of living in Japan, with numerous nature getaways across the island nation, particularly in Kyoto, which Crisp calls ‘the cultural heart of Japan’. “I grew up in a small city and I love to be surrounded by mountains and rivers where a short walk or bike ride takes me out of the business district into the forests and nature,” she said. “Right now, the snow is falling on the wooden roof of a nearby temple and the vermilion-coloured lanterns in its courtyard. There is nothing like watching the seasons change in such a romantic destination.”

有机会逃离创业生活的繁忙节奏,是生活在日本的好处之一,在这个岛国,尤其是被克里斯普称之为"日本文化中心"的京都,有着众多自然度假地。"我成长在一座小城市,我喜欢被群山和河流环绕,走一小段路,或者骑上自行车,就能让我离开商业区,进入森林和大自然,"她说。"现在,雪花正飘落在附近一座寺庙的木屋顶上,落在寺院挂着的朱红色灯笼上。在这样一个浪漫的地方,看着四季的变化,那种感觉去哪里找。"

Japan also consistently ranks high as one of the places where people live the longest – due to its quality of life, sense of community and healthy diet.

日本也一直是世界上最长寿的国家之一,这得益于它的生活品质、社区意识和健康的饮食。

United States

美国

The American Dream – where anyone can become anything they want if they put their mind to it – still defines the US for many of its residents, especially those who want to start a business.

对于许多美国民众而言,尤其是那些想创业的人来说,美国梦(只要付诸努力,任何人都可以梦想成真)仍然定义着美国。

“We are willing to fight for what we want and demand a better life from those who seek to block progress,” said Jason Patel, Washington DC resident and founder of college prep company Transizion. “This rebellious nature is in our DNA: the American Revolution, coming back from the Great Depression, winning the Space Race and producing so many incredible inventions. We are a people who respect those who risk their livelihoods to live out their dreams.”

"我们愿意为自己想要的东西而奋斗,向那些试图阻碍进步的人索要更美好的生活,"华盛顿居民、大学预科公司Transizion的创始人帕特尔(Jason Patel)说。"这种叛逆的天性存在于我们的基因中:美国独立战争、走出大萧条、赢得太空竞赛,并且创造出许多令人难以置信的发明。我们的民族尊重那些冒着生命危险去实现梦想的人。"

Unlike in many other cultures, failure isn’t frowned on here, but is looked on as a learning experience. “Entrepreneurs are encouraged to take risks and test the status quo,” said Wen-Wen Lam, CEO and co-founder of San Francisco-based travel management platform NexTravel. A culture of entrepreneurship also means there are plenty of mentors who are happy to help budding business owners.

不同于很多其他文化,失败在这里不会令人反感,而是被视为学习经验。"创业者受到鼓励去冒险,考验现状,"总部位于旧金山的旅游管理平台NexTravel的首席执行官、兼联合创始人林雯雯(Wen-Wen Lam)说。鼓励创业的文化也意味着有许多导师乐于帮助崭露头角的企业业主。

While many recent successful tech start-ups are headquartered in California’s Silicon Valley, New York City and other US metros harbour their fair share of start-ups. Because the US has a fairly uniform culture and a large market, scaling nationwide is easy here, says Lam.

近些年很多成功的科技创业公司都把总部设在加州硅谷,而纽约和其他大都市也拥有相当数量的初创企业。林雯雯表示,由于美国各州有着同样的文化,市场也比较大,所以初创企业很容易在全国扩张。

Hiring can be tough in competitive markets like Silicon Valley, where the now-massive tech giants compete for the best talent with top salaries and perks. “For smaller start-ups, you have to sell the idea of having a great impact and ability to affect change,” Lam added.

像硅谷这样竞争激烈的市场,招聘人才是件难事。那些大型科技巨头以最高的薪酬和补贴来争夺最优秀的人才。林雯雯补充说,"对于规模小一些的初创企业来讲,你得拿出具有重大冲击力、能够对变革产生影响的想法作为卖点,才能吸引到人才。"

That belief in having a voice affects day-to-day life in the US, where one person, one vote, still impacts the culture. “There is nothing holier than this premise in democracy,” Patel said. “Engaged citizens can organise and inspire their peers to vote and enact change, and improvements in their community is the backbone of having high expectations for our country.” This belief also allows a diversity of perspectives and views to be widely appreciated.

在一人一票的美国,人们觉得要有一种可以影响日常生活的发言权,这种信仰仍旧冲击着美国的文化。"没有什么比民主制度下的这个前提更为神圣的了,"帕特尔说。"参与其中的公民可以组织起来,激励身边人去投票、去做出变革,社区里有了进步,才能对我们的国家保持高度的期望。"这种信念也使得人们普遍欣赏多样性的视角和观点。

The national park system here is also one of the best in the world, and residents take full advantage of seeing them wherever they live. “Only in America can you go from the Death Valley desert to Yosemite mountains to Zion canyons to Yellowstone lakes,” Patel said. “I'm lucky enough to have visited all of them. It's natural beauty at its finest, seeing what existed before humans and what will exist after our time on this planet is done.”

