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颠覆机器人形象的未来设计

更新时间:2018-2-28 20:48:23 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

The designers helping us embrace robots
颠覆机器人形象的未来设计

Machines are talking about you behind your back.

"机器人正在背后议论你"。

So reads a notice on the wall at Hello, Robot: Design Between Human and Machine – an exhibition which could change the way you think about automatons. The show’s already been a big hit in Vienna, Austria. This summer it travels to Winterthur, in Switzerland, then on to Lisbon in Portugal. Until April you can see it in Belgium, at Ghent’s excellent Design Museum.

这是在"你好,机器人:连接人与机器的设计"(Hello, Robot: Design Between Human and Machine)展览上一面墙上的标语。该展览已经在奥地利维也纳造成了轰动,有可能改变你对机器人的看法。今年夏天,展览会移到瑞士的温特图尔(Winterthur),然后是葡萄牙的里斯本。不过现在一直到四月,你可以在比利时的根特设计博物馆(Ghent Design Museum)看到这个展览。

Like all the best exhibitions, visitors are likely to still be thinking about it months, maybe even years from now. It isn’t merely science fiction. It’s about the here and now.

就像所有的一流展览一样,参观者有可能会在数月甚至数年后回想到它。它不仅是科幻小说中才出现的情形,而是现实的写照。

“In recent years, robotics has found its way into our everyday lives, changing them in fundamental ways,” reads the introduction to the show. “Design has a central role to play in this process, for it is designers who shape the interfaces between humans and machines.”

"近些年来,机器人已经进入我们的日常生活,并且在根本上对日常生活带来了改变,"展览的前言写道,"设计在这个过程中起到了核心的作用,因为是设计师塑造了人机交互的界面。"

“The debate about artificial intelligence has oscillated between utopian and dystopian visions, between the hope of a better, technologically advanced world and the fear of disempowerment. In this context, we are once again confronted with the question of the designer’s responsibility.”

"关于人工智能的争论一直在乌托邦和反乌托邦的愿景之间,在创造一个更美好、技术更先进的世界的愿望与人类地位被剥夺的恐惧之间摇摆不定。在这一背景下,我们再一次直面设计师责任的问题。"

The term ‘robot’ was coined by a Czech playwright called Karel Capek, in 1920, in his work Rossum’s Universal Robots. The term comes from the Czech word “robota”, meaning forced labourer or serf. The plot of Capek’s play has become archetypal, spawning countless imitators: an army of mechanical slaves rise up and overthrow their human masters.

"robot"(机器人)这个英文词是捷克剧作家卡雷尔·恰佩克(Karel Capek)在1920年的作品《罗素姆的万能机器人》(Rossum's Universal Robots)中首次使用的。这个词语源自捷克语"robota",意思是受到强迫的苦力或农奴。该剧本的情节已经成为大量作品的模仿对象:一支机器人大军叛乱,推翻了人类主人的统治。

Attitudes to artificial life and intelligence have always oscillated between fear and fascination. Take this week’s frenzy after a viral video showed a dog-like robot from Boston Dynamics displaying it’s comewhat creepy ability to open doors. Cinema has played a crucial role in shaping our shifting attitude to robots, from mechanical humanoids in Fritz Lang’s Metropolis (1927) to the sinister computer in Stanley Kubrick’s 2001 – A Space Odyssey (1968). Much of the fiction including robots portrays them as mutinous or catastrophic creations; it’s easy to understand why we might be wary of the next robot frontier.

对人工生命和人工智能的态度一直以来在畏惧和幻想之间摇摆不定。例如最近一段热门视频:波士顿动力公司(Boston Dynamics)的机器狗展现了它有点可怕的开门能力。电影对人对机器人的看法产生重要影响,不论是弗里茨·朗(Fritz Lang)1927年的作品《大都市》(Metropolis)中的人形机器人,还是斯坦利·库布里克(Stanley Kubrick)1968年的电影《2001太空漫游》(2001 - A Space Odyssey)里的险恶的计算机。大多数虚构作品中,机器人的形象是叛变、带来灾难的东西。理所当然,我们可能会警惕下一代机器人的出现。

As the Hello, Robot exhibition shows, today’s robots don’t always look human, but they can still perform all sorts of human functions. They’re all around us, and they’re already reconfiguring the world we live in. From drones to smartphones, from Apple’s Siri to Amazon’s Alexa, robots are already doing a lot of the things we can do, except now they’re often doing them better. Our current Martian explorer is not a human but a machine: Nasa’s Curiosity Rover is roaming the Red Planet’s surface, sending selfies back to Earth.

