您现在的位置: 纽约时报中英文网 >> 纽约时报中英文版 >> 旅游 >> 正文

意大利白松露的惊人真相

更新时间:2018-1-21 10:06:46 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

The truth about italy's white truffles
意大利白松露的惊人真相

Towards the end of my meal, the waiter put a plaster cast of a human brain on my table and walked away. I picked it up and, like a simian seeing a foreign object for the first time, began examining it from every angle. It turned out, this was no brain: it was a replica of the world’s largest white truffle.

当我即将用餐完毕时,服务员把一个人脑的石膏模型放在了我的桌子上,随即走开。我拿起模型开始从每个角度仔细观察,像第一次看到外来物的猴子。通过观察发现,这并不是人脑模型,而是世界上最大的白松露的复制品。

It wasn’t found in Alba, the Italian town many people associate with this delicious subterranean fungus. On 2 November 1999, a truffle hunter in Istria (the north-west swath of Croatia) named Giancarlo Zigante and his devoted dog, Diana, unearthed this 1.3kg heavenly hunk of temptation. Soon after, it was recognised by the Guinness Book of World Records as the biggest white truffle ever found (at the time).

许多人会把阿尔巴(Alba)这座意大利小镇与松露这种美味可口的地下真菌联系在一起,但世界上最大的白松露并不是在阿尔巴发现的。1999年11月2日,克罗地亚西北部的伊斯特里亚(Istria)一位名叫詹卡洛·泽甘特(Giancarlo Zigante)的松露猎人和他忠诚的猎犬戴安娜(Diana)发掘了这一重达1.3公斤的天造尤物。不久之后,它被《吉尼斯世界纪录大全》认定为当时世界上已发现的最大的白松露。

Today, visitors to Istria can indulge in all things truffles, particularly at Restaurant Zigante (founded by Zigante in 2002 in the small town of Livade after his find led to foodie fame) where I was shown the replica of the legendary record-breaking tuber magnatum, as white truffles are called in scientific terms. Visitors can also accompany Istrian truffle hunters (and their dogs) on a hunt and then indulge in a lavish truffle-sprinkled meal afterward – which is what I did on a recent visit to Istria.

今天,来到伊斯特里亚的游客可以尽情享用松露,尤其在泽甘特餐厅。因发现世界上最大的白松露而获得美食家的声誉之后,泽甘特于2002年在小镇利维德(Livade)开设了以他名字命名的这家餐厅。也正是在泽甘特餐厅,我看到了那块颇具传奇色彩、缔造记录的白松露复制品。游客们也可加入伊斯特里亚松露猎人(和他们的猎犬)的搜寻之旅,然后享用撒着松露的丰富菜肴,就像我最近游览伊斯特里亚期间所经历的那样。

Within minutes of turning up at Prodan Tartufi, near the hilltop town of Buzet, truffle hunter Višnja Prodan whisked me out to the forests with her dogs, Mel and Piko, both medium-sized mixed terriers. It didn’t take long before Mel was digging in the dirt. Prodan scurried over and pulled out a white truffle the size of a golf ball. Mel was rewarded with a treat and the hunt went on.

当我拐进山顶小镇布泽特(Buzet)附近的普罗丹塔图非(Prodan Tartufi)时,松露猎人维森加·普罗丹(Višnja Prodan)和她的两只中等体型的混血猎犬——梅尔(Mel)和皮科(Piko)迅速从我身旁掠过,没入森林之中。梅尔不一会儿就开始挖掘泥土。普罗丹急忙赶过去,拔出了一块高尔夫球大小的白松露,并赏给了梅尔一块食物。之后,搜寻工作继续进行。

“Sometimes the dogs will go to the same places for eight or nine weeks and won’t find anything,” Prodan said. “But then on the 10th week, they’ll locate a nice white truffle. The reason for this is that the truffle wasn’t ready yet and didn’t emit its smell that the dogs picked up.”

"有些时候,猎犬们会在相同的地方搜寻八、九个星期,却一无所获。"普罗丹说道:"但是,到第十个星期,它们会发现一块优质的白松露。这是因为,这块松露在之前还没成熟,无法散发出猎犬们能闻到的气味。"

According to the few truffle hunters I’ve talked to, sows are actually better truffle hunters than dogs, but dogs can be more easily trained not to eat the truffle they find. Prodan told me the reason for porcine superiority is that the truffle contains the steroidal pheromone androstenone, which also happens to be produced in the saliva of male pigs. Thus, female pigs, particularly when they’re in heat, go hog-wild when they pick up the scent of a truffle.

据我接触过的几位松露猎人所述,母猪实际上比猎犬更善于寻找松露,但是猎犬更容易接受"找到松露之后,不要把它吃掉"的培训。普罗丹告诉我,母猪之所以更善于寻找松露,是因为松露含有固醇类信息素——雄烯酮,而公猪的唾液中正好也含有这种物质。因此,母猪(尤其是发情期的母猪)在闻到松露的气味时会非常兴奋。

My visit to Istria was timed perfectly. It was autumn and thus the season for white truffles, which are more pungent, flavourful and expensive than other truffles. Different variations of black truffles, for instance, are more readily available throughout the year, and in many more parts of the planet (including China) – but it’s white truffle season that especially gets gourmands salivating and truffle hunters’ bank balances swelling. The price for white truffles fluctuates, but reportedly reached 4,500 per kilogram in 2017.

