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钻石和葡萄酒:朝鲜是如何进口奢侈品的?

更新时间:2018-3-19 20:12:01 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Wine and Diamonds: How North Korea Dodges Sanctions
钻石和葡萄酒:朝鲜是如何进口奢侈品的?

The United Nations detailed on Friday how North Korea gets around international sanctions designed to hobble the government and its nuclear weapons program. President Trump, after accepting an invitation last week to meet personally this spring with the North’s leader, Kim Jong-un, said that sanctions would remain in place during any talks.

东京——周五,联合国详细介绍了朝鲜是如何规避国际制裁的,这些制裁措施旨在打击朝鲜政府及其核武计划。在上周接到今年春季与朝鲜领导人金正恩亲自会面的邀请后,特朗普表示,任何谈判期间,制裁措施都不会中断。

But the United Nations report shows just how difficult it is for governments to police North Korea and how widespread illicit trade with it is. The experts who compiled the report detailed violations across several countries.

但联合国的这份报告也表明,各国政府对朝鲜的监督是多么困难,以及与朝鲜的非法贸易是多么普遍。撰写该报告的专家们详细列举了多个国家的违规行为。

“It’s really kind of remarkable the scope of activities they are engaging in,” said Peter Harrell, an adjunct senior fellow at the Center for a New American Security in Washington, adding, “It brings home the fact that the North Korean tentacles still do have some global reach.”

“他们所参与活动的范围确实有些令人震惊,”华盛顿新美国安全中心(Center for a New American Security)的兼职高级研究员彼得·哈勒尔(Peter Harrell)说道,并补充,“这清楚地表明,朝鲜还有着一些国际影响。”

Here are some sanctions violations detailed in the report.

以下是报告中详述的一些违反制裁的行为。

Diamonds and Wine

钻石和葡萄酒

One of the more eyebrow-raising examples described: Between January and June of last year, India exported $514,823 in diamonds to North Korea, along with other precious metals and stones.

其中一个比较令人惊讶的例子是:在去年1月至6月期间,印度向朝鲜出口了价值51.4823万美元的钻石,同时还有其他贵金属和宝石。

Other luxury goods that have made it to North Korea: sparkling wine and spirits from Germany, wine and vermouth from Italy, and perfume and cosmetics from Bulgaria. A Singapore-based company has been stocking department stores in Pyongyang, the capital, with luxury items from Japan and Europe.

进入朝鲜的奢侈品还有:来自德国的起泡酒和烈酒,来自意大利的葡萄酒和苦艾酒,来自保加利亚的香水和化妆品。总部位于新加坡的一家公司在为朝鲜首都平壤的百货商店供货,均为来自日本和欧洲的奢侈品。

North Koreans have mastered “how to smuggle sanctioned items,” said Jay Song, a senior lecturer in Korean studies at the Asia Institute at the University of Melbourne in Australia. “Ironically, however, these trades, legal and illegal, grow the North Korean middle class, who then grow grievances against the authorities. They are also highly corrupt.”

朝鲜已经掌握了“偷运制裁物品的方法”,澳大利亚墨尔本大学(University of Melbourne)亚洲学院朝鲜研究高级讲师宋杰(Jay Song)说。“然而,讽刺的是,这些合法或非法的交易会使朝鲜的中间阶层发展壮大,而他们随后会对当局心生不满。他们也是极其腐败的。”

Coal and Steel

煤炭和钢铁

Mounting a ballistic missile and nuclear weapons program is not cheap. The report shows that the isolated country continues to sell commodities to United Nations member countries, even though sanctions prohibit such transactions. According to the panel, North Korea generated nearly $200 million between January and September 2017 by exporting “almost all the commodities prohibited in the resolutions.”

弹道导弹和核武计划并不便宜。报告显示,尽管此类交易受到了制裁的禁止,这个遭到孤立的国家仍在向联合国成员国出售商品。据专家组称,在2017年1月至9月期间,朝鲜通过出口“被决议禁止的几乎所有商品”,收入将近2亿美元。

Its largest export was coal; the report concluded that North Korea exported $413.6 million in coal in that time frame — $12.7 million above the United Nations cap. North Korea also sold $62.1 million in iron and steel, exports that violated sanctions.

朝鲜最大的出口是煤炭;该报告推断,朝鲜在这一时期内出口了4.136亿美元的煤炭——比联合国的限额高出了1270万美元。朝鲜还售出了6210万美元的钢铁,这也违反了制裁规定。

Using front companies, manipulations of automated signals that radar systems use to detect global shipments, and ship-to-ship transfers in the middle of the night, North Korea was able to “give the impression that the coal was loaded in ports other than in the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea,” the report said.

