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一个统一的朝鲜半岛?韩国年轻人不感兴趣

更新时间:2018-1-31 21:10:57 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Olympic Dreams of a United Korea? Many in South Say, ‘No, Thanks’
一个统一的朝鲜半岛?韩国年轻人不感兴趣

SEOUL, South Korea —The last time South Korea hosted an Olympics, in 1988, the North not only refused to take part, it blew up a South Korean airliner 10 months before the Games. 0 Yet South Koreans at the time expressed hope that the two Koreas, divided by the Cold War, could one day become a single nation again.

韩国首尔——1988年,在韩国上一次举办奥运会的时候,朝鲜不仅拒绝参加,还在比赛开始十个月前炸毁了一架韩国客机。然而当时的韩国人表示,希望被冷战分裂的韩朝两国有朝一日能再度成为一个国家。

Now, as the South prepares to host its second Games next month, the Koreas are cooperating in unheard-of ways, including their first joint Olympic team, in women’s ice hockey. But South Koreans, especially younger ones, are far less interested in reconciliation, to say nothing of reunification.

现在,韩国正准备在下个月举办它的第二次奥运会,韩朝两国也在以一种前所未有的方式合作,包括两国在女子冰球项目上首次派出奥运联队。但韩国人,尤其是年轻的韩国人,对和解已经远没有那么大的兴趣,更别提统一了。

Experts and recent surveys describe a profound shift in attitudes in South Korea, where reuniting the peninsula, and the Korean people, was long held as a sacrosanct goal. These days, younger South Koreans in particular are far more likely to see the idea of reintegrating their prosperous capitalist democracy with the impoverished, totalitarian North as unrealistic and undesirable.

专家和最近的调查都表示,长久以来把统一朝鲜半岛、实现人民的重聚视为神圣目标的韩国,态度有了彻底的转变。如今,韩国的年轻人尤其更倾向于认为,将他们繁荣的资本主义民主与贫穷的集权主义北方重新融合,是一个不切实际也不受欢迎的想法。

“I personally wouldn’t welcome reunification because it would create a burden for us, as we would have to help rebuild the North Korean economy,” said Park Min-cheol, 22, a college student.

“我个人不欢迎统一,因为这样我们就得帮朝鲜重建经济,这会给我们制造负担,”22岁的大学生朴敏哲(Park Min-cheol,音)说。

Young Koreans say they are more concerned about pressing domestic issues — like unemployment, and whether they can live as well as their parents did — than the enormously costly, complex and hypothetical task of reunifying with the North. The reunification of Germany in 1990 serves to some as an example of how arduous, and expensive, rejoining two very different societies can be, and the economic gap between the two Koreas today is much wider than it was between East and West Germany.

年轻的韩国人表示,相比统一北方这个花费巨大、无比复杂的假设性任务,他们更担心的是国内面临的问题——如失业问题,还有他们是否能和父母过得一样好。在一些人看来,1990年的德国统一证明,两个截然不同的社会重新结合将是多么艰难而昂贵的工作,而今天韩朝两国的经济差距比当时东德和西德之间的差距大得多。

In polls, fewer respond to the old appeals to common ethnic heritage, much less the shrill, propagandistic calls for reunification put forth by North Korea, whose 34-year-old dictator, Kim Jong-un, they both ridicule and fear.

在民意调查中,对共同民族遗产的古老诉求有认同的人相对较少,更别提34岁的朝鲜独裁者金正恩那刺耳的、带有政治宣传性质的统一呼吁,让他们一边嘲笑一边感到害怕。

A survey last year by the government-run Korea Institute for National Unification in Seoul found that far more South Koreans in their 20s now oppose reunification — 71.2 percent — than support it. Across the population, support has dropped to 57.8 percent from 69.3 percent just four years ago.

去年,首尔国有的韩国统一研究院(Korea Institute for National Unification)开展的一项调查发现,现在,在20多岁的韩国人中,反对统一的人——占71.2%——要远远比支持者多。在全部人口中,支持率从仅4年前的69.3%跌至57.8%。

“Especially men in their 20s, about half of them, consider North Korea an outright enemy,” said Kim Ji-yoon, a research fellow at the Asan Institute for Policy Studies in Seoul who has been tracking attitudes toward reunification. “To young South Koreans, North Korea is someone they don’t want anything to do with.”

“尤其是20多岁的男性,有半数左右,认为朝鲜绝对是一个敌人,”关注民众对统一的态度的首尔峨山政策研究院研究员金志胤(Kim Ji-yoon)说。“对年轻的韩国人来说,他们不想和朝鲜扯上任何关系。”

Polling experts say that South Korean men in their 20s often get more hawkish after they finish their mandatory military service.

民调专家表示,20多岁的韩国男性在服完义务兵役后往往会变得更加强硬。

The skepticism was apparent this month, when the two Koreas set aside their disputes over the North’s nuclear weapons and missile programs and agreed to field a joint team in the Winter Games in the town of Pyeongchang, and to march together in the opening ceremony on Feb. 9.

