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在家工作面临的最大问题

更新时间:2018-2-7 20:08:42 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

The trouble with being both 'boss' and 'worker'
在家工作面临的最大问题

More people than ever now work from home for part or all of the week. Such flexibility can seem a good idea, but many people find it difficult to manage their time. Working from home in isolation can also prevent people from engaging in the daily interpersonal relationships that working life can offer – and which can help creativity and improve our mental wellbeing.

在家工作的人越来越多,有的一天到晚在家,有的偶尔在家。这种灵活性似乎是个好主意,但很多人却发现这种模式很难管理时间。在家独自工作可能导致一个人无法参与日常工作中的人际互动——这种活动有助于提升创造力,还能改善我们的心理健康。

Time is our most precious commodity and a currency to spend. As my own research on lateness has highlighted, time management involves managing complex relationships and conflicts within ourselves – as well as with others.

时间是我们最宝贵的资产,时间就使金钱。我自己针对浪费时间这一课题展开的研究显示,在进行时间管理时,需要应对复杂的关系和我们自身的冲突——以及与他人的冲突。

In an ordinary workplace, we are helped in our time management by the fact that our access to many temptations is limited. We don’t have to constantly monitor ourselves as our colleagues or bosses are likely to be doing so. While we might bemoan our lack of choice about what we do and when – such as attending a two-hour meeting – we can also be relieved of the need to make choices about what to do next.

在常规的职场,由于不容易接触各种诱惑,所以时间管理相对容易。我们不必时刻监督自己,因为同事和老板可能会代劳。虽然我们可能叹息自己对所做的事情和做事的时间缺乏选择——例如要参加两小时的会议——但同时也会因为不必亲自决定接下来要做什么而如释重负。

But when working from home, temptations abound which can eat up our time. Food is in the fridge or can be bought in a quick trip to the shops. Excitement of all kinds can be easily accessed through social media, websites or games which will arouse, enrage, shock, entertain, amuse or enthral us. For some, the temptations to use their time “badly”, particularly online, can be very seductive. At any moment there is a delicate balance of power within: between our creative, constructive side and the side which seeks easier gratification and mindlessness.

但在家里工作时,各种诱惑会占用我们的时间。食物就放在冰箱里,就算没有,可以很快去附近的超市买一些回来。各种社交媒体、网站或游戏很容易就诱惑我们远离该做的工作,这些诱惑占用我们大量的时间。对某些人来说,"浪费"时间是很诱人的事情,在网上尤其如此。在任何时候,我们体内都有一种微妙的力量平衡:一边的我们富于创造性和建设性,另一边的我们则会寻求更容易获得的满足感和无意识。

Real work is often scary, and the responsibility can frighten us. Difficult tasks remain vague if we don’t actually start them. Procrastination is not a good way to manage anxiety, but it is a very common option. Putting things off keeps the anxiety going of course, but also keeps the possibility alive that the task will get done well – at some point in the future.

真正的工作往往是可怕的,责任也会令人生畏。如果我们不真正开始,困难的任务仍会模糊不清。拖延不是应对焦虑的好方法,但却是个很常见的选择。把事情拖延下去当然会让人感到焦虑,但也能把未来某个时刻好好完成任务的可能性保留下来。

At work, the pressures of time management mostly come from other people. While we can resent the bossiness or oversight of others, we still get things done and being closely managed in this way can actually spur us to do so. At home, we are both the “boss” and the “worker”, so the conflict, now internal, can be much harder to manage.

在办公室,时间管理的压力主要来自其他人。虽然我们可以怨恨别人的专横或疏忽,但却仍能把事情做完。正是因为能以这种方式受到严密的管理,才促使我们这样去做。在家里,我们自己管理自己的时间,我们既是"老板"又是"员工",所以这时的冲突转移到内部,管理的难度大大增加。

If we are lucky we have a kindly and parental internal voice, guiding us towards helpful choices while still allowing us time to have fun. However, many of us have a nagging internal voice, berating us for not doing things as we should, or ramping up our anxiety about our own abilities to complete the task at hand. For some people, the boss in their head can be far more critical and unfriendly than the one at their place of work. This is likely to lead them to employ destructive ways to evade or defend themselves: they are more likely to duck and dive and give in to temptation.

