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什么是“连锁移民”?谁可以借此移民美国?

更新时间:2018-2-27 20:24:28 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

‘Chain Migration’ Has Become a Weaponized Phrase. Here Are the Facts Behind It.
什么是“连锁移民”?谁可以借此移民美国?

As Congress considers a deal to provide relief for young immigrants brought to the United States illegally as children, President Trump and his Republican allies are demanding an end to what they call “chain migration,” or family-based immigration.

美国国会在考虑达成一项协议,为在儿童时期非法进入美国的年轻移民提供豁免,与此同时,特朗普总统和他的共和党盟友则在要求终结他们所说的“连锁移民”,即以家庭为基础的移民。

The term itself has become a point of contention. Democrats and immigration advocates claim it is a pejorative phrase that demeans recent arrivals. Republicans argue it’s a useful shorthand for family sponsorship.

这个词本身已经成了争论的焦点。民主党人和移民倡导者声称,它是一个贬低新近移民的蔑称。共和党人则认为,它是家庭团聚移民的一个合理简称。

Below is a look at the facts behind recent family/chain immigration patterns, the underlying federal policies that govern them, and a look at how use of the phrase “chain migration” itself has very suddenly become a contentious and polarizing part of the debate.

下面我们来看看新近家庭/连锁移民模式背后的事实,管理这种模式的基本联邦政策,以及为什么“连锁移民”一词的使用本身突然成为这场争论中一个充满争议和冲突的部分。

How many immigrants are admitted through family sponsorship?

有多少移民通过家庭团聚得以获批?

Since the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965, the United States has prioritized admitting immigrants with relatives living here. According to data from the Department of Homeland Security, about 7 million out of the nearly 11 million immigrants who obtained green cards from 2007 to 2016, did so through family relations.

自1965年颁布《移民和国籍法》以来,美国会优先接纳在国内有亲属的移民。根据国土安全部的数据,从2007年到2016年获得绿卡的近1100万移民中,大约有700万是通过家庭关系获得的。

How does the sponsorship process work?

亲属担保是如何运作的?

Under current law, American green card holders can sponsor their spouses and unmarried children for permanent residence — just like naturalized and native-born citizens. And United States citizens can also petition for residence for their parents, siblings and married adult children.

根据现行法律,美国绿卡持有者可以为他们的配偶和未婚子女的永久居留身份提供担保,和归化及本土出生的公民一样。美国公民也可以申请为他们的父母、兄弟姐妹和已婚的成年子女获取居住权。

That said, there is a long queue for visas because of numerical limits for family-based immigration each year. As of Nov. 1, more than 3.9 million people were waiting in line.

然而,由于每年都有基于家庭的移民数量的限制,申请签证的队伍会很长。截至(2017年)11月1日,有超过390万人排队等待。

After a petition is filed and approved, would-be immigrants are essentially handed a ticket number called a “priority date” and can only apply for a green card when the State Department calls their number.

在递交了一份请愿书并获得批准后,那些想要移民的人基本上都拿到了一份被称为“优先日”的票号,只有当国务院叫到这个号码时,他们才能申请绿卡。

Depending on the country of origin, a sponsor’s immigration status and the applicant’s relationship to their sponsor, the waiting period can last from months to decades.

根据原属国、担保人的移民身份和申请人与保证人关系的不同,等待期可以持续数月至数十年。

In January 2018, for example, most immigrants sponsored by their United States-citizen siblings could begin to apply for a green card if their priority date was before June 22, 2004, a waiting period of 13.5 years. Those from other “oversubscribed” countries like India, Mexico and the Philippines would have needed to have an even earlier priority date.

例如在2018年1月,优先日在2004年6月22日之前、有美国兄弟姐妹担保的移民大多已经可以开始申请绿卡,等待期为13.5年。那些来自其他“超额”国家的人——如印度、墨西哥和菲律宾——将需要一个更早的优先日。

What is the relationship between “chain migration” and DACA?

“连锁移民”与DACA有什么关系?

To apply for the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals program, immigrants had to be younger than 31 on June 15, 2012, and must have proof of having arrived in the United States before age 16.

要申请“童年入境暂缓遣返程序”(Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals,简称DACA),移民必须在2012年6月15日时已经年满31岁,并且必须有在16岁之前到达美国的证明。

Theoretically, the children of those applicants are more likely to be American citizens, and their spouses also legal residents, citizens or Dreamers, according to the liberal Center for American Progress.

