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想戒掉手机瘾?把屏幕调成灰色吧

更新时间:2018-1-17 19:40:41 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Is the Answer to Phone Addiction a Worse Phone?
想戒掉手机瘾?把屏幕调成灰色吧

I’ve gone gray, and it’s great.

我已经变灰了,感觉很好。

In an effort to break my smartphone addiction, I’ve joined a small group of people turning their phone screens to grayscale — cutting out the colors and going with a range of shades from white to black. First popularized by the tech ethicist Tristan Harris, the goal of sticking to shades of gray is to make the glittering screen a little less stimulating.

为了戒掉手机瘾,我加入了一小群人的行动,把手机屏幕调成了灰色——去掉颜色,调成从白色到黑色之间的一系列灰色。这种做法最初是由技术道德专家特里斯坦·哈里斯(Tristan Harris)推广的,只显示灰色的目的是让绚丽的屏幕变得不那么诱人。

I’ve been gray for a couple days, and it’s remarkable how well it has eased my twitchy phone checking, suggesting that one way to break phone attachment may be to, essentially, make my phone a little worse. We’re simple animals, excited by bright colors, it turns out.

我已经变灰几天了,它极大缓解了我不停查看手机的不安情绪,这表明,戒手机瘾的一个方法可能是,从根本上让手机变得更糟一点儿。结果证明,我们就是动物,容易被鲜艳的颜色吸引。

Silicon Valley companies like Facebook and Google know this, and they have increasingly been turning to the field of applied neuroscience to see how exactly brains respond to color in the apps, what brings pleasure and what keeps the eye. New research shows how important color is to our understanding of priorities and emotion.

Facebook和谷歌(Google)等硅谷公司知道这一点,他们越来越关注应用神经科学,想知道大脑对应用程序的颜色到底作何反应,什么能带来快乐,什么能吸引眼睛。新研究表明,颜色对我们对优先级和情感的理解有很大影响。

But not everyone wants to be so enamored with their screen. This week, two major investors asked Apple to figure out how to help parents limit their children’s use of iPhones and iPads, citing concerns over “long-term health.” There’s also a growing movement among some early tech employees warning against the products they’ve built. And many consumers are starting to wonder what this is all doing to our minds.

不过,不是每个人都想被屏幕迷住。本周,苹果公司的两位主要投资人基于对“长期健康”的担忧,要求该公司考虑如何帮助父母限制孩子使用iPhone和iPad。一些早期科技员工也在越来越多地发起运动,对他们制造的产品发出警告。许多消费者开始担心这一切对我们的思想会产生什么影响。

Mack McKelvey, the chief executive of the marketing firm SalientMG in Washington, D.C., said she’s aware of the tricks phones use to keep you on them longer — and coming back sooner.

华盛顿市场营销公司SalientMG的首席执行官梅克·麦凯维(Mack McKelvey)表示,她知道为了让你玩的时间更长——并且放下后更快再拿起来——手机都在使用什么样的花招。

“You don’t buy black-and-white cereal boxes, you buy the really stimulating colored one, and these apps have developed really cool tiles, cool shapes, cool colors, all designed to stimulate you,” Ms. McKelvey said. “But there’s a vibrant world out there, and my phone shouldn’t be it.”

“你不会买黑白包装的麦片,你会买特别令人兴奋的彩色盒装麦片,这些应用开发出很酷的磁贴、很酷的形状、很酷的颜色,所有这些都是为了刺激你,”麦凯维说。“但外面有个充满活力的世界,我们不应该住在手机的世界里。”

She decided to make the switch to gray as well. But it was tricker than she expected.

她也决定把手机调成灰色。但这比她预想的要复杂得多。

“It took like 40 minutes to figure it out. They buried the setting,” she said. “You have to really want to do it.” (If you want to try, here are some tips.)

“我花了大约40分钟才搞定。他们把它的设定藏得很深,”她说。“你必须真的想去改它才行”(如果你想试试,这里有一些建议)。

One person Facebook and others turn to is Thomas Z. Ramsoy, the chief executive of Neurons, a four-year-old company based in Copenhagen. His business uses brain scans and eye tracking technology to study apps, updates and future technology. The company often measures the electrical activity of the brain while a consumer is interacting with a phone, such as texting and scrolling Facebook.