正如"你好,机器人"展览所示,如今的机器人并不总是人形的,但是它们依旧可以完成所有人类能做的事情。它们现在已经无处不在,并正在重塑我们周边的世界。不论是无人机,还是智能手机,不论是苹果的Siri,还是亚马逊的Alexa,机器人正在做很多人类会做的事情,并且已经比人类做得更好。目前的火星探测者也是机器,而非人类:美国宇航局的"好奇号"(Curiosity Rover)正在火星表面漫游,还把自拍照片传回地球。

Clearly, this is only the beginning. Driverless cars are almost upon us. The so-called ‘internet of things’ will transform your home into a machine with a mind of its own. So, we are going to have to get more and more used to robots sharing our daily lives.

显然,这只是刚刚开始。无人驾驶汽车就快要走入现实生活当中了。所谓的"物联网"将把你的家变成一台会思考的机器。我们也会越来越习惯在日常生活中与机器人共处。

But what are the considerations when it comes to their design? The functional capabilities and societal implications of a robot designed to be in the home quickly become irrelevant if it transpires that nobody wants to buy it, let alone look at it or interact with it.

但是在机器人的设计方面有何考量?假如没有人购买机器人,甚至看都不看,或者不和机器人互动,家庭机器人的功能和社会影响就立刻变得毫无意义。

Like cars and trains and washing machines, robots aren’t just scientific – they’re aesthetic creations, too. As with any other gizmo, they’re at the mercy of designers, who strive to make them not just more efficient but more attractive and appealing with every iteration. “It is in essence a design issue,” says Fredo de Smet, one of the show’s curators. “Design has an essential role in the way we embrace technology in our future society.”

就像汽车、火车、洗衣机一样,机器人不仅仅是科学产品——同时也是美学产品。和任何其它发明创造一样,机器人也要依靠设计师不断更新版本,提高其效率和魅力。"这在本质上是一个设计问题,"展览的策展人之一弗雷多·德·斯梅特(Fredo de Smet)说,"设计对我们接受未来社会的科技具有重要的作用。"

A good example is the drone, already well established for military and surveillance use and now used for all kinds of things, from disaster recovery to wedding photography. Trouble is, a lot of people tend to think of drones as sinister. They’re worried they’ll invade our privacy. Their construction often doesn’t help – angular, metallic, drones often resemble predatory insects. But what if we made drones out of curvy, pink plastic? There’s one in this exhibition. It’s only a prototype, but it could be the shape of things to come – subtle, aesthetic tweaks that aim to make these autonomous aerial robots more approachable.

一个很好的例子是无人机。无人机广泛应用于军事和侦查活动,现在已经推广到救灾、婚礼摄影等许多方面。但问题是,很多人容易觉得无人机很险恶,担心无人机会侵犯人的隐私。无人机的结构也无益于此——棱角分明,金属材质,很像捕食性昆虫。但是如果无人机是用曲面、粉色的塑料制作呢?展览上就有这样的一台无人机。虽然还只是原型,但是它有可能影响到未来无人机的发展——微妙的美学调整,旨在让自动驾驶的空中机器人更具亲和力。

The tweaks can be simple yet powerful. We’re already used to robots with friendly female voices. When Vecna Robotics, supported by the US Army, created a robot that could lift and carry troops injured in warzones, the company’s designers decided to give it a teddy bear’s face that would comfort wounded soldiers.

这种调整虽然简单,但却很有效。我们已经习惯于机器人使用友好的女性嗓音。美军支持的Vecna Robotics公司制造出一种能在战区抬起并运送伤员的机器人。设计者决定把机器人的脸部设计成泰迪熊的样子,这样可以抚慰伤员。

One exhibit in the show is a group of products aimed at helping future parents in raising ‘robotic natives’ – the next generation. It includes a robotic arm that can feed a child a bottle. The arm comes with a fuzzy dragon suit to conceal its machinery and a ‘kill switch’ should parents want to immediately shut down the robotics in their child’s nursery.

展览上有一批面向未来父母,辅助抚育下一代(伴随机器人长大的一代)的产品。其中包括用奶瓶喂孩子的机械臂。机械臂披上了模糊的龙图案外罩,以掩饰其机械本质。它还设有"停止键",以防万一家长要立刻关闭正在婴儿室的机器人。

Another item, Musio, is an educational and social robot, designed to interact with humans of all ages and assist in the home. Its artificial intelligence (AI) capabilities means it is constantly learning and adapting to its surroundings. This time, the design firm behind this robot, AKA, seems to have taken its cue from fiction. Marketed as a ‘friend,’ Musio has been given the look of a character from the film Monsters, Inc. Its body is shaped like a cuddly toy, its LCD display shows two wide, limpid, Disney-esque eyes that are immediately disarming. A separate display portrays a heart.