如果幸运的话,我们内心会有一个友善且酷似父母的声音,引导我们做出有帮助的选择,同时也让我们有时间去享受快乐。然而,我们许多人的内心都有一个唠叨的声音,责备我们没有做应做之事,或者增加我们对是否有能力完成手头任务的焦虑。某些人脑海里的老板比他们职场的老板更挑剔,更不友好。这可能会导致他们采用破坏性的方式来逃避或保护自己:他们更有可能灵活处理和屈服于诱惑。

No substitute for the real thing

虚拟互动不能代替面对面交流

At work we engage with others in ways which are straightforwardly helpful – they are there to bounce ideas off when when we’re getting unduly caught up in a narrow way of thinking or to express appreciation of our work. But even when we are having conflicts or difficult relationships with others they may be helping us in another way. Not only can we define and refine our own ideas through these arguments, but if these conflicts don’t just happen inside our own heads, they trouble us less internally.

在办公室,我们与他人接触的方式可以带来直接的帮助——当我们陷入狭隘的思维或表达对工作的感激之时,就可以直接向其征求意见。但是,即使我们与他人发生冲突或关系不好时,他们也可能以另一种方式帮助我们。除了可以通过这些争论来定义和提炼自己的想法外,如果能让这些冲突不只是发生在自己的头脑里,我们的内心也会因此减少很多烦恼。

We can do some of this virtually when working from home, but engaging with others by email, on messaging services or social media is very different from doing so in person. It is less likely that virtual interactions with our co-workers will give us that lively sense of interaction which truly makes these processes successful. Many people actually need the opportunity to come up against other people in person to feel successful in their working and creative lives and to enhance their emotional well-being – in ways beyond their need for friendship or to avoid loneliness.

在家工作的时也可以通过虚拟方式做到这一点,但通过电子邮件、聊天服务或社交媒体与他人交流,与面对面交流是截然不同的。与同事之间的虚拟互动不太可能会给我们带来生动的互动感,而恰恰是这种互动感使得这些过程得以发挥作用。很多人其实都需要通过与其他人接触的机会,在他们的工作和创意生活中感受到成功,增强内心的幸福感——所采用的方式超越了他们对友谊的需求或对孤独的回避。

So if you find working from home challenging, don’t worry, many people do and it is not because you are in some way especially flawed. Take seriously the possibility that you need to recreate something more like a workplace in your own home by setting aside an area away from your relaxation space and setting yourself designated, but limited, working hours. Think about what you need to do to re-establish some of the other external constraints of work by involving others in your deadlines, arranging progress meetings and, most importantly, limiting your access to distractions by switching off internet access for periods during the day.

所以,如果你发现在家工作很有挑战性,也不要担心,很多人都是这样,这并不是因为你有某种特别的缺陷。请认真对待这种可能性:你需要在自己家里重新创造一些更像工作场所的东西,在休闲区之外专门开辟一片地方,给自己指定有限的工作时间。想想你需要做些什么来重新为工作建立外部约束,让别人帮助你按时完成任务,安排进度会议。最重要的是,你应该在一天中关闭一段时间的互联网,避免受到干扰。

Take seriously the need to have proper interpersonal relationships with colleagues as well as friends, other than online. We are not designed to manage our emotional lives in isolation and need others to relate with – in ways over and above those of friendship and intimacy.

除了互联网之外,还要重视与同事和朋友之间良好的人际关系。我们天生就不适合孤立地管理自己的情感生活,而是需要与别人联系起来——联系的方式不仅限于友谊和亲密关系。

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