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电影制作未来趋势:用智能手机拍摄

更新时间:2018-3-10 9:42:48 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Claire Foy and Matt Damon - in a film shot on a smartphone
电影制作未来趋势:用智能手机拍摄

Mobile phone film-making must be going mainstream when Matt Damon has a cameo in a feature film shot on an iPhone. It might be a movie made by his greatest collaborator, director Steven Soderbergh, but still – the entire camera department for Soderbergh’s latest film, Unsane, fitted into a backpack.

用手机拍摄电影一定会成为主流,因为连马特·达蒙(Matt Damon)都在用iPhone拍摄的一部剧情片中客串角色了。这可能是因为该片导演是他的最佳合作伙伴史蒂文·索德伯格(Steven Soderbergh),但不论如何,《丧心病狂》(Unsane)这部电影的全部摄影器材可以装进一只后背包。

Unsane is in competition at the Berlin International Film Festival. Soderbergh’s choice to make a film using mobile technology has been much publicised, unlike the last widely acclaimed feature film shot on an iPhone – Sean Baker’s Tangerine, which revealed its source only as the credits rolled during its premiere.

《丧心病狂》是柏林国际电影节(Berlin International Film Festival)参赛影片之一。索德伯格选择用手机来拍摄这部电影,这一点已被广泛公之于众,与此相反,上一部广受好评的用手机拍摄的电影正片,西恩·贝克(Sean Baker)的《橘色》(Tangerine),只在首映仪式上滚动播出演职人员表时才自曝来源。

Soderbergh, who started his career with the ultra experimental Sex, Lies and Videotape in 1989, says he was seeking more of the same thrill, rather than a gimmick, with Unsane, which stars The Crown’s Claire Foy as a young woman who is involuntarily committed to a mental health institution, where she believes her stalker works.

导演索德伯格出道于1989年,他的处女作《性、谎言和录像带》(Sex, Lies, and Videotape)是一部极端实验性质的电影。他说,拍摄《丧心病狂》并非是在耍花招,而是在追求电影制作初体验时的那种激情。《丧心病狂》的主演是《王冠》(The Crown)主演之一克莱尔·福伊(Claire Foy),她在电影中扮演一个年轻女人非自愿地被送到精神病院,她认为她的跟踪狂在此工作。

“I wanted to release it under a different name,” the film-maker reveals. “But that didn’t work out, so I tried to keep it secret for as long as possible. I’ve decided not to be defensive about it being defined as ‘that iPhone movie’ and if people only turn up out of curiosity – well, that’s still the price of a movie ticket.”

"发行时,我想给它换个名字,"电影导演透露。"但是,名字没改成,所以我试着尽可能长时间地保持它的神秘。我已经决定了,尽管它被贴上'iPhone电影'的标签,即使人们仅仅是出于好奇才来看这部电影,我也不会为此辩解。毕竟,那仍然是电影票的价值。"

RIP celluloid?

电影胶片时代结束?

A major film shot this way is rare enough that it’s still dubbed ‘that iPhone movie’, but the rave reviews Sean Baker received for Tangerine in 2015, which made back eight times its original budget at the box office, made Baker fret he was helping to kill off the medium he loved.

用这种方式拍摄的主流电影寥寥无几,因此,它仍然被称为"iPhone电影",但是西恩·贝克导演的《橘色》,2015年上映,票房收入是制作预算的8倍,且它获得的热情称赞使得贝克怀疑他正在谋杀电影胶片这一个他最爱的媒体。

“I’m worried about the death of film,” he confessed at the time. “There’s a quality to film that no matter what filters you have on your digital camera, you can’t achieve the same effect.”

当时他坦言:"我很担心电影胶卷的死亡。胶卷有种特质,无论给数码摄像机装上什么样的滤镜,也无法实现同样的效果。"

Timur Berkmambetov, the Kazakh-born director behind 2008’s Wanted, starring Angelina Jolie, and the more ill-fated re-imagining of blockbuster Ben Hur in 2016, has no such qualms. His film, Profile, also showing at Berlin, is the story of a journalist who creates a fake Facebook profile of a radicalised Muslim convert. The action unfolds entirely within the confines of a computer screen, and its production included the use of Skype and mobiles in order to film simultaneously in different countries. Berkmambetov already successfully made Unfriended in 2015 using the same methods, and calls them ‘Screenlife’ films.

