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更新时间:2018-3-4 10:38:13 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

U-July 22: Is it too soon to make a film about a tragedy?

A teenage girl sprints through woods. She is running for her life. She trips over branches, and sees the dead body of a child. The air is full of gunshots.


This is not a scenario from, say, The Hunger Games. This is Utøya 22 Juli, also known as U-July 22, a film which deals with the actions of Anders Breivik, a far-right extremist who murdered 69 young people enjoying summer camp on the Norwegian island of Utøya, on 22 July 2011. He had also killed eight others when he detonated explosives earlier that day in the capital, Oslo.

这不是好莱坞《饥饿游戏》(The Hunger Games)之类的惊险片镜头,这部电影题为《7月22日的于特岛 》(U-July 22),是根据2011年7月22日发生在挪威的那起屠杀惨案改编的。那天一个叫安德斯·布雷维克(Anders Breivik)的极右翼分子在于特岛(Utøya)青年营地枪杀了69名青少年,之前他还在奥斯陆引爆一枚汽车炸弹,造成8人死亡。

The massacre was seven years ago – and now it’s been made into a film in competition at this year’s Berlin International Film Festival. Some say it’s too soon to make a feature film out of such horror.

这个发生在7年前的惨案现在被搬上银幕,电影参加了今年柏林电影节(Berlin International Film Festival)的展映。有人认为,现在就将这起真实惨案拍摄成电影,在时间上来说过于急进了。

“The opposition to making this film was no secret,” says director Erik Poppe, a four-time Norwegian National Film Critics' Award winner. “There was a lot of reaction when people found out and I am the first one to understand, as I would have thought myself, ‘is that possible? Is it going to be an entertainment movie?’”

"反对拍摄这部影片的呼声一直存在,"该片导演艾里克·波佩(Erik Poppe)说,他曾四次赢得挪威国家电影评论奖(National Film Critics' Award)。"人们的反映非常强烈,我完全理解,我也会自问,可能吗?这会成为一部吸引人的影片吗?"

Poppe, a former war photographer, filmed Utøya over five days near the original location of the murders, with a cast of young, mainly amateur actors. He filmed one take each day – each lasting 72 minutes, the exact length of Breivik’s attack, before help arrived. There is little editing and no music in the film. No promotional trailers have been released. It was first screened to survivors and their families, and Poppe took feedback from them. And Anders Breivik never features in the film – merely as a shadowy figure in the distance, once.


Many in the audience, and the press attending the festival, reported themselves ‘stunned’ into silence, or tears, by Utøya, which received a 10-minute standing ovation. But in a week when a lone gunman killed 17 people in a shooting at a high school in Florida, could watching a recreation of recent real-life mass murder inspire a different emotion in someone watching the film?


“Of course, there might always be a lunatic that could get inspiration from watching this, but he or she could equally get that from watching the news as well,” points out Gunnar Rehlin, a film journalist for Swedish national news agency TT. “Some people will still say the film’s in bad taste, but having seen it, it is not. It is very well done.”

"当然了,总可能会有疯子从这样的影片中得到启发,但这些人同样可能从媒体报道中得到灵感。"瑞典国家新闻机构的电影记者古纳尔·瑞林(Gunnar Rehlin)说,"有人或许认为拍摄这样的影片品味低俗,但我看过影片了,我认为拍得非常好。"

According to Poppe, “no time is a good time” to make a film about real-life trauma.

“I respect those who think it’s too early, but for those who lost loved ones, they feel it like it was yesterday, seven years on. It will never be the right time. And many survivors are concerned that the memory of what happened is fading away. There’s a lot of focus on the killer, on what kind of official memorial Norway will have. It felt urgent to bring the actual story back into the collective memory.”

Matt Mueller, editor of Screen International, agrees that artistic responsibility can only go so far before freedom of expression is stifled.“Hasn’t art always been about processing human trauma and making sense of the senseless?” he asks. “It’s been the same throughout history, and film is part of that tradition. I don’t believe in this idea of ‘too soon’ for film. I believe in due diligence.”

《国际银幕》(Screen International)编辑马特·穆勒(Matt Mueller)说:"艺术创作难道不是一直都在反映人类社会发生的戏剧,一直都试图解读毫无头绪的事件吗?历史上一直如此,而电影表现是其中之一。我不同意所谓'过早'反映某个事件的说法,我相信严谨调查。"

Stranger than fiction

However, historically, when film-makers have come calling a few years after tragedies on US soil, public reaction has been critical. When Paul Greengrass, a respected British director, made United 93 in 2006, about passengers who fought back against the 9/11 hijackers just five years before, some audiences were reported to be shouting at the screen. During the making of Patriot’s Day, a 2016 film directed by Peter Berg about the hunt for the Boston Marathon bombers, large areas of the city were locked down. Recreations of police Swat teams - who had been there in reality just three years before - laid Hollywood open to accusations of profiting from trauma.

