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斯科普斯的“猴子审判”案

更新时间:2018-2-28 19:48:15 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Our recent obituary for the Rev. Billy Graham referred to the Scopes “monkey trial,” so we thought we’d revisit the case.

我们最近为葛培理牧师(Rev. Billy Graham)所撰写的讣闻提到了斯科普斯的“猴子审判”,所以我们认为有必要重新回顾一下这个案子。

It was a turning point in the acceptance of evolution in the U.S.

那是美国历史上对进化论接受程度的转折点。

In 1925, after Tennessee barred schools from teaching evolution, the American Civil Liberties Union offered to defend anyone who challenged the law. Residents of Dayton convinced a young teacher named John Scopes to do so, in a bid for publicity.

1925年,田纳西州禁止学校教授进化论后,美国公民自由联盟(American Civil Liberties Union)提出将为任何对该法律发起挑战的人提供辩护。为了宣传,代顿市的居民说服了一位名为约翰·斯科普斯(John Scopes)的年轻教师这么做。

They got it. The proceedings became a nationally watched showdown between science and religion, each represented by a prominent figure: Clarence Darrow, a lawyer and agnostic, defended Scopes; William Jennings Bryan, a Christian orator, prosecuted him.

他们获得了曝光率。案件的进程成为了科学与宗教之间的对决,受到了全国上下的关注,每一方的代表律师都是重要人物:为斯科普斯辩护的是律师、不可知论者克拉伦斯·达罗(Clarence Darrow);起诉他的则是基督教演说家詹宁斯·布莱恩(Jennings Bryan)。

Dayton officials encouraged the spectacle. They considered moving the trial to a baseball field. A barbecue pit was dug in the courthouse’s lawn. And The Times described a display of “two chimpanzees and a strange-appearing man who is called the ‘missing link.’ ”

代顿市的官员们鼓励这一场面的公开展示。他们考虑过要将审判挪到一个棒球场。人们在法院的草坪上挖了一个用来烧烤的坑。时报对“两个猩猩和一名被称为‘缺少的一环’、看起来很奇怪的男子”的展示进行了描述。

In the trial’s climactic moment, Darrow called Bryan as a witness, grilling him on biblical literalism. Darrow declared that he wanted to keep “bigots and ignoramuses from controlling” education. Bryan retorted that he needed to protect religion from the country’s “greatest atheist and agnostic.”

在审判的高潮时刻,达罗将布莱恩作为了证人,拷问他关于圣经直译主义的问题。达罗宣布他要阻止“偏执狂和无知者控制”教育。布莱恩则反驳称,他需要保护宗教,不受这个国家“最大的无神论者及不可知论者”的伤害。

In the end, Scopes was convicted after eight minutes of jury debate and fined $100, a decision later overturned on a technicality. But it was Darrow’s impassioned critique of fundamentalism that won hearts and minds across the country.

最后,陪审员经过八分钟的讨论,斯科普斯被判有罪,并被处以100美元的罚款。这一决定后来因为一个技术细节被推翻。但达罗对原教旨主义者充满激情的批判赢得了全国上下的心。

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