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百万富翁人满为患的国家

更新时间:2018-2-25 9:42:45 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

The country running out of space for its millionaires
百万富翁人满为患的国家

Imagine a pint-sized country – less than a square mile in size (2 square kilometres) – with sun-drenched, quiet streets, no dog poo and no income tax to pay. A place where motor racing and yachting are the national pastimes and people hop into a helicopter to get from A to B instead of hailing a taxi.

想象一个袖珍国家——面积不足一平方英里(二平方公里)——拥有阳光普照的安静街道,路上没有狗粪,而且还不需要缴所得税。赛车和游艇是全民休闲活动,出门不是叫出租车,而是乘直升机。

Now imagine that one in three of the people who live there are millionaires – often many times over.

再想象一下生活在那里的人有三分之一是百万富翁——很多还是千万富翁。

This little oasis has, in fact, become such a magnet for millionaires that many more want to relocate to its sunny shores. So, the local authorities have taken the radical step of allowing the construction of artificial islands out across the sea to house them all.

事实上,这片小绿洲已经成为了百万富翁的磁石,还有更多的人想来这里的阳光海岸定居。因此,当地政府已经采取极端措施,批准建设海上人工岛屿来安置他们。

Sounds too bizarre to be true, but perched on the picturesque cliff tops of the French Riviera, such an odd place does exist.

听上去也许匪夷所思,但是在法国蔚蓝海岸风景如画的悬崖峭壁之上,这样的地方的确存在。

It’s the tiny principality of Monaco – millionaire hub of the world, with the highest number of millionaires per capita.

这就是小小的摩纳哥公国——全世界的百万富翁中心,拥有最高的人均百万富翁数量。

If you drive along the Mediterranean coast of France, glimpses of pebbly beaches dotted with sun-bleached umbrellas poke though the cypress trees.

如果你驾车沿着法国地中海海岸行驶,可以瞥见茂盛的柏树之中掩映着被太阳伞点缀的卵石海滩。

Then out of nowhere towering, concrete buildings emerge from an otherwise sleepy seafront. When you spot shimmering skyscrapers, Bugattis whizzing past and a world-famous casino, you know you’ve arrived in the city-state of Monaco.

然后高耸的混凝土建筑突然从沉睡的海滨冒了出来。当你看到闪烁的摩天大楼,呼啸而过的布加迪(Bugatti)和闻名世界的赌场,你就会明白自己已经身处摩纳哥城邦。

With the highest population density of any country in the world, and reputation as a playground for the world’s super rich, demand for property here has soared.

摩洛哥是全世界人口密度最高的国家,而且又是全球超级富豪的游乐场,这里房产的需求特别高。

But it’s not just sea views these buyers are drawn to: this pocket-sized principality is also a tax haven.

但是吸引这些买家的并不只是美丽的海景:这个袖珍公国还是避税天堂。

Oliver Williams, head of wealth consultancy firm WealthInsights, analyses statistics describing the movement of wealth globally, and points out that it’s no secret that people move to Monaco for financial reasons.

财富咨询公司财富透视(WealthInsights)总裁奥利弗·威廉姆斯(Oliver Williams)分析了全球财富的转移数据,指出人们出于经济原因而移民摩纳哥并不是什么秘密。

“It’s got no income tax and no corporation tax for businesses doing most of their work in Monaco, so tax is the main reason we found for people wanting to move here. The other thing is simply lifestyle,” he says.

"这里不征收所得税,大部分业务在摩纳哥的企业也不需要缴纳企业增值税,因此我们发现税收是人们移民到这里的主要原因。另外就是简单的生活方式。"他说。

Over 30% of the roughly 38,000 residents of Monaco are millionaires, according to Williams’ research. “Next down the list are some Swiss cities like Geneva and Zurich and so on,” he says.

根据威廉姆斯的研究,摩纳哥大约38,000位居民中超过30%是百万富翁。"其后是一些瑞士城市,例如日内瓦和苏黎世等等,"他说。

That number is forecast to rise. According to Knight Frank property agency’s analysis, there will be 16,100 millionaires or multimillionaires hoping to claim a piece of this diminutive country for themselves in the next 10 years, but at the moment they can’t. There’s no more room.

这一数字的上升趋势可以预见。根据莱坊(Knight Frank)房地产经纪公司的分析,未来10年,将有16,100名百万富翁或千万富翁希望在这个小国家为自己购置一小块地,但是目前他们无法做到,因为这里已经没有多余的空间。

Research from Knight Frank show house prices in Monaco now top the world market with prices between 53,000 ($67,000) and 100,000 ($142,000) per square metre.