这种怀疑态度在本月明显表现了出来。韩朝两国搁置朝鲜核武器和导弹计划引发的争议,同意在平昌冬奥会上派出一支联队,在2月9日的开幕式上共同入场。

In the past, such gestures triggered waves of pro-unification sentiment, as in 2000, when North and South Korean athletes marched together at the Games in Sydney, Australia. (They competed separately.) The administration of President Moon Jae-in, a progressive who has long supported inter-Korean unity, hoped this latest rapprochement would create similarly warm feelings.

在过去,这样的举措能激起人们潮水般支持统一的情绪,正如在2000年时,韩朝两国运动员在澳大利亚悉尼奥运会上一起入场(但分开比赛),一向支持朝鲜半岛统一的进步派文在寅政权希望,这最新的和解能给人们带来相似的温暖感觉。

Instead, a survey found that more than 72 percent of South Korean adults overall — and more than 82 percent of those in their 20s and 30s — were not enthusiastic about the hockey team. More than 54,000 people signed a petition opposing it, and many expressed anger that some South Korean players would cede their positions to North Koreans.

然而调查显示,韩国总体上有超过72%的成年人——以及82%的20岁到30岁的人——对这支冰球队并不感兴趣。有超过5.4万人签了反对联队的请愿书,还有许多人对一些韩国运动员要给朝鲜人让出名额表示愤怒。

“I am taken aback,” said Kim Sung-hwan, a former South Korean foreign minister. “Young people seem to think of North Korea as strangers who barge into their party bringing with them nothing but empty spoons.”

“我很震惊,”韩国前外长金星焕(Kim Sung-hwan)说。“年轻人似乎认为朝鲜是一个什么都没带、只拿着空汤匙闯入派对的陌生人。”

Such pushback would have been expected from conservatives, who have long been suspicious of efforts to engage the North. But younger South Koreans tend to be politically progressive and supportive of Mr. Moon on other issues.

这样的抵制若是来自保守派还算意料之内,他们一直都对接触朝鲜的尝试表示怀疑。但较年轻的韩国人往往在政治上比较进步,也会在其他问题上支持文在寅总统。

Analysts said that years of increasingly provocative nuclear and missile tests have darkened South Korean perceptions of the North and its young leader, Mr. Kim. Actions like Mr. Kim’s executions of his own uncle and his half brother have also made the regime look brutal and grotesque.

分析人士表示,多年来,挑衅愈演愈烈的核试验和导弹试验恶化了韩国对朝鲜及其年轻的领导人金正恩的看法。比如处决自己的姑父、自己同父异母的哥哥这些举动,也使这个政权看起来残暴而怪诞。

“We know that this sudden shift in mood could be confusing for people, especially given how unsettled they were over the North’s missile tests up until just a month ago,” said Yoon Young-chan, a spokesman for Mr. Moon. “But the Pyeongchang Olympics can go beyond South-North reconciliation and provide clues to easing tensions and building peace on the Korean Peninsula.”

“我们知道气氛这样突然转变可能会让人感觉困惑,尤其是考虑到人们就在一个月前还对朝鲜的导弹试验感到不安,”文在寅发言人尹永灿(Yoon Young-chan,音)说。但平昌奥运会可以超越南北和解,为紧张局势的缓解以及建设朝鲜半岛的和平提供线索。”

Analysts say a key turning point in attitudes toward the North came in 2010, when a South Korean naval ship was sunk by an apparent North Korean torpedo attack, killing 46 sailors, and North Korea launched a rocket barrage on a South Korean island that killed four people, including two civilians. These were formative events for young South Koreans, these analysts say.

分析人士称,2010年是对朝态度的一个关键转折点,当时,韩国一艘海军舰艇被一枚显然为朝鲜发射的鱼雷击中,导致46名船员丧生,朝鲜还向韩国的一个岛屿发射了火箭弹,导致4人死亡,其中有两名平民。分析人士称,这些事件都促使韩国年轻人形成了今天的态度。

Key members of Mr. Moon’s presidential office and governing party are progressives in their 50s, who went to college in the 1980s. Then, campuses were rife with anti-American activism, partly driven by resentment over the division of the Korean Peninsula after World War II. Students defied the authorities by sending a “unification envoy” to the World Festival of Youth and Students.

文在寅总统府和执政党内的重要人物都是五十多岁的进步派,在20世纪80年代上的大学。那时,大学校园充斥着反美的激进主义,部分是受二战之后对朝鲜半岛分裂的愤恨驱使。学生们向世界青年与学生联欢节(World Festival of Youth and Students)派出了“统一使者”,以示对政府当局的不满。

Progressives in that era believed in a peaceful process of reunification, built on the expansion of economic and social exchanges. Today, many of that generation see the North’s nuclear weapons program as a desperate attempt to protect itself from the United States and the South, with which it is still technically at war.

