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华盛顿特区是如何获得选举权的?

更新时间:2018-3-29 21:50:29 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Back Story: The 23rd Amendment
华盛顿特区是如何获得选举权的?

On this day in 1961, the 23rd Amendment to the U.S. Constitution was approved by the required three-fourths of the states, giving Washingtonians the right to vote for president and vice president for the first time in more than 160 years.

1961年的今天,美国宪法第二十三条修正案经由必需程序,在全国四分之三的州获得通过,这让华盛顿人在160多年里第一次获得了投票选举总统和副总统的权利。

“The United States finally gave its capital the vote today,” The Times noted on its front page, with a hint of impatience.

“美国今天终于给了首都投票权,”时报在其头版指出,带着一丝迫不及待。

The amendment granted representation to the District of Columbia in the Electoral College, where states are given electors based on population. Although the District’s population (estimated at about 700,000 in 2017) is larger than that of some states, it is given no more electors than the least populous state, which is currently Wyoming.

该修正案给了华盛顿哥伦比亚特区在选举团(Electoral College)中的代表席位,各州在其中会基于人口数量,给予一定的选举人名额。尽管特区的人口(2017年约为70万)大于一些州,但它获得的选举人名额并不比人口最少的州多,目前美国人口最少的州为怀俄明。

At the time, the push to give the vote to the District, with its large African-American population, became caught up in the civil rights movement. The amendment was opposed in the South, where Tennessee was the only state to ratify it.

与此同时,对赋予特区选举权的推动成为了民权运动的一部分。该区人口中有大量的非裔美国人。这一修正案在南方受到了反对,田纳西州是南方唯一一个认可该修正案的州。

Democrats have since been able to count on the District’s three electoral votes, which have been cast for each of the party’s presidential candidates, starting with Lyndon Johnson in 1964.

民主党自此之后得以依赖于特区的三张选举人票,自1964年林登·约翰逊(Lyndon Johnson)以来,这些票都投给了民主党的总统候选人。

Although the District’s residents have a say at the White House, they lack a full voice in Congress, where their representative does not have full voting rights.

尽管特区的居民在白宫有着发言权,在国会却缺乏全面的声音,他们在国会的代表没有完整的投票权。

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