这里的国家公园系统也是世界上最好之一,民众可以充分就近利用。帕特尔说:"只有在美国,你才能从死亡谷沙漠去到优胜美地的群山,横跨锡安公园的峡谷,再漫步黄石公园的湖泊。"帕特尔说。"我很幸运,这些地方我都去过。看看人类存在之前,以及我们在这个星球上的时代结束之后将继续存在的那些东西,是最为美好的自然之美。"

United Kingdom

英国

Though Brexit has created some uncertainty around the future of Britain’s trade relationship with Europe, many entrepreneurs still believe it’s a great place to start a business due to its low barriers to entry and strong business community and talent pool.

尽管退欧给英国与欧洲未来的贸易关系带来了一些不确定性,但许多创业者还是认为,英国是一个适合创业的好地方,因为它的入门门槛低,有着强大的工商业界,而且汇集了各路人才。

“I registered my business with Companies House for £12 (this can cost up to $500+ in some US states) and opened a business bank account online in minutes,” said David Murphy, who started watch company Oliver Coen in London last year. The government also makes numerous online resources available, such as government-backed start-up loans and free business plan templates, and filing business taxes can be fast and easy. “While I do use an accountant to save me time, it is simple enough that I could do it myself. The paperwork is very straightforward and taxes are very simple to understand,” said Canadian Ian Wright, founder of merchant comparison site MerchantMachine.co.uk. “Plus, the government has committed to continue to cut corporation tax, which means tax rates are very competitive.”

"我在公司注册局用12英镑注册了一家公司(在美国的一些州,这笔费用可能要多于500美元),并且没用几分钟就在网上开了一个商业银行账户,"去年在伦敦创办了手表公司Oliver Coen的墨菲(David Murphy)说。政府还提供大量的在线资源,比如由政府支持的创业贷款和免费的商业计划模版,报税也很快捷方便。"虽然为了省时间,我找了会计,其实那些事很简单,我自己都可以做。文书工作不复杂,税收也很好懂,"加拿大人赖特(Ian Wright)说道,他是商业比较网站。MerchantMachine.co.uk的创始人。"此外,政府还承诺继续削减公司税,这意味着税率非常具有竞争力。"

Financing is easier to come by in the UK, attracting just more than £4 billion in investment – the largest amount of venture capital of all European countries – in 2017. “We've been approached by a number of angel investors who have offered finance and mentorship,” Murphy said. “We've also been invited to apply for government grants, but we turned this down because we don't need financial support at this time.”

在英国融资更为容易,2017年,这里吸引了超过40亿英镑的投资,在所有的欧洲国家中,这是最高的金额。"已经有许多天使投资人找到我们,还提供了融资和指导,"墨菲说。"我们还获邀去申请政府补助,但我们拒绝了,因为目前尚不需要财务支持。"

The community here, especially in London, also leads to start-up success, as it’s easy to hire the right employees or freelancers, and face-to-face business meetings are a breeze to set-up. “I'm very worried what impact Brexit will have on the huge range of talent available in London from across Europe,” Wright said. “But as of today, I think you'd struggle to find as much talent concentrated in one place outside of Silicon Valley.”

这里的社区,特别是在伦敦,也是有利于创业的,很容易就雇到合适的员工或自由职业者,举行面对面的商务会议也很容易。"我非常担心英国退欧后,会对大量住在伦敦、来自欧洲各地的人才产生什么影响,"赖特说。"但以后,你很难在硅谷之外找到这么多人才了。"

Murphy agreed, adding, “Whether I need a world-class product photographer, social media expert or creative director, being in the UK, everything is available on my doorstep.”

墨菲也同意这种说法,他补充说,"无论我是需要一个世界级的产品摄影师、社交媒体专家还是创意总监,身在英国,一切都能在家门口搞定。"

The high costs of housing in London can be a struggle for business owners and potential employees. “The only house I could afford was at the edge of London and was about half the size of what I could get in Canada,” Wright said. Still, having free NHS healthcare makes starting a business a bit less risky. “I don't have to worry if I suddenly become sick or injured,” he said. “Honestly, I think public healthcare is the number-one thing governments can do to encourage entrepreneurship.”

对于企业业主和潜在雇员来说,伦敦高昂的住房成本可能会是一个问题。赖特说:"我只住得起伦敦边上的房子,面积大约是我在加拿大的一半。"不过,免费的国民保健制度(NHS)降低了这里的创业风险。"如果突然生病或受伤,我也不用担心,"他说。"说实话,我认为社会医疗是政府鼓励创业的第一要务。"

Besides the business climate, Wright says he loves to live in London because of the combination of history and modern culture. Locals also love the multiculturalism of the capital city, where people from all over the world live side-by-side to create a rich landscape of food and culture.

