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英国脱欧:欧洲年轻人想去哪工作?

更新时间:2018-2-21 10:58:31 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Why the US is drawing in Europe's expats post-Brexit
英国脱欧:欧洲年轻人想去哪工作?

The precise date the UK will wave goodbye to the European Union for good has been lost in a fog of party politics for most people. While the politicians squabble many talented young workers have already made up their minds.

对多数人来说,英国脱离欧盟的确切日期都已经消失在党派政治的迷雾之中。虽然政治家仍然争论不休,但很多有才华的年轻人已经心有所属。

Britain has dropped out of the top six preferred places for Europeans to move to for work, according to a survey of more than 10,000 workers carried out by accountancy firm BDO, published in January, suggesting Brexit is already weighing on the UK economy’s future.

根据会计公司BDO今年1月发布的一份针对一万多名劳动者展开的调查,在欧洲人最渴望的工作地排行榜上,英国已经跌出前六名,表明英国脱欧对该国经济的未来产生了压力。

Voting with their feet

用脚投票

In 2012, the UK ranked in joint second place but has since been overtaken by Canada, Australia, Germany, Switzerland and Spain. Compare this to the US, which retained the top spot despite declining international visitors, dubbed a "Trump slump" by those who attribute the drop to President Donald Trump’s policies, such as a crackdown on immigration and tighter visa rules for some countries.

2012年,英国还并列第二位,但此后被加拿大、澳大利亚、德国、瑞士和西班牙超过。与之相比,美国的国际游客虽然减少,但依然保持第一。美国的国际游客减少被人称作"特朗普衰退",人们认为这都源自美国总统特朗普出台的各种政策,包括打击移民和收紧部分国家的签证政策。

Almost a quarter of the European respondents ranked the US among their top three countries of choice to relocate for work, although it was marginally less popular than in previous years – a drop of 5% from 2012. Globally, the US still ranked first, although the proportion of people voting it to the top spot slipped to 30% from 34%.

约有四分之一的欧洲受访者将美国列入工作调动目的地的前三位,尽管该国的受欢迎程度也比往年出现轻微下滑——较2012年减少5%。从全球来看,美国仍然排名第一,但将其列为首选地的受访者比例从34%下降到30%。

“Whatever someone may think of US politics, it remains number one around the world because of its booming economy,” says Andrew Bailey, human capital services partner at BDO in London. “It is still seen as a land of opportunity.”

"无论某些人怎么看待美国的政治,它依然因为繁荣的经济而位居全球首位。"BDO伦敦人力资本服务合伙人安德鲁·贝利(Andrew Bailey)说,"人们仍然认为那里蕴含机遇。"

Banu Senyurt, a German graduate who is completing an MBA in New York, agrees. “There are many more job opportunities in the US than in Germany,” she says. “You can achieve your goals faster. In Germany the length of time you are at a company counts for more than your personal skills when it comes to promotions.

在纽约读MBA的德国毕业生巴努·森约特(Banu Senyurt)也同意这种说法。"美国比德国的工作机会多得多。"她说,"你可以更快地实现目标。在德国,晋升时主要考虑你在公司任职的时间,而非个人能力。"

“I see lots of protests and demonstrations,” says Senyurt. “But I haven’t so far been personally affected by Trump’s policies. I plan to stay here, but I don’t know if it is going to be more difficult to live and work here as a foreigner in future.”

"我看到很多抗议和游行。"森约特说,"但我个人目前没有受到特朗普政策的影响。我准备留在这里,但作为一个外国人,我不知道今后想要在这里生活和工作的难度是否会加大。"

Shifting priorities

转变重点

These themes could prove part of a broader trend – with young professionals in Europe less willing to relocate abroad than they were five years ago. “People in their late 20s to late 30s are much less open to moving abroad for their employer than they were,” says Klaus Hansen, a managing partner in Frankfurt at the international recruitment company Odgers Berndtson. “They set other priorities, such as buying a house, or, starting a family.” Hansen says his younger clients say “sentences like ‘I’m completely mobile as long as it is in the south of Munich’ again and again.”

这些主题可以佐证一项更为广泛的趋势——欧洲的年轻专业人士不像五年前那么愿意前往海外工作。"跟以前相比,接近30岁和40岁的人不太愿意为了工作而出国。"法兰克福国际招聘公司Odgers Berndtson管理合伙人克劳斯·汉森(Klaus Hansen)说,"他们还看重其他事情,例如买房子或组建家庭。"汉森表示,他的年轻客户说,"'只要是在慕尼黑南部,我去哪里都行。'我反复听到客户说类似这样的话。"

For Europeans deciding where to work abroad, salary is no longer the single most important factor, Bailey says. Instead, people are influenced by other factors such as a thriving economy, the availability and quality of housing, childcare and schools, favourable tax rates and high standards of healthcare.