莱坊的研究显示,摩纳哥的房价排名全球市场第一,大约在每平方米53,000欧元(67,000美元)至100,000欧元(142,000美元)之间。

The city-state is building an extension

这座城邦正在扩建

Measuring just 0.78 square miles (2.02 square kilometres) Monaco is crowded, it’s the second smallest country in the world (after Vatican City) and existing building space has already been stretched to the limit by carving homes into the mountainsides, building up into the sky and even tunnelling down into the ground.

占地仅为0.78平方英里(2.02平方公里)的摩纳哥人满为患,它是全世界第二小的国家(排在梵蒂冈之后),现有的建筑物空间已经利用到了极限,山坡上挖出空地建房,高楼层建筑增加住房空间,甚至在地下挖通道。

So, in a bid to try and cater to the demands of this new super rich tribe, the current ruler, Prince Albert II, has agreed an ambitious land reclamation project.

因此,为了尝试满足这些新超级富豪一族的需求,现任统治者阿贝尔二世亲王(Prince Albert II)已经同意了雄心勃勃的填海项目。

The government of Monaco is overseeing the project and private financiers are paying for the build and will sell the real estate.

摩纳哥政府正在审查这一项目,私人金融家将为其建设投资并出售房地产。

The £1.5 billion ($2.1 billion) Offshore Urban Extension Project will add 15 acres of landmass to the principality by 2026. Portier Cove, will include a harbour big enough for 30 ships, a landscaped park and luxury residential buildings with plans for 120 new homes.

价值15亿欧元(21亿美元)的离岸城市扩展项目到2026年将为该国新增15英亩的陆地。泊泰湾(Portier Cove)将包含一个足以容纳30艘游艇的港口,一个景观公园和计划容纳120个家庭的豪华住宅区。

But the construction involves a Herculean effort: putting large concrete-filled watertight chambers, called caissons, into the sea, then draining the water from the surrounding area and filling it in with sand imported from Sicily to create an artificial landmass jutting out from the seafront.

但是项目的建设需要付出卓绝的努力:将混凝土填充的大型水密舱,又称为"沉箱"的东西放入海里,然后抽干附近区域的海水并填入运自西西里岛的砂石,以此来创造一个从海滨突出的人工陆地。

And expansion on this scale doesn’t come without costs. Although French construction firm, Bouygues Travaux Publiques, are planning to relocate marine flora and fauna from the building site to other protected areas and creating a 3D-printed artificial reef as part of the development, there are still risks.

而如此大规模的扩建工程不是没有代价的。尽管法国建筑公司Bouygues Travaux Publiques正在计划将建筑工地的海洋动植物转移到其他保护区域并创建了一个3D打印的人工暗礁作为开发的一部分,但是项目仍然存在着风险。

Marine experts suggest that no matter how carefully you carry out land reclamation, disrupting the sea to build artificial islands will have a direct impact on natural surroundings and marine life.

海洋专家建议无论填海工作的进行如何小心谨慎,破坏海洋来建设人工岛屿的做法都会对自然环境和海洋生物造成直接影响。
 
It is estimated that hundreds of types of algae and thousands of marine organisms live in the waters that will be replaced by dry land. Environmentalists warn that there is no way to fully protect the area’s fragile biodiversity in the face of such a large-scale offshore project.

据估计,生活在水里的数百种海藻和数千种海洋生物将被干涸的土地所取代。环保主义者警告称,在如此大规模的离岸项目面前,没有任何办法能完全保护海洋脆弱的生物多样性。

Land reclamation is nothing new to Monaco – the principality has already expanded its territory by 20% since 1861 - but now even the deep ocean seems no match for property demand.

填海对于摩纳哥来说并不新鲜——自1861年以来该国的领土已经扩展了20%——但是如今似乎深海都已无法满足土地的需求。

Still the eco-conscious prince – who drives an electric car and has donated millions through his foundation to environmental causes – is adamant further land expansion in his country must now be carefully weighed up against environmental concerns.

虽然关注生态的亲王——其本人驾驶电动车并已通过其基金会向环境问题捐赠数百万元——坚持为他的国家扩展领土,但是如今也必须认真考虑由此带来的环境问题。

The unique challenge for Portier Cove is that the builders are being asked to meet international sustainable urban development certifications including the HQE Aménagement, Building Research Establishment Environmental Assessment Method standard and the Clean Ports label.

泊泰湾的特殊困难在于建筑商需要满足城市可持续发展国际认证,包括《HQE Aménagement》、《建筑研究院环境评估方法》标准和《清洁港口》标记。

It is hoped the project will become a flagship example that other growing countries will look to follow.

人们希望该项目能成为其他意欲扩充领土的国家可以效仿的典型案例。

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