另一个展品Musio是一款教育、社交型机器人,旨在与各年龄段的人互动以及帮助处理家务。它具有的人工智能可以持续学习并适应环境。这款机器人的设计公司AKA似乎是从虚构世界获得的灵感。Musio以"朋友"的形象推向市场,它的外形使用的是《怪兽电力公司》(Monsters, Inc.)一个动画形象。机身的形状很像毛绒玩具,液晶屏上有一双迪士尼风格、又大又清澈的眼睛,让人立刻就放松了戒备。另外有一块显示屏代表了心脏。

Also in this exhibition, you get a chance to play with a robotic baby seal called Paro. These fake pets were handed out to Japanese survivors of tsunamis. They were cheaper than real pets, easier to manage, and apparently just as comforting.

在该展览上,你还有机会与一款名为Paro的机器人小海豹玩耍。日本海啸以后,人们就把这些假宠物分发给幸存者。它比真实的宠物要便宜,易于管理,抚慰的作用却是一样的。

The conclusion of this engrossing, disconcerting show is that humans and robots are already merging, and the idea of humanity and technology as two separate entities will eventually become obsolete. Humans have created mechanical add-ons since the first armour and spectacles were invented. Now we are creating exoskeletons to enhance our natural capabilities and putting and implanting chips beneath our skin that double as keys and passcodes.

这场引人入胜的、又让人不安的展览的结论就是人与机器人正在交汇融合;人文与科技互相独立的看法最终会过时。自从铠甲和眼镜发明开始,人类就已经创造出机械附件。现在我们正在制造外骨骼以提高自然赋予人的能力,还把芯片植入皮肤下面,兼用作钥匙和密码。

But if we are to embrace robotics to such an extreme that it become part of our own selves, the role of the designer in helping us get to that point will become more and more important.

但如果我们将来要接受机器人变成我们的一部分,那么设计师在其中发挥的作用将会变得越来越重要。

The challenge for designers is to create robots we want to live with – androids that seem like friends, not foes. We’ve already learned to love our smartphones. Now designers are getting started on every other aspect of our future lives: Anouk Wipprecht has designed a robotic ‘Spider Dress’ which protects your personal space; Leka is a new smart toy that reacts to touch, voice and movement (it’s proved especially successful with autistic children – it can even play hide-and-seek).

设计师面临的挑战是创造人类愿意与之共处的机器人——像朋友而非敌人的人形机器人。我们已经学会喜欢智能手机。现在设计师已经开始改变我们未来生活的方方面面:阿努克·维普雷希特(Anouk Wipprecht)设计了一款保护个人空间的机器人,名为"蜘蛛裙"(Spider Dress)。而一款名为Leka的新型智能玩具可以对触摸、语音以及动作作出反应(它被证明对自闭症儿童非常有好处——它甚至可以玩捉迷藏)。

The technology behind these inventions is impressive, but it’s good design that makes them desirable. Wipprecht’s ‘Spider Dress’ looks stunning – Leka is cute and lovable, a transparent ball with big bug eyes. As Steve Jobs proved at Apple, it’s not enough to give the public a device that will improve their daily lives. It has to be a thing of beauty, too.

这些发明背后的技术非常惊人,但是只有好的设计才能让他们受到青睐。维普雷希特的蜘蛛裙非常惊艳——Leka是一个可爱的、大眼透明球。正如史蒂夫·乔布斯(Steve Jobs)在苹果所证明的,给公众一台可以改善日常生活的设备是不够的。它还必须是一件美丽的作品。

Robots are already smarter than we are – bad design is the only thing that’s held them back. It’s now 20 years since IBM’s Deep Blue computer defeated world chess champion Garry Kasparov; in 2016, Google’s AlphaGo beat the Go world champion, Lee Sedol. The one thing that’s still missing is the pleasure of human contact. Once designers can replicate the sensation of playing against another human being, the triumph of the robots will be complete.

机器人已经比人类聪明,唯一的缺陷就是设计欠缺。二十年前,IBM的深蓝电脑战胜了国际象棋的世界冠军加里·卡斯帕罗夫(Garry Kasparov)。2016年,AlphaGo打败了围棋世界冠军李世石。它们唯一缺少的一点就是与人类接触时的愉悦感。一旦设计者能够再现与人对战时的感官感受,那么机器人就会彻底战胜人类。

Designers began by assuming that robots would have to mimic the human body (Robby the Robot in the 50s sci-fi film, Forbidden Planet, is a classic case in point). It’s taken the best part of a century for designers to realise that robots don’t need to seem human to share our world. On the contrary, they need to fade into the background, and become part of the furniture. Today’s robots still seem like machines pretending to be humans. The really scary thing about tomorrow’s robots is, you probably won’t even know they’re there.

设计者最初的想法是机器人理应模仿人的身体(20世纪50年代的电影《禁忌星球》(Forbidden Planet)中的机器人罗比(Robby)就是一个经典的例子)。设计者花了大半个世纪才意识到机器人要和人类共享世界,并不一定要看起来像人类。相反,它需要融入背景,成为家具的一部分。现在的机器人仍然是像人类的机器。未来机器人真正可怕的一点是,你可能会不知道它藏在什么地方。

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