我前往伊斯特里亚的时机选择得很好。当时恰逢秋季,是白松露成熟的季节。相比其他松露,白松露的气味更强烈,风味更佳,价格更昂贵。不同品种的黑松露在世界上的分布更广(在中国也有生长),并且全年可供采摘,但白松露更令美食家垂涎,更能提升松露猎人的收入。白松露的价格时有浮动,据报道价格在2017年甚至高达4500欧元/公斤。

There once was a time when white truffle foraging was mostly limited to the forests around Alba in Italy’s Piedmont region, about 600km west of Istria. Like what beer is to Bavaria or mustard is to Dijon, white truffles became so synonymous with Alba that they are sometimes called Alba truffles, even if they don’t come from there.

白松露搜寻活动曾一度局限在意大利皮埃蒙特大区(Piedmont)阿尔巴镇周围的林区(距离伊斯特里亚以西约600公里处)。白松露之于阿尔巴镇,就像啤酒之于巴伐利亚,芥末之于第戎(Dijon)。因此,白松露有时也被称为"阿尔巴松露",即使并非来自阿尔巴镇。

However, things began to shift in the mid-1960s when Ivan Rašpolić, who happens to be Prodan’s grandfather, stumbled upon a pungent morsel in the Istrian earth. “The locals just thought they were ‘stinky potatoes’,” said Prodan, a third-generation truffle hunter. “So they fed them to their pigs.”

但是,这种情况在上世纪六十年代中期开始发生变化。当时,普罗丹的祖父伊凡·拉斯波利奇(Ivan Rašpolić)偶然在伊斯特里亚的土壤中闻到了少许刺鼻的气味。现已是第三代松露猎人的普罗丹讲述道:"当地人认为那些松露是'发臭的土豆',竟然拿它们去喂猪"。

But that’s when something interesting happened. Italians – from Alba, no less – having heard of this ‘pig food’ in Istria began turning up with a keen interest in these ‘stinky potatoes’. “They said to my grandfather and others here that if we give them these things we found in the ground, they’ll trade us Italian foodstuffs, things we couldn’t get under the then-socialist economy of Yugoslavia,” Prodan said. It was a deal. The Istrians got Italian food products, and the Italians spirited prized white truffles back across the border. This went on for decades.

后来发生的事情很有趣。听闻这种"猪食"的意大利人(居然正好是来自阿尔巴镇的意大利人)突然现身伊斯特里亚。他们对这些"发臭的土豆"抱有浓厚的兴趣。普罗丹说道:"他们对我的祖父和当地的其他人说,如果我们把土地里发现的这些东西交给他们,他们将向我们提供我们在当时南斯拉夫的社会主义经济体制下无法获得的意大利食品,作为交换。"这是一种交易——伊斯特里亚人得到意大利的食品,意大利人把珍贵的白松露"拐带"回国。这种交易持续了几十年。

And so herein lies the dirty secret of white truffles: many of the white truffles that, for years, were labelled ‘Tartufi d’Alba’ (Truffles from Alba) were actually from Istria. There was little motivation for Istrians to market their region as a truffle paradise because hunters were being comfortably compensated by the Italians (later the foodstuff trade evolved to actual money).

因此,白松露隐藏着一个不可告人的秘密——过去许多带有"Tartufi d'Alba"(意为"来自意大利阿尔巴镇")标签的白松露实际上产自伊斯特里亚。伊斯特里亚人无意将伊斯特里亚宣传为"松露天堂",因为猎人们对意大利人提供的报酬很满意(后来,食品交易演变成了现金交易)。

All that changed when Zigante found that enormous earthnut in 1999. “He did something smart,” Prodan told me. “Instead of selling it for thousands of dollars, he made a huge dinner for locals. But he also invited members of the press and even the president of Croatia.” As a result, the discovery and subsequent dinner got a lot of attention. And suddenly the secret was out: Istria would be added to the extremely short list of places where one can unearth white truffles. Today, in addition to the guided truffle hunting tours, Istria restaurant menus are sprinkled with truffle-loaded dishes and gourmet shops sell truffles and truffle-spiked food products.

1999年,当泽甘特发现那块巨大的白松露后,这种局面被彻底颠覆了。"他的做法很聪明",普罗丹对我说:"泽甘特并没有按几千美元的价格把它卖掉,而是用它为当地人筹备了一次超大规模的宴会。他还邀请了新闻记者,甚至邀请了克罗地亚的总统。"因此,那块松露的发现和后续的宴会引发了广泛的关注。之前的秘密突然之间就被曝光了:伊斯特里亚被认定为极少数几个能挖到白松露的地方。今天,除了在导游的陪同下搜寻松露之外,来到伊斯特里亚的游客还可以到餐厅品尝松露菜肴,到食品店购买松露和掺入松露的食品。

Truffles have been the object of the gourmand’s eye (and taste buds) for millennia. Ancient Roman aristocrats would often shower guests with the delicacies at lavish banquets. They were viewed as an aphrodisiac because of their association with the god Jupiter, who had a reputation for his divine bedroom prowess. Which is probably why in the Middle Ages, the church discouraged the consumption of these earth fruits, labelling them as ‘devilish’. For nearly a millennium in Europe, truffles mostly were a staple for peasants, but as the centuries went on, they found their place back on the plate of the well-heeled. One thing that never waned, however, was the truffle’s reputation as a sexual stimulant. Nineteenth-Century French writer Alexandre Dumas said they were the “holy of holies for the gourmet”, adding that they made “women more tender and men more lovable”.