Facebook等公司在向Neurons的首席执行官托马斯·Z·拉姆索(Thomas Z. Ramsoy)寻求建议。Neurons是哥本哈根一家成立四年的公司。该公司使用脑部扫描和眼球追踪技术来研究应用、更新和未来技术。他们经常测量消费者在与手机互动时的脑电活动,比如在发短信和浏览Facebook时。

The goal, Mr. Ramsoy said, is usually for a product to inspire happy emotions and draw attention without freaking a consumer out. For the past year, he said, Facebook has been its largest client, publicizing some of the research. “There is so much business now, we pinch ourselves,” he said.

拉姆索表示,这样做的目的通常是为了开发一种激发愉快情绪、吸引眼球、同时不会吓跑消费者的产品。他说,在过去的一年里,Facebook是他的公司最大的客户,宣传了该公司在这方面的一些研究成果。“现在业务太多了,我们都有点不敢相信,”他说。

“Color and shape, these are the icebreakers when it comes to grabbing people’s attention, and attention is the new currency,” he said. “Having an interface that grabs people’s attention without disturbing them in the wrong way, without consciously intruding in their space, that’s the line fine."

“在吸引注意力方面,颜色和形状是敲门转,注意力是新的货币,”他说。“界面最好能吸引人们的注意力,不要令他们不安,也不要故意侵入他们的空间,这是个微妙的界线。”

What going grayscale does, Mr. Ramsoy said, is reintroduce choice.

拉姆索表示,调成灰色的作用在于恢复选择权。

Companies use colors to encourage subconscious decisions, Mr. Ramsoy said. (So that, for example, I may want to open email, but I’ll end up on Instagram, having seen its colorful button.) Making the phone gray eliminates that manipulation. Mr. Ramsoy said it reintroduces “controlled attention.”

拉姆索表示,公司使用颜色来鼓励潜意识的决定(比如,我本想打开电子邮件,结果却打开了Instagram,因为看见了它鲜艳的图标)。把手机调成灰色消除了这种操纵作用。拉姆索表示,它恢复了“控制注意力”。

“It’s a very good idea,” he said. “You have to take away the sound as well.”

“这是个很棒的主意,”他说,“你得把声音也关掉。”

One way Silicon Valley could help ease phone addiction is by using a more thoughtful color palette, said Bevil Conway, an investigator at the National Eye Institute, who researches color and emotion.

美国国家眼科研究所(National Eye Institute)研究颜色与情绪关系的研究员比维尔·康韦(Bevil Conway)表示,硅谷可以通过使用更体贴的配色方案来帮助缓解手机成瘾。

“Color’s not a signal for detecting objects, it’s actually something much more fundamental: it’s for telling us what’s likely to be important,” Mr. Conway said. “If you have lots of color and contrast then you’re under a constant state of attentional recruitment. Your attentional system is constantly going, ‘Look look look over here.’ ”

“颜色不是探测物体的信号,它的作用其实很基本:它告诉我们什么可能很重要,”康韦说。“如果你面对大量的颜色和对比,那么你的注意力处于不断被转移的状态。你的注意力系统一直在提醒你:‘看这里,看这里,看这里。’”

The same way people think about a color scheme when they’re planning the living room décor, Mr. Conway said, they should think about color when it comes to their phone’s home screen too.

康韦表示,人们在规划起居室的装饰时,会考虑配色方案,他们也同样应该考虑手机主屏幕的配色。

"If you had a color pallette, you would end up with a phone that looked pleasant and was not addictively rewarding, that had some intentionality, but of course nobody wants you to do that,” he said. "Because what they want is for you to look.”

“如果你有一个配色方案,你的手机会看起来令人愉快,而且不会让你上瘾,这需要刻意为之,不过当然,没有哪个公司希望你这样做,”他说,“因为他们想让你玩手机。”

Silicon Valley is in a battle for our attention, and often I feel like the last person in charge of my own eyes. After going to grayscale, I’m not a different person all of a sudden, but I feel more in control of my phone, which now looks like a tool rather than a toy. If I unlock it to write an email, I’m a little less likely to forget the goal and tap on Instagram. If I’m waiting in line for coffee, this gray slab is not as delightful a distraction as it once was.

硅谷正在争夺我们的关注,我常常觉得我是自己眼睛的最后一个控制者。把手机调灰之后,我并不是突然之间完全变成了另一个人,但我觉得自己对手机的控制力增强了,它现在看起来像个工具,而非玩具。我打开它写邮件时,我忘记这个目标、转而去浏览Instagram的可能性变小了。我排队买咖啡时,这个灰色的平板不再像过去那样是个令人愉快的玩物了。

The switch made me realize, in a tangible way, that I still have a little choice here.

这种转变让我真切地感受到,我对它还有一点选择权。

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