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更新时间:2018-4-2 12:30:52 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

14 Million Visitors to U.S. Face Social Media Screening

Nearly all applicants for a visa to enter the United States — an estimated 14.7 million people a year — will be asked to submit their social media user names for the past five years, under proposed rules that the State Department issued on Friday.


Last September, the Trump administration announced that applicants for immigrant visas would be asked for social media data, a plan that would affect 710,000 people or so a year. The new proposal would vastly expand that order to cover some 14 million people each year who apply for nonimmigrant visas.


The proposal covers 20 social media platforms. Most of them are based in the United States: Facebook, Flickr, Google+, Instagram, LinkedIn, Myspace, Pinterest, Reddit, Tumblr, Twitter, Vine and YouTube. But several are based overseas: the Chinese sites Douban, QQ, Sina Weibo, Tencent Weibo and Youku; the Russian social network VK; Twoo, which was created in Belgium; and Ask.fm, a question-and-answer platform based in Latvia.


During his campaign, President Trump promised “extreme vetting” of people seeking to enter the United States, and last March the State Department directed consular officers worldwide to step up scrutiny of visa applicants.


But the new proposal would add a tangible new requirement for millions of people who apply to visit the United States for business or pleasure, including citizens of such countries as Brazil, China, India and Mexico.


Citizens of roughly 40 countries to which the United States ordinarily grants visa-free travel will not be affected by the requirement. Those countries include major allies like Australia, Britain, Canada, France, Germany, Japan and South Korea.


In addition, visitors traveling on diplomatic and official visas will mostly be exempted.


As news of the plan emerged on Friday, so did criticism.


“This attempt to collect a massive amount of information on the social media activity of millions of visa applicants is yet another ineffective and deeply problematic Trump administration plan,” said Hina Shamsi, director of the American Civil Liberties Union’s National Security Project. “It will infringe on the rights of immigrants and U.S. citizens by chilling freedom of speech and association, particularly because people will now have to wonder if what they say online will be misconstrued or misunderstood by a government official.”

“这个尝试将收集数百万签证申请者的社交媒体活动的大量信息,这是特朗普政府的又一个无效且有严重问题的计划,”美国公民自由联盟(American Civil Liberties Union)国家安全项目负责人海纳·善姆斯(Hina Shamsi)说。“这会让言论和结社自由受到威胁,从而侵犯移民和美国公民的权利,尤其让人们不由得开始担心,他们在网上说的话是否会被政府官员误解或误读。”

Anil Kalhan, an associate professor of law at Drexel University who works on immigration and international human rights, wrote on Twitter, “This is unnecessarily intrusive and beyond ridiculous.”

德雷塞尔大学(Drexel University)法学副教授阿尼尔·卡尔汉(Anil Kalhan)从事移民和国际人权方面的工作,他在Twitter上写道,“这是过分的侵扰,是再荒唐不过的做法。”

Facebook said its position had not changed since last year, when it said: “We oppose any efforts to force travelers at the border to turn over their private account information, including passwords.”


Along with the social media information, visa applicants will be asked for past passport numbers, phone numbers and email addresses; for records of international travel; whether they have been deported or removed, or violated immigration law, in the past; and whether relatives have been involved in terrorist activities.


“Maintaining robust screening standards for visa applicants is a dynamic practice that must adapt to emerging threats,” the State Department said in a statement. “We already request limited contact information, travel history, family member information, and previous addresses from all visa applicants. Collecting this additional information from visa applicants will strengthen our process for vetting these applicants and confirming their identity.”


Millions of people each year complete the online application for a nonimmigrant visa, known as the DS-160. It takes about 90 minutes to fill out, according to the department.


The San Bernardino, Calif., terrorist attack in 2015, which killed 14 people, focused attention on immigrants’ social-media use, after officials acknowledged that they had missed signs of online radicalization in an online-messaging platform used by the husband and wife who carried out the attack.


Last year, John F. Kelly, who was then the secretary of homeland security and is now Mr. Trump’s chief of staff, told members of Congress that his department was considering asking visitors for passwords and access to online accounts.

去年,时任国土安全部部长、现为特朗普幕僚长的约翰·F·凯利(John F. Kelly)曾对国会议员说,他所在的部门正在考虑要求来访者提供得以进入他们在线账户的密码。

“We want to get on their social media, with passwords,” Mr. Kelly told members of the House Homeland Security Committee. “If they don’t want to cooperate, then you don’t come in.”


So far, the government has stopped short of demanding passwords, though travelers have reported being asked for them, on a sporadic basis, at airports and other ports of entry. By some measures, the number of international visitors to the United States has begun to slip, although foreign tourism to New York City set a record last year.


The new State Department requirements will not take effect immediately. The proposal set off a 60-day period for public comment, which ends on May 29.