贝利说,当欧洲人决定去哪里工作时,薪水不再是唯一一个最重要的因素。相反,人们还会受到其他因素的影响,例如繁荣的经济、住房的可用性和质量、儿童保育和学校、有利的税率和高标准的医疗条件。

From an economic perspective, Britain faces a number of Brexit-related challenges in the years ahead, the International Monetary Fund has warned. The referendum result has already weighed on domestic demand, a weakened pound has pushed up consumer prices and depressed purchasing power, and business investment has been slower than expected given a vibrant global economy. All this can have a negative impact on a country’s appeal to foreign workers.

国际货币基金组织警告称,从经济角度看,英国未来几年将面临一系列与英国脱欧相关的挑战。这项公投结果已经影响了国内需求,疲软的英镑推高了物价,削弱了购买力。而考虑到全球经济活力十足,企业投资的增速已经低于预期。所有这些都会对一个国家在外国劳动者心目中的吸引力产生负面影响。

Sliding rankings

排名下滑

Last year, global networking group InterNations published the fourth instalment of its Expat Insider survey, a ranking of 65 countries by measures such as quality of life, ease of settling in and working life. The UK sank 21 places to 54th position: while it rated highly for career prospects, a dissatisfaction with politics and the cost of living contributed to the low ranking.

去年,全球化网络团体InterNations发布了第四期《Expat Insider》调查报告,根据生活质量、安家难度和工作寿命等因素,对65个国家进行了排名。英国的排名下降了21位,仅位列第54位:尽管它在职业前景方面的得分很高,但人们对政治和生活成本的不满导致排名较低。

In the wake of the Brexit referendum, the expatriates surveyed already living in the UK rated the economic climate more negatively – a key factor influencing their decision over where to live. “There’s all this turmoil following the Brexit vote and insecurity about the future of the job market,” one Swiss survey respondent living in Britain commented.

在英国脱欧公投之后,接受调查的驻英外籍人士对该国经济气候的评价更为负面——在他们决定住在哪里的时候,这是一项至关重要的影响因素。一名居住在英国的瑞士受访者说:"在英国脱欧公投以及人们对就业市场的未来缺乏安全感会后,就出现了这些动荡。"

Figures from the UK’s Office of National Statistics (ONS) tally with this sentiment. The most recent ONS migration figures show net migration fell from June 2016 to June 2017, with three quarters of the drop due to EU citizens. Though people coming to the UK to take up a “definite job” remained stable, fewer were coming to the UK to look for work. The ONS said although decisions to migrate are complex, the changes suggested Brexit was likely a factor in people’s decision to move to or from the UK.

英国国家统计局(ONS)的数据也与这种观点相符。ONS的最新数据显示,2016年6月至2017年6月,该国净移民数量出现下降,其中四分之三的降幅来自欧盟公民。尽管来英国从事"明确工作"的人保持稳定,但来英国找工作的人越来越少了。ONS表示,虽然移民是一项复杂的决定,但这些变化表明,英国脱欧可能是人们决定移居英国或离开英国的一个因素。

Despite this, the German Federal Labour Agency says the UK remains a popular destination for young Germans seeking a move abroad, particularly for those wanting to improve their English. “But what we do notice is uncertainty among applicants over whether they will be able to stay after Brexit,” says Marcel Schmutzler, a spokesman for the agency’s international placement service.

尽管如此,德国联邦劳工局还是表示,英国仍是德国年轻人移居海外的热门目的地,尤其是那些想要提高英语水平的德国人。该机构的国际就业服务部门发言人马塞尔·史姆泽勒(Marcel Schmutzler)说:"但是我们注意到的,在英国脱欧之后,申请者对他们能否留下来感到不确定。"

“The US is attractive because of its size and its economic strength. Many parts of the US are familiar from television and films. Many of the IT companies and brands that are household names, and exercise increasing influence on our lives, come from the US. It has a particular appeal as a location for research and development,” he says.

"美国之所以具有吸引力,源于它的规模和经济实力。人们通过电视和电影熟悉了美国的许多地方。来自美国的许多IT公司和品牌都已经家喻户晓,并且对我们的生活产生了越来越大的影响。对于从事研发工作的人来说,这里很有吸引力。"他说。

Perhaps, in the end, the flow of young workers will all come down to something a little more intangible – whether the new arrivals feel welcome, or not, in their new home country.

或许,年轻劳动者的流动最终将会归结为一些更无形的东西——初来乍到的人是否感觉自己在新的国家受到欢迎。

“People want to go where they will feel welcome,” says Bailey at BDO. “The statements of politicians do have an impact. If Britain remains globally open, it remains attractive. But a country that shuts its doors is not going to be attractive.”

"人们想去他们感觉受欢迎的地方,"BDO的贝利说,"政治家的言论确实有影响。如果英国对全球开放,它就仍然有吸引力。但一个关闭国门的国家是不会有吸引力的。"

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