出生于哈萨克的导演提莫·贝克曼贝托夫(Timur Berkmambetov)不担心这些。2008年,他拍摄了《通缉令》(Wanted),主演是安吉丽娜·朱莉(Angelina Jolie);2016年,翻拍了跻身年度烂片前列的《宾虚》(Ben-Hur)。他的电影《个人主页》(Profile)也在柏林电影节上放映,讲述了一名记者创建了一个虚假的穆斯林极端分子的脸书主页的故事,全部情节均在电脑屏幕上展开,并应用Skype和手机来实现在不同国家的同步拍摄。贝克曼贝托夫已经用同样的方式成功制作了《解除好友》(Unfriended),并称之为"屏幕生活"电影。

“Human drama has moved on,” he claims, “and if our stories are to stay true they have to move on too. We’ve migrated to living on digital interfaces and the way we interact has become inseparable from our phones and tablets. People go to sleep with their phones in their hands.”

"人类的故事已经朝前发展了,"他声称,"因此,为了保持真实性,我们的故事也应与时俱进。我们已迁居数字界面,我们的交互已离不开手机和平板。人们睡觉的时候手里也拿着手机。"

Berkmambetov is now planning a film shot entirely using mobiles, along with an on-screen version of Romeo and Juliet.

贝克曼贝托夫计划只用手机来拍摄一部电影,同时,拍一部电脑屏幕版《罗密欧与朱丽叶》。

Life through a screen

屏幕中的生活

“Also, I would be happy to see a disaster movie happening on the screen of a device just because that’s how we’re all going to see it if, God forbid, something terrible happens, we will all be taking pictures and streaming no matter what’s happening around us,” he adds.

"此外,如果能在设备屏幕上摄制灾难类电影,我会很开心,因为如果发生可怕的事情,当然我不希望发生灾难,这是我们看到它的方式,不管我们周边发生了什么,我们都将在拍照、上传,"他补充到。

Profile’s storyline clearly lends itself to smartphones, and so did Tangerine’s. While tech has moved a long way from the shaky cameras of The Blair Witch Project of 1999 – and the plot its makers said they wrote to explain its poor technical quality – Soderbergh admits that even in 2018, he needed a project that would lend itself to using phones. Unsane, a psychological horror romp with B-movie overtones, seemed to fit the bill.

《个人主页》的故事情节很适合用智能手机拍摄,《橘色》亦如此。1999年,拍摄恐怖片《布莱尔女巫》(The Blair Witch Project)时,摄像机还是晃来晃去的,制作人说他们还写了剧情来解释当时糟糕的技术质量。当前,尽管技术已有长足进步,索德伯格承认即使到了2018年,他也需要一个适合用手机拍摄的电影项目。《丧心病狂》这部暗含廉价劣质电影意味的心理类恐怖娱乐片似乎正合要求。

“I think the positives are I can put the lens anywhere in a matter of seconds, and within minutes you can watch a rehearsal, lock a scene and then shoot it, which keeps the energy going. The only real downsides are that the phone is very sensitive to vibration, and the sensors are very small,” he explains.

"我想好处是我可以在数秒内把镜头置于任一场景中,几分钟内你就可以观看彩排,锁定一个场景然后拍摄,不停歇地拍摄。切切实实不好的就一点,手机对振动太敏感了,而且传感器很小,"他解释到。

Bruno Smadja founded the Mobile Film Festival back in 2005, just as cameras were added to phones, but he still believes this kind of film-making should be “pictures before paintings. With great artists, you can see their sketches and often they’re wonderful in themselves, but then they go on to paint.”

2005年,布鲁诺·萨马加(Bruno Smadja)创办了移动电影节(Mobile Film Festival),当时手机才刚装上摄像头,但是他仍然认为这种电影制作方式应首先是照片,其次才是绘画。在伟大的艺术家手中,你可以看他们的草图,通常这些草图本身就很奇妙,但是他们仍然继续作画。"

The 2018 festival competition features filmmakers from 22 countries, and their films can only last one minute. Its star is young French director Morgan Simon, who after competing at the festival, went on to make his first feature film, A Taste of Ink, which showed at the Toronto Film Festival in 2016.