报告称,通过利用幌子公司、操纵监测全球货运的雷达系统的自动信号,以及半夜船对船驳运,朝鲜可以“给人留下煤炭不是从朝鲜民主主义人民共和国的港口装载的印象”。

Still, “We’re really forcing the North Koreans to jump through hoops,” said Andrea Berger, a senior research associate and senior program manager at the James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies in Monterey, Calif.

然而,“我们实际上是在迫使朝鲜人历经周折,”加利福尼亚蒙特雷詹姆斯·马丁不扩散研究中心(James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies)高级项目主管、高级副研究员安德丽亚·伯格(Andrea Berger)说。

“North Koreans are literally physically concealing the identity of ships at night and doing ship-to-ship transfers,” she said. “That’s not something you do unless you have to.”

“朝鲜人的确在夜晚隐瞒了船只的身份并进行船对船舶运,”她说。“除非逼不得已,是不会这么做的。”

Financial Transactions Abroad

国外的金融交易

North Korean firms and individuals, utilizing front companies and working with foreign citizens, have opened bank accounts around the world.

朝鲜的很多公司和个人通过幌子公司以及与外国公民合作,在世界各地开设了银行账户。

The report said some of the country’s banks “maintain a network of overseas representatives who continue to move freely across borders to undertake transactions in multiple countries and to establish residences abroad.”

该报告称,朝鲜的一些银行“维持着一个海外代理人网络,他们继续自由地跨越国界,在多个国家进行交易,在国外获得居住权”。

The experts found that many banks do not scrutinize account holders closely enough. It cited a “major European bank” that failed to verify answers that a representative of the Korea Daesong Bank gave to a questionnaire to screen for money laundering and ignored the fact that the account applicant appeared in a financial-crimes database.

专家们发现,许多银行并没有对账户持有者进行足够仔细的审查。该报告提到“欧洲的一家大银行”没有核实朝鲜大成银行(Korea Daesong bank)的一名代表对一份筛查洗钱的调查问卷的回答,而且忽视了该账户的申请者曾出现在金融犯罪数据库中。

‘Destabilizing’ Arms Sales

“破坏稳定”的军售

As previously reported, the experts contend that North Korea has shipped supplies to the Syrian government that could be used in the production of chemical weapons. The report also detailed sales of ballistic missile systems, multiple rocket launchers and surface-to-air missiles to Myanmar.

正如之前报道的那样,专家们认为,朝鲜向叙利亚政府运送了可用于生产化学武器的物资。该报告还详细讲述了朝鲜向缅甸出售弹道导弹系统、多管火箭发射器和地对空导弹的情况。

These arms sales are concerning not only because they help the North raise money, but because of “the inherently destabilizing nature of military cooperation that looks like this,” Ms. Berger said.

伯格表示,这些军售令人担忧,不仅是因为它们帮助朝鲜筹集了资金,而且因为“此类军事合作本质上是为了破坏稳定”。

Surveillance and Hacking

监视和黑客攻击

North Korea has become a well-known state actor in surveillance and hacking. The report detailed an incident in which the North sent a drone toward a military facility in Seongju, South Korea, and snapped 555 photographs. The drone crashed because of an engine malfunction and was recovered by South Korean intelligence.

朝鲜政府的监视和黑客攻击活动众所周知。该报告详细讲述了朝鲜向韩国星州郡一处军事设施发送无人机、拍摄了555张照片的事件。该无人机因发动机故障坠毁,被韩国情报机构发现。

The report also indicated that some of the email accounts of the United Nations experts had been hacked or that the North had tried to hack their accounts.

该报告还指出,朝鲜利用黑客攻击了或试图攻击了一些联合国专家的电子邮件账户。

Stealthy Imports of Oil

秘密的石油进口

Last December, the United Nations Security Council tightened sanctions against North Korea by cutting the amount of refined petroleum it can import each year by 89 percent.

去年12月,联合国安理会加强了对朝鲜的制裁,将其精炼石油的进口限额削减了89%。

Yet the experts found that North Korea had developed a sophisticated network of intermediaries willing to help it procure oil.

不过,专家们发现,朝鲜已经建立了一个可以助其获取石油的复杂中间人网络。

“If anything, the sanctions are making it more lucrative for these intermediaries,” said John Nilsson-Wright, a senior research fellow at the London-based Chatham House at the Royal Institute of International Affairs, because North Korea will pay a higher price to circumvent the sanctions.

英国皇家国际事务研究所(Royal Institute of International Affairs)伦敦查塔姆研究所(Chatham House)高级研究员约翰·尼尔森-怀特(John Nilsson-Wright)表示,“如果说这些制裁产生了什么影响的话,那就是,这些中间人赚了更多的钱”,因为朝鲜为了逃避制裁会支付更高的价格。

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