然而,反观过往事件,当电影人根据美国近年悲剧拍摄的电影发行后,公众的批评反响激烈。2006年,英国著名导演保罗·格林格拉斯(Paul Greengrass)拍摄了根据9/11事件中在飞机上乘客与劫机者斗争的《93航班》(United 93),有报道说,有些观众甚至在电影院冲着银幕大喊。2016年导演彼得·伯格(Peter Berg)在拍摄根据美国波士顿马拉松爆炸袭击事件改编的影片《爱国者日》(Patriot's Day)时,该市大片区域围了起来,重现当时场景,很多人谴责好莱坞试图从人类惨剧中获利。

“It's a sensitive subject. I was really on the fence and kind of reluctant to commit,” Mark Wahlberg, the film’s star, told the press at the time. “Then I realised, they're going to make the movie anyway; I might as well be in control of it."

"这的确是很敏感的主题。我当时并不太情愿参与,"该片主演马克·沃尔伯格(Mark Wahlberg)在影片发行时对媒体说,"但我又意识到,他们反正是要拍摄这部片子,如果参与其中还可以有一定的掌控。"

Within 18 months of the Boston marathon bombing there were three Hollywood projects in development about it. In fact, time passing can make a movie retrospective of real-life tragedy less likely until a generation has passed. Oliver Stone made World Trade Center in 2006, starring Nic Cage, about two officers trapped during the 9/11 attacks, and Greengrass made United 93, but now, nearly two decades after the event, as yet there is no ‘definitive’ film planned.

在波士顿马拉松爆炸袭击事件发生18个月之内,好莱坞就有三个拍摄计划针对该主题。实际上,要经过一代人的时间之后根据真实事件拍摄的影片才会有怀旧感。9/11事件后,美国导演奥利佛·斯通(Oliver Stone)在2006年拍摄了《世贸中心》(World Trade Center),由影星尼古拉斯·凯奇(Nic Cage)主演,还有格林格拉斯拍摄的《93航班》,至此,事件发生将近20年后,并没有任何其他有关此题材的影片出现。

“With an event on that scale, how can you approach it?” Mueller points out. “It would be quite daunting. The ramifications associated with making it are so strong, and the studios have different incentives to independent film-making. They would need to put a lot of money into that kind of project.”


But waiting 30 or 40 years before dealing with a real-life event often means a film-maker arrives at a more “truthful” perspective, according to José Padilha, the director of 7 Days in Entebbe, a feature film also showing in Berlin, about Israel’s attempts to rescue 240 hostages trapped in Entebbe, Uganda, in the summer of 1976.

如果等到事件发生30或40年之后,电影人可能会对事件做出更加真实客观的反映,影片《恩德培的7天》(7 Days in Entebbe )的导演何塞·帕蒂拉(José Padilha)这样认为,他的这部影片也在柏林电影节展映。该片是根据1976年在乌干达恩德培,以色列试图拯救240名人质事件改编的。

“Immediately after what happened a lot of the film-making produced was very euphoric, it was seen as a great military victory,” Padihla explains. “With time passing, new insights come. Our perspective – that the kidnappers never intended to kill the hostages – wasn’t in the official narrative from 1976. But we’ve checked it out with eyewitnesses, and we believe it’s true.”


Erik Poppe’s Utøya 22 Juli is a fictional film drawing extensively on interviews with survivors; the character it follows, Kaja, played by Andrea Berntzen, isn’t real. Poppe also believes film can be “more truthful” than a documentary.


“By discussing it with so many people we could bring it all together, compared to telling one or two stories, which is what you’d get in a documentary,” he claims.


While every actor and crew member in Utøya 22 Juli had access to a psychologist and counselling before, during and after filming, Poppe says he will have failed if the audience who choose to watch the film don’t find it, at the very least, uncomfortable.


“I think if it’s not hard it’s not real,” he says. “There aren’t too many films that show this side of life. I wanted the audience to learn something about what’s out there and feel the pain, and see what extremism looks like, and then figure out what we can do as a society. I suggest we all have a responsibility to look for the individuals who don’t feel part of us, who are prey for extremists.”


However, films about extremists such as Anders Breivik might provoke even greater debate than Utøya 22 Juli – and Paul Greengrass has one in production, called Norway, due to be released sometime later this year. Whether individual terrorists should have that kind of publicity is another argument for the film industry, according to Gunnar Rehlin.


“Since Breivik seems to thrive on attention, that might be a film that one might wish had not been made,” he says.