22个国家的电影制作人在2018电影节上竞技,他们的电影时长只能有一分钟。电影界明星是年轻的法国导演摩根·西蒙(Morgan Simon)。参加完此次竞赛之后,摩根继续制作它的首部剧情片《墨水的味道》( A Taste of Ink),该片在2016年的多伦多电影节上放映。

Despite founding the event, Smadja says: “I’m not sure that it’s ever going to be normal to shoot a feature on a phone, no. The movie industry is one of art, and a lot of creations need to have technicians behind it in order to create the beauty of film. I wouldn’t want to lose this.”

尽管创办了此次活动,萨马加说:"我认为用手机拍电影不会成为常态,不会。电影产业是艺术的一种,许许多多的创新需要有技术人员的支持,才能创造出电影的美。

But while Sean Baker, immediately after shooting Tangerine, returned to traditional methods of making films, and got the Oscar-nominated The Florida Project out of it, Steven Soderbergh says he’s been re-invigorated by the experience of shooting Unsane.

然而,西恩·贝克一拍完《橘色》就重拾传统电影拍摄手法,获得奥斯卡提名的《佛罗里达乐园》(The Florida Project)就是他用传统手法拍摄的,与其相反,索德伯格说《丧心病狂》的拍摄经历为其注入了新的能量。

“I’m supposed to start a new movie in a week,” he muses. “I’m thinking about whether I can go back to the ‘normal’ way of working or am I too enamoured of what the new technology allows me to do? It’s been as close to the sensation I had when I was making films as a teenager.”

"我应在一周内开始制作一部新电影,"他沉思。"我在想我是否能返回'正常的'工作模式,还是说我过度痴迷于新技术所赋予我的一切制作自由?太刺激了,几乎能和我十几岁制作电影时所感受到的刺激相媲美。"

Lowkey cinema

低调的电影

The deciding factor may be critical reaction to Unsane. Soderbergh says he warned his actors that making a guerilla-style, smartphone film in a week “wouldn’t just feel like kids from high school making a movie, it would feel like kids from junior high school making a movie,” but the Hollywood Reporter’s David Rooney isn’t impressed by its look.

决定性因素可能是《丧心病狂》获得的影片批评。索德伯格说他警告过他的演员,在一周内制作一部低成本的智能手机电影,"不像高中生拍电影,更像初中生拍电影那种感觉,"好莱坞记者戴维·鲁尼(David Rooney)对其成品评价不高。

“It mostly looks drab. It’s also distinctly unflattering on many of the actors, although possibly this was the desired effect,” he writes.

"主要是它看起来单调乏味。很多演员的上镜效果糟糕透顶,尽管这可能是它想要达到的效果,"他写到。

The director may or not make take comfort, however, in the mixed reviews the film has received being directed at the plot – one critic called it ‘a pantomime’ – rather than the method used to shoot it.

导演索德伯格可能会也或许不会感到安慰,不管怎样,该影片获得的评论主要集中在剧情上,而非它的拍摄方法上。

“My intention is that the movie is one that anyone could go into a cinema and watch, and have no concept of what it was shot on, or care, because it looks like a normal film,” he explains.

"我想要的是让大家在电影院观看这部电影时,不去留意也不去关心它的拍摄器材,因为它看起来像一部正常的电影,"他解释说。

It’s doubtful that without Soderbergh and Foy’s name attached, Unsane would be getting a cinema release. However Soderbergh maintains his foray into mobile movie-making is part of a potential seismic shift for modern film-makers.

要不是冲着导演索德伯格和主演福伊的名气,《丧心病狂》能否在电影院上映还不好说。然而,索德伯格认为他涉足手机电影拍摄是现代电影制作人面临的一场潜在的翻天动地的变迁的一部分。

‘Technology is evolving so rapdily that within the next year you’ll see cameras that aren’t much bigger than a phone with very sizeable sensors on it, and it will be interesting to see who will embrace it and who won’t,” he predicts.

"技术进化的速度是如此迅猛,以至于明年之内,你将会看到比手机大不了多少的摄像机,上面附带相当大的传感器,而且将观察到哪些人会拥抱技术进化,哪些人不会,很有趣,"他解释道。

“I did this because I wanted to put myself in the space of a young film-maker, and what kind of decisions I would make,” Soderbergh adds. “When I was starting out it was incredibly expensie even to make a short film, but now you have no excuse, the only obstacle is yourself.”

"我这么做是因为我想体验一下年轻电影制作人的视角,并看看我将会做出什么样的决定,"索德伯格补充到。"我刚开始拍电影的时候,即使是一部短片,它的制作成本也是高的离谱,但是现在你没有借口了,唯一的障碍是你自己。"

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