根据自由派机构美国进步中心(Center for American Progress)的数据,从理论上讲,这些申请者的子女更有可能是美国公民,他们的配偶也会是合法居民、公民或“梦想者”(Dreamer)。

If Dreamers are given a pathway to citizenship through legislation, they in turn could sponsor their parents for legal status as well. But those who entered the United States illegally are required to leave the country and wait three or 10 years before applying for an immigration visa. That’s “a significant barrier most would be unlikely to contemplate,” according to the nonpartisan Migration Policy Institute.

如果梦想者通过立法得到了获得公民身份的渠道,他们反过来也可以为他们的父母提供法律地位。但是那些非法进入美国的人被要求离开这个国家,等待3到10年后才能申请移民签证。根据无党派机构移民政策研究所(Migration Policy Institute)的数据,这是“大多数人不可能克服的一个重大障碍”。

Because of these factors, the institute estimates that the Dreamers would sponsor, on average, about one family member over their lifetime.

由于这些因素,研究所估计,一个梦想者一生中平均只能担保大约一个家庭成员。

Where does chain migration come in?

连锁移民是何时出现的?

“Chain migration” was originally a neutral, if not dry, phrase used by academics to describe the immigration process. For example, an academic paper from 1964 describes the benefit of “initial accommodation and employment arranged by means of primary social relationships with previous migrants” while discussing the growth of Italian neighborhoods in American cities.

“连锁移民”原本是学者用来描述移民过程的,尽管略显枯燥,却是一个中性词。例如,1964年的一篇学术论文在探讨美国城市中的意大利裔聚居区发展时,描述了“通过与先前移民的基本社会关系安排的初始住宿与职业”带来的益处。

In scholarship, the term appears to have emerged in the 1960s before tapering off in recent years, and even being eclipsed by the more recently established “family reunification.”

在学术领域,这个词似乎出现在上世纪60年代,后来使用逐渐减少,甚至被最近确立的“家庭团聚”所取代。

But popular use of the older phrase has skyrocketed. According to Google Trends search data, there were only modest spikes in user queries while immigration policies were debated in 2005 and 2015, before a spike in December 2017.

但是,民众对旧措辞的使用却急剧上升。根据谷歌趋势搜索的数据,2005年和2015年的移民政策讨论期间使用率只有少量上升,但在2017年12月陡增。

Why the sudden uptick?

为什么突然上升?

The White House and allies have deployed the phrase to label existing policy they find undesirable. In talking points and white papers, they have stated a preference for a merit-based system while labeling the current sponsorship process as “chain migration.”

白宫和盟友在用该措辞指称那些他们不喜欢的已有政策。在谈话要点和白皮书中,他们倾向于基于择优原则系统,并将当前的担保程序称为“连锁移民”。

Democrats, meanwhile, prefer the term “family reunification” and say the practice is a reflection of American values.

与此同时,民主党人更喜欢“家庭团聚”一词,并表示这种做法反映了美国的价值观。

Discussing DACA negotiations on Jan. 12, Senator Richard J. Durbin, Democrat of Illinois, called the term “offensive.” Though he has actually used it himself as recently as 2010 — a time when it appeared to be less of a loaded phrase between the two political parties.

伊利诺伊州民主党参议员理查德·J·德宾(Richard J. Durbin)在1月12日的谈判中称这个词“令人反感”。然而他自己在2010年就已经开始使用这个词了——在当时,这个措辞在两党的表述中并没有什么特殊的色彩。

Leo Chavez, a professor at the University of California at Irvine who studies media representations of immigration, said he had seldom heard ”chain migration” in public discourse until the debate over immigration intensified in the last few months.

研究移民之媒体呈现的加州大学欧文分校(University of California at Irvine)教授利奥·查韦斯(Leo Chavez)表示,在过去几个月有关移民问题的辩论加剧之前,他很少在公共话语中听到“连锁移民”。

“It’s an attempt to sway public opinion,” Mr. Chavez said, adding that the once-scholarly term has taken on negative connotations as “if it’s a conspiracy, a plot, a threat to the changing demographics.”

查韦斯说,“这是在试图动摇公众的观点。”他还说,这个原本的学术用语现在有了贬义,仿佛它是“一个阴谋,一个局,是对不断变化的人口构成的一个威胁”。

It is not unlike “anchor baby,” “the browning of America” or even “Dreamers,” on the flip side, Mr. Chavez said. Such phrases have become more common in the ongoing debate about “how you talk about who are citizens, who are members of the nation and who can become Americans. It’s never a settled question. It hasn’t been for 200 years and it isn’t now.”

查韦斯说,这与“锚孩子”、“美国棕色化”甚至“梦想者”不一样。在关于“你如何谈论谁是公民,谁是国家的成员,谁可以成为美国人”的辩论中,这样的措辞变得更加普遍。“这个问题从来都没有定论。过去200年一直是这样。”

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