美食家搜寻和品尝松露已有数千年的历史。古罗马的贵族在奢华的宴会上经常用大量的松露招待客人。松露在当时被视为一种春药,因为它能让人联想到以性能力强劲著称的天神朱庇特(Jupiter)。这可能是中世纪的教堂禁止食用松露、给松露贴上邪恶标签的原因。在近一千年的时间里,欧洲的松露大多被作为农民的主食。后来,经过若干个世纪,松露又逐渐回到富人的餐桌上。但是,它作为春药的名声从未稍减。十九世纪法国作家大仲马(Alexandre Dumas)称松露是"美食家最神圣的食物",并添油加醋地说道松露能让"女人更温柔,男人更可爱"。

Still, though, it was French black truffles, not their underground brethren from Italy or elsewhere, that were the glimmer in the eye (and stomach) of gourmands. However, things quickly changed in the middle of the 20th Century when Giacomo Morra, Italian founder of a Piedmont company that sold white truffles, began sending out samples to celebrities and VIPs. Winston Churchill got some. So did Rita Hayworth, Joe DiMaggio and Marilyn Monroe. Pope Paul VI got a goodie box as did Ethiopian emperor Haile Selassie. Nearly every haute eatery in Europe and North America received a package of truffles from Alba to try out. And then suddenly the white truffle of Alba was the truffle.

尽管如此,美食家们当时只看重法国产的黑松露,并没有关注产自意大利或其他地方的松露。但是,到二十世纪中叶,当意大利皮埃蒙特大区某家白松露销售公司的创办人贾科莫·莫拉(Giacomo Morra)开始向名流和VIP客户出售白松露的样品时,形势陡然发生变化。温斯顿·丘吉尔、丽塔·海华斯(Rita Hayworth)、乔·狄马乔(Joe DiMaggio)、玛丽莲·梦露、教皇保罗六世、埃塞俄比亚皇帝海尔·塞拉西一世(Haile Selassie)都从莫拉的公司购买白松露。欧洲和北美几乎每间高级餐厅都会从阿尔巴镇购买一包松露。之后,阿尔巴镇的白松露突然成为松露的代名词。

And now we know that some of those prized truffles from Alba were actually ‘stinky potatoes’ from Istria.

现在我们知道,某些来自阿尔巴镇的珍贵松露实际上是产自伊斯特里亚的"发臭的土豆"。

Once back from our hunt, the Prodan family used the truffles we found – the golf ball-sized white truffle and a larger black truffle – to create a meal. Black truffles, the subtler variety, are generally cooked with a dish (say a pasta sauce or shaved into a pan of scrambled eggs) while white truffles are so aromatic they often get grated onto food right at the dinner table. White truffle-topped bruschetta came first. Then came plates of truffle-infused cheese and sausage with sides of truffle-spiked jam.

从松露搜寻之旅归来后,普罗丹一家人立刻用我们发现的松露——高尔夫球大小的白松露和尺寸较大的黑松露准备了一顿饭。黑松露口感微妙,一般和鱼一起烹饪(可加入意面酱),或削成薄片加入炒鸡蛋中;白松露香气浓郁,经常用于点缀餐桌上的菜肴。第一道菜是盖着松露的意式特色面包,然后是几盘掺杂松露的芝士香肠,周围涂抹粘有松露的果酱。

“The key to cooking with truffles,” Prodan said, “is that the truffle has to be king of the dish. No other flavours should overwhelm it.” As she finished the sentence, the piece de resistance arrived: scrambled eggs cooked with black truffles and sprinkled with white. The musky, earthy flavour was king, prince, boss and president all in one.

普罗丹说道:"用松露做菜的关键是必须将松露作为最重要的食材。它不能被其他味道压制。"她说完这句之后,主菜上来了:拌入黑松露、撒着白松露的炒鸡蛋。那种带有麝香和土壤气息的味道堪称无与伦比。

I picked up the white truffle and the shaving board and, just because I could, shaved a few more grams of the pricey fungus onto my scrambled eggs.

我夹起白松露,拿着削片板,竭力往自己的那份炒鸡蛋上多削了几片松露。

“全文请访问纽约时报中文网,本文发表于纽约时报中文网(http://cn.nytimes.com),版权归纽约时报公司所有。任何单位及个人未经许可,不得擅自转载或翻译。订阅纽约时报中文网新闻电邮:http://nytcn.me/subscription/”

相关文章列表