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揭秘:宜家如何改变我们的购物方式

更新时间:2018-2-16 10:33:33 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

How IKEA has changed the way we shop
揭秘:宜家如何改变我们的购物方式

Ingvar Kamprad, who started Ikea as a teenager, died last week at the age of 91. He started with stationery and stockings, but went on to build one of the world’s biggest furniture companies. And the way he did it has revolutionised how retailers operate.

少年时期就创立宜家的英格瓦·坎普拉德(Ingvar Kamprad)不久前去世(1月27日),享年91岁。他从销售文具和长筒袜起家,后来建立了世界上最大的家具公司之一。他的销售方式彻底改变了零售商的经营模式。

There are two facets of modern life that we have Ikea to thank for: flat-pack furniture and a shop layout that gets you buying more of its products than you initially intended to. Both are principles that a number of other companies have put to good use.

在现代生活中,我们有两个方面要感谢宜家:平板式家具以及让你购买更多你最初不打算要的物品的商店布局。这两项原则现在已经被许多公司采用,并且很娴熟。

Ikea first brought out its now signature style of flat-pack furniture in the 1950s. Whether you love or loathe this concept, it was a stroke of genius and a effective way of making the masses value the brand. There are the obvious aspects of cost efficiency and the practicality of shipping. But flat-pack furniture also has an important subconscious influence on consumers.

宜家在上世纪50年代首次推出了标志性的平板家具产品。不管你喜欢还是讨厌这个概念,它都是一个天才之举,也是让大众认识宜家品牌的一种有效方式。经济实惠和运输方便是显而易见的好处。此外平板家具也对消费者潜意识产生影响。

When Ikea made the switch away from selling furniture that was already assembled, it was most likely unaware of how it would influence its consumers. Yet scientists have since managed to pinpoint why consumers simply can’t get enough of building their own furniture. The simple act of touching products (and what better way to ensure touch based interaction than through assembling a piece of furniture) can increase your overall perceived value of the product. Couple this with the fact that the more effort a consumer has to put into building something the more they like it – you have an undoubtedly winning formula.

当宜家不再销售组装好的家具时,它可能还没有意识到会对消费者产生何种影响。然而,科学家们已经成功地找到了消费者为什么热爱自己组装家具的原因。触摸产品的简单动作可以增加你对产品的整体感知价值(想象一下,还有什么比组装一件家具更好的触摸家具的方式呢?)。事实上,消费者在组装家具上花费的精力越多,他们越喜欢这件东西——这就是宜家的致胜法宝。

Tests have shown that the actual act of putting something together (even though there may be sweat, swearing and tears involved) so that it becomes a complete object generates a much more favourable perception of that object than it would purchasing it in a completed form. The phenomenon is known as the Ikea effect.

实验表明,组装物品的行为(尽管可能是脏活累活),会让人对物品本身产生比它在以完整的形式售卖时更强烈的好感。这种现象被称为"宜家效应"。

This effect is further enhanced by the fact that touch itself is neurologically coupled with emotion. This means that when we touch something the emotive part of our brain is activated so that we experience a close connection with the product. Touch creates feelings of ownership and increases the perceived value we have of items. Thus the happy assembler of the flat pack will, once finished, feel proud of their achievement and experiencing feelings of being closely connected to the item.

触觉本身是神经与情感的结合,因此这一效应得到进一步增强。这意味着,当我们触摸物品时,我们大脑的情感区域被激活,就能体验到与产品的紧密联系。触摸创造了所有权的感觉,增加了我们对物品的感知价值。因此,快乐的组装者一旦完成平板拼装,就会对取得的成感到自豪,并体验到与物品亲密的感觉。

Round and round in circles

转圈再转圈

The layout of the Ikea stores has also paved the way for a more creative way of thinking about how to guide shoppers. If you have ever visited one of its huge warehouse stores, you may have gone in thinking you were only buying a few items, to find yourself coming out of the store with a trolley full of things. This is because of its circular design and one-way system.

宜家门店的布局也为如何引导购物者提供了一种更有创意的思维模式。如果你曾经到过宜家的巨大门店,你进去的时候可能只打算买几样商品,但从商店里走出来时,发现购物车里却装满了商品。这得益于商店的环形设计和单向系统。

This design means you often can’t see what is coming next and fear you’ll miss something you need if you don’t continue all the way along the path. There are potential escape points throughout the store, but that would mean that you will miss several of the sections and rarely consumers are prepared to take that risk.

这种设计让你常常看不到下一个地方,担心如果你不沿着这条路继续走下去,就会错过一些你需要的商品。整个商店都有潜藏的出口,但这意味着你将错过几个区域,而且很少有消费者愿意冒这个险。

Because you know it may be tricky to revisit a particular item later on, you are inclined to pick it up when you see it and put it in your big trolley. This ensures that the customer touches the product, which in turn again generates a psychological sense of ownership over it and decreases the likelihood that it will be put down en route to the tills.

因为你知道,过一会再回来重看某件物品可能比较麻烦,所以当你看到它的时候,就倾向于把它放进自己的大购物车里。这可以确保客户触摸到产品,这反过来又会在心理上产生占有欲,从而降低在通往收银台的路上抛弃产品的可能性。

The fact that you can’t see around the next corner also creates a subconscious sense of mystery, which draws the customer gradually further into the store. Environments perceived to be mysterious usually generate an overall stronger liking and so encourage shoppers to keep walking through the store. And the more you do this, the more likely you are to buy something – especially all the smaller items on display such as candles, napkins and picture frames as they seem cheap compared to the larger more expensive items.

由于看不到拐角另一面的商品,也会在潜意识中产生神秘感,这将会吸引顾客逐渐移步前行,一探究竟。神秘的环境通常会产生更强烈的喜好感,鼓励顾客在商店里走走看看。你看的越多走的越多,你就越有可能买一些商品——尤其是展示的那些小商品,比如蜡烛、餐巾纸和相框,因为在昂贵的商品的背景下,它们显得很便宜。

Ikea’s creative ability to tap into the unconsciousness of consumers is undoubtedly a big part of its success – and also why it’s been copied by many other companies. Even though Ingvar Kamprad is no longer with us, Ikea has inherited from him an ethos of thinking outside of the box to communicate with consumers. It will be interesting to see what follows next.

宜家在开发利用消费者潜意识方面的创造力无疑是其成功的重要因素之一,也是其被许多其他公司学习借鉴的原因。尽管英格瓦·坎普拉德已经离开我们,但宜家已经从他身上继承了一种与消费者沟通的创造性思维模式。宜家今后将如何发展,让我们拭目以待。

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