除了优质的商业环境,赖特说他也喜欢在伦敦的生活,因为这里将历史与现代文化融合在一起。当地人也喜欢这座都城的多元文化,来自世界各地的人们生活在一起,创造了一种丰富的美食和文化图景。

Switzerland

瑞士

Due in part to its lack of natural resources, Switzerland has long invested instead in research and development to grow its economy. This has paid off well, with the country as becoming an international leader in banking and finance.

由于在某种程度上缺乏自然资源,瑞士一直致力于通过投资研发来促进经济的增长。这种做法取得了良好的回报,该国成为银行和金融领域的国际领袖。

“Switzerland has traditionally had a robust financial sector, with compliance and expedient government regulation at its core,” said Marco Abele, former chief digital officer of Credit Suisse, and CEO and founder of blockchain investment platform TEND, based in Zug. “Swiss culture is interesting in that these traditional values, embedded in the Swiss financial sector for decades, are readily transferable for entrepreneurs in their respective field of interest.”

"传统上,瑞士的金融业非常强大,其核心是依法行事和适宜的政府监管,"瑞士信贷(Credit Suisse)前首席数字官、区块链投资平台TEND的创始人兼首席执行官阿贝尔(Marco Abele)表示。 "瑞士文化很有意思,这些已经在瑞士金融业扎根数十年的传统价值观,很快就传递给了各行各业的创业者。"

Lately, that expertise has been put to work in a new way, as the country has become a hub of cryptocurrency and blockchain-based start-ups. “Switzerland is leading the way in terms of implementing core values inherent in the traditional financial sector into this new industry,” Abele said. “Swiss universities, too, are embracing this change, researching blockchain and its impact on the world with an intellectual curiosity that is uniquely Swiss."

近来,随着该国成为加密货币和区块链初创企业的中心,这种专业之道正在以一种新的方式发挥作用。"瑞士在将传统金融业所固有的核心价值施用于这个新兴行业方面,居于领先地位,"阿贝尔说。"瑞士的大学也乐于接受这一变化,秉持着瑞士所特有的一种求知欲,研究区块链及其对世界的影响。"

In particular, the city of Zug in north-central Switzerland has earned the nickname ‘Crypto Valley’ for the number of cryptocurrency start-ups in the area. The city is home to the Ethereum Foundation, the blockchain platform behind many new decentralised applications as well as the second-largest cryptocurrency, trailing only Bitcoin in terms of market cap. “Many crypto projects choose Switzerland for their headquarters for similar reasons as other international organisations and companies: the Swiss neutrality, stability and tax regime,” said Nabil Naghdy, COO of mobile Ethereum operating system Status.

尤其是位于瑞士中北部的楚格市(Zug),由于分布着多家加密货币初创企业,这里赢得了"加密谷"(Crypto Valley)的称号。以太坊基金会(Ethereum Foundation)就位于这里,这个区块链平台支撑了许多新的分布式应用,同时也是第二大加密货币,市场价值仅次于比特币。"许多加密项目之所以选择瑞士作为总部所在地,个中原因与许多国际组织和企业的选择如出一辙:瑞士的中立、稳定和税收制度,"移动以太币操作系统Status的首席运营官纳厄迪(Nabil Naghdy)说。

In addition to a friendly regulatory environment and business-friendly tax rates, Swiss start-ups also benefit from its central location within Europe, making trade and finding talent easier. “Due to its diversity, the language fluency of its population and the high standard of living, Switzerland is a popular work location for expats,” Naghdy said.

除了友好的监管环境和对商业友善的税率之外,瑞士的初创企业还受益于其在欧洲所处的中心位置,这使得贸易和寻找人才都变得更加容易。纳厄迪说,"得益于文化多样性、人口的语言能力,以及高品质的生活水平,瑞士是深受外籍人士欢迎的工作地点。"

Though the extremely high cost of living here is often initially painful for newcomers, seasoned entrepreneurs say the benefits and returns of being a part of the Swiss economy outweigh the costs. Those returns also pay off in the day-to-day lifestyle, as residents enjoy access to world-class schools and educational opportunities, as well as the natural beauty of the surrounding Alps. Switzerland’s central location within Europe means locals can also take regular advantage of the fast and cheap flights across the continent for weekend getaways.

尽管对于许多新来者来说,这里高企的生活成本往往在开始的时候令人痛苦,但据经验丰富的企业家表示,融入瑞士经济的好处和回报超过了成本。那些回馈也体现在日常生活的方方面面,比如住在这里可以享受到世界级的学校和教育机会,还有周围阿尔卑斯山的自然美景。瑞士地处欧洲中心意味着当地人可以利用快捷、廉价的航班,到欧洲各地欢度周末。

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