您现在的位置: 纽约时报中英文网 >> 