那个年代的进步人士相信一个建立在扩大的经济和社会交往之上的和平统一进程。如今,在那一辈的许多人看来,朝鲜的核武器计划只是孤注一掷,希望能以此对抗美国以及严格意义上仍处于交战状态的韩国。

Reunification is also a personal matter for Mr. Moon, 65, who was born in a refugee camp after his parents fled their native North Korea during the 1950-53 Korean War.

对于文在寅来说,统一也是一桩私人事务。现年65岁的他出生在难民营里,父母在1950年至1953年的朝鲜战争期间逃离了原来生活的朝鲜。

“If Korea reunified, the first thing I would do is to take my mother’s hand and visit her hometown,” he said during last year’s election campaign.

“如果朝鲜半岛统一,我要做的第一件事就是拉着母亲的手去她的家乡看看,”他去年竞选时说。

The assumption that the South and North belong together is shared by many South Korean conservatives, though from a very different point of view. They tend to call for the South liberating the North from the Kim family’s rule, by force if necessary.

韩国很多保守派都认同韩朝两国是一个整体,但角度截然不同。他们倾向于呼吁韩国把朝鲜从金氏家族的统治中解放出来,如有必要可使用武力。

The horrors of the Korean War, which killed millions, bound older South Koreans together. Many still grow teary-eyed on those occasions when the rival governments allow select groups of aging citizens to meet relatives from the other side after decades of separation.

朝鲜战争造成数百万人死亡,这样的恐怖使上了年纪的韩国人团结一心。当对立的两国政府允许挑选出来的老年公民和对方国家分别数十年的亲属见面时,很多人依然会泪眼婆娑。

Younger South Koreans don’t share the pain caused by the peninsula’s divide, or the inclination to see North Koreans as long-lost brethren. Last year’s survey by the unification institute found that while more than 47 percent of respondents in their 60s and older said the two Koreas must reunify “because they belong to the same nation,” less than 21 percent of respondents in their 20s said so.

韩国年轻人感受不到朝鲜半岛分裂造成的这种痛苦,也不愿把朝鲜民众看作失散多年的同胞。韩国统一研究院去年的一项调查发现,在60多岁及以上的受访者中,超过47%的人说两个国家必须统一,“因为他们属于同一个民族”,但在20多岁的受访者中,这么说的人不到21%。

Of course, warier views of the North are not limited to the young. Many South Korean conservatives, young and old, embrace the view that the North is building nuclear-tipped intercontinental missiles to drive a wedge between it and the United States, its longtime protector.

当然,对朝鲜持警惕态度的不仅限于年轻人。无论老少,韩国很多保守派都认可的一个观点是,朝鲜正在制造可搭载核弹头的洲际导弹,为的是在韩国和它的长期保护者美国之间挑起不和。

They fear that if Mr. Kim thinks the threat of a nuclear strike on the mainland United States will keep the Americans from intervening, he may try to take over the South, the dream that his grandfather, Kim Il-sung, the North’s founding leader, failed to achieve during the Korean War.

他们担心,如果金正恩认为威胁对美国本土发动核打击会阻止美国介入,他可能会尝试接管韩国,这是他祖父、朝鲜开国领袖金日成(Kim Il-sung)在朝鲜战争期间未能实现的梦想。

On Thursday, North Korean state media called on “all Koreans at home and abroad” to support moves toward reunification and eliminate obstacles created by “outside forces,” a reference to the United States.

周四,朝鲜官方媒体呼吁“海内外所有朝鲜人”支持促进统一的行动,并消除“外部势力”制造的障碍。这里的外部势力指的是美国。

Many South Koreans are relieved that North Korea is joining the Olympics, because it is less likely to conduct a major weapons test while its own athletes are competing in Pyeongchang. But they remain deeply skeptical about Mr. Kim’s sudden peace offensive.

很多韩国人得知朝鲜会参加奥运会后松了一口气,因为当本国运动员在平昌比赛期间,朝鲜不太可能进行大型武器试验。但他们依然对金正恩突如其来的和平攻势深感怀疑。

In a town near the Olympic venues, Kang Hee-du, 54, a restaurant worker, wondered how the Koreas could possibly reunify when they have drifted so far apart, economically and ideologically. “It would be nothing but chaotic,” he said.

在奥运场馆附近的一个小镇上,54岁的餐厅员工耿熙俞(Kang Hee-du,音)想知道,在经济和意识形态分歧如此之大的情况下,韩朝两国是否有可能统一。“只会一片混乱,”他说。

But Choi Sang-hwan, 73, a retired auto-component maker, lamented the new attitude.

但73岁的退休汽车零部件制造工人崔尚桓(Choi Sang-hwan,音)对这种新的态度表示叹惋。

“Our generation knows how tragic war can be; it can take everything away,” said Mr. Choi, who is also an Olympic volunteer. “It’s our duty to let our future generations live peacefully in a unified Korea.”

“我们这一代知道战争有多惨,它可以带走一切,”,同时也担任奥运志愿者的崔尚桓说。“让后代平平安安地生活在一个统一的韩国是我们的责任。”

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