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出自名家设计的摩洛哥花园

更新时间:2018-3-8 19:42:09 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Preserving morocco's grand gardens
出自名家设计的摩洛哥花园

The vivid blue walls of the Berber Museum and IslamicArt Museum in Marrakech, juxtaposed with the vibrant green cacti that rise like totem poles in the Jardin Majorelle, are a stunning sight to behold.

马若雷勒花园(Jardin Majorelle)位于摩洛哥的马拉喀什(Marrakech),在这里你可以看到柏柏尔博物馆(Berber Museum)和伊斯兰艺术博物馆(IslamicArt Museum),碧蓝色的墙壁和生机勃勃的绿色仙人掌交相辉映,后者就像图腾柱一样高高耸立,呈现一派令人震撼的景象。

The complex, the largest work completed by artist and former resident Jacques Majorelle, is one of the most visited sites in Morocco, and its history is rich with design heritage. Long after the death of Marjorelle, it was rescued in the 1980s by Yves Saint Laurent alongside his partner Pierre Bergé, who died in September this year, shortly before a new YSL museum opened next door. Saint Laurent’s ashes are scattered in the garden.

它是法国艺术家雅克·马若雷勒(Jacques Majorelle)所完成的最复杂、最宏大的作品,也是摩洛哥最受游客欢迎的景点之一,是历史悠久的设计遗产。20世纪80年代,在马若雷勒去世很久后,伊夫·圣洛朗(Yves Saint Laurent)与合作伙伴皮埃尔·贝尔杰(Pierre Bergé)携手拯救花园。去年,伊夫·圣洛朗博物馆(Musée Yves Saint Laurent Marrakech)在花园附近落成,可惜贝尔杰等不到开幕,去年9月就去世了,而2008年离世的圣洛朗的骨灰就被撒在花园里。

The intriguing work of American landscape gardener Madison Cox (who married Bergé in March this year and who also serves as the President of the Fondation Jardin Marjorelle) in these gardens could also be considered art.

花园中,美国景观园艺家麦迪逊·考克斯(Madison Cox,去年3月与贝尔杰结婚,同时也是马若雷勒花园基金会主席)的迷人作品也堪称艺术杰作。

Now, most likely inspired by this unique place, several gardens in this vibrant country are leaving design lovers and gardening enthusiasts alike spoilt for choice.

受到这个独特花园的启发,在摩洛哥这个充满活力的国家也出现了许多新的景观花园,让设计爱好者和园艺爱好者应接不暇,流连忘返。

Budding designs

崭露头角的设计

The fantastical Anima gardens, created by Austrian artist AndréHeller provide an equally delightful combination of design and foliage that draws upon Morocco’s rich gardening heritage. The gardens are around 28 km from Marrakech.

出自奥地利艺术家安德烈·海勒(André Heller)之手的梦幻般的阿尼玛花园(Anima Gardens),郁郁葱葱,充满愉快气息,也同样汲取了摩洛哥园艺遗产的丰富营养。花园距离马拉喀什约28公里。

Heller spent six years transforming this desert landscape into a paradise garden, importing plants from around the globe. Amid the fields of roses and a dozen-odd palm tree varieties, there is a contemporary art centre that Heller hopes to turn into the leading home for contemporary art in Morocco. Works from the greats, including Keith Haring and Pablo Picasso, are dotted around the gardens. An African face stares out from the foliage, before visitors stumble upon a path of Chinese zodiac signs and a glass house.

海勒从世界各地引进各种植物,历时六年,将这片沙漠景观变成了一个天堂般的花园。在玫瑰园中,高耸着十几棵不同种类的棕榈树,其中还设有一个当代艺术中心,海勒希望这里成为摩洛哥当代艺术的领军者。花园周围点缀着凯斯·哈林(Keith Haring)和巴勃罗·毕加索(Pablo Picasso)等大师的作品。在游客们踏上带有中国生肖标志和玻璃温室的小径前,还会看到树丛中有个非洲脸孔在凝视着他们。

The garden’s website calls it, “one of the most imaginative gardens in the world.” And they might not be wrong: Heller is neither afraid to plant roses in the desert nor to push artistic boundaries.

花园的网站称其为"世界上最富有想象力的花园之一"。他们说得没错:海勒既不畏在沙漠中种植玫瑰,也敢于在艺术上突破界限。

Le Jardin Secret, a former palace in the midst of the Medina sprawl, opened in 2016, and is slightly more conservative. Visitors come from far afield to take in its intoxicating mix of boldly-coloured new buildings and traditional Islamic gardens.

在马拉喀什的麦地那城(Medina)的不断扩张中,秘密花园(Le Jardin Secret)于2016年开放,它稍有些保守。远道而来的游客来到这个令人陶醉地方,尽享其中色彩鲜艳的新建筑和传统伊斯兰花园的奇妙组合。

Built more than 400 years ago, and re-built in the mid 1800s, the garden on recently opened for public viewing. It features beautifully restored Islamic architecture with structured gardens complementing the buildings, offering a place to retreat from the bustle of the medina and a classic example of a stately Moroccan estate.

这座花园始建于400多年前的19世纪中叶,最近面向公众开放。其中有修复后的漂亮伊斯兰建筑,错落有致的花园与建筑相得益彰。这里为人们提供了一个远离喧嚣的静谧之地,也是宏伟庄严的摩洛哥庄园的典型代表。

A strikingly minimalist complex, containing a shop and offices, has been added to the existing palace, containing a less formal exotic garden, with plant species from around the world that draw upon the experimental nature of the great gardens of Morocco.

在现存宫殿中,添加了一个极简主义的建筑,包括一个商场和写字楼,还有一个轻松随意、富有异国情调的花园,其中的植物来自世界各地,汲取了摩洛哥大花园的实验性质。

A heavenly metaphor

一个天堂的隐喻

Marrakech is known as a rose among the palm trees, an oasis in the desert. The Islamic garden, meanwhile, is designed to offer an inner retreat like a courtyard in a riad, a traditional Moroccan home.

马拉喀什被称为在棕榈树中的玫瑰、沙漠中的绿洲。伊斯兰花园还为人们提供一个内部静修场所,就像传统摩洛哥家里的庭院一样。

“The garden is as a matter of fact a metaphor of heaven; it is a sacred place, laid out according to rigid geometrical rules, in which the Muslim order asserts itself over the wild disorder of nature,” say the organisers of Le Jardin Secret.

秘密花园的管理方表示,"这个花园实际上是一个关于天国的隐喻;它是一个神圣之地,设计严格遵循几何规则,穆斯林教义称之为自然的无序"。

Other notable gardens in Marrakech include those at the Mamounia hotel, and the 400-hectare botanical Agdal Gardens.

马拉喀什的其他著名花园还包括马穆尼亚酒店(Mamounia Hotel)的花园和400公顷的植物园——阿格达勒花园(Agdal Gardens)。

And now, a number of grass-roots organisations are working to restore more gardens around Morocco that serve communities. “The problem in Morocco is not so much saving the gardens but creating them,” says Swedish gardening activist and photographer Ingrid Pullar.  “There are some old gardens created by the French, mainly, but all in all, empty spaces are being sucked up by real estate companies.”

现在,一些基层组织正在摩洛哥各地努力恢复更多的花园,让它们服务于不同的社区。瑞典园艺活动人士和摄影师英格丽德·普拉(Ingrid Pullar)表示,"摩洛哥的问题并不是拯救花园,而是建设花园。这里有一些法国人建的古老花园,但总的来说,这些空地正在被房地产公司吞噬。"

Pullar volunteers with several organisations, including Orange Bleu Maghreb (OBM). She also co-founded her own non-governmental organisation, The Green Challenge, to take over the management of a garden project in a district of Cassabanca, Sidi Moumen. The garden, known as Jardin Ibn Al Awam, was created in 2014.

普拉担任几个组织的志愿者,其中包括马格里布橙色蓝色组织(Orange Bleu Maghreb, OBM)。她还与人合伙创立了非政府组织"绿色挑战"(The Green Challenge),接手卡萨布兰卡(Cassabanca)一个花园项目的管理。这个名为"Jardin Ibn Al Awam"的花园建于2014年。

“Some of the area’s complexes have barren land, filled with garbage next to them so OBM decided to make a garden there,” says Pullar. “In the Spring of 2015, I coordinated and organised a collection of trees via Facebook posts. People here are starved of green space, and parks. Casablanca is getting more and more crowded, and they are building everywhere. People are suffocating from lack of parks and trees.”

普拉表示,"本地区有些建筑群之间还有荒地,旁边是垃圾堆,所以OBM组织决定在那里建一个花园。2015年春天,我通过在脸书发帖组织和收集了一些树木。这里人都渴望有绿地和公园。卡萨布兰卡越来越拥挤,到处都是建筑。人们因缺乏公园和树木而感到窒息。"

“So many people saw our posts and went to their chosen nursery and selected fruit trees or plants,” she says.  “People from Casablanca, Fes and even my friends in Germany willingly donated trees for the garden. Then we brought the trees over to the barren land and planted them. Today we already have some tall trees. In the Spring, it looks fantastic.”

她说,"很多人看到我们的帖子,都去他们选择的苗圃,为花园选择果树或植物。来自卡萨布兰卡的人们,乃至我在德国的朋友们都愿意为花园捐赠树木。然后我们把这些树运到荒地,种下它们。今天,已经有一些大树长成,春天时看起来很美。"

“There is not one group that brings together all of the smaller NGOs at this point,” she notes.

她指出,"目前还没有一个组织出面将规模较小的非政府组织团结在一起"。

Other gardens that local enthusiasts have saved include Les Jardins Exotiques de Bouknadel, which lies between Sale and Kenitra.

当地的热心人士还着手保护其他花园,其中包括位于萨尔(Sale)和肯尼特拉(Kenitra)之间的"Les Jardins Exotiques de Bouknadel"花园。

“It is not very famous but it is a big garden with thick, tall trees. It was founded in 1951 by a French engineer and took 10 years to make,” Pullar says. “At one point, it was almost abandoned but it was reopened again in 2005. In 2011, they inaugurated a pedagogic tour of the garden for school kids.”

普拉表示,"它不是很有名,但也是一个树木茂密的大花园。它由一名法国工程师从1951年开始历时10年建成。它一度几乎被废弃,但在2005年又重新开放。2011年,他们为学校的孩子们开启了一次学习之旅。"

Pullar grew up in Sweden surrounded by trees and has an appreciation of nature that goes beyond design.

普拉在树木环绕的瑞典长大,她对大自然的热爱超越了设计。

“When OBM came to Casablanca to do urban permaculture and started to transform an old dump in the outskirts of town, I was more than happy to join the team of nature enthusiasts and tree lovers, like myself,” she recalls. “First we had to remove trash and flatten the land. Then it was time to make the space green and collect trees. We realised how starved people in the cities are of nature. Then we planted. Since then, we have organised dozens of workshops and events, while the garden slowly has grown.”

她回忆道,"OBM组织来到卡萨布兰卡从事永续栽培工作、开始改造市郊的老垃圾场时,我很高兴加入到和我一样的自然爱好者和树木爱好者的队伍中。我们必须先清除垃圾,夷平土地。接着还要建设绿地,收集树木。我们认识到,城市里的人们对绿色是多么的渴求。然后我们开始植树。从那时起,我们总共组织了几十个讲座和活动,而花园也慢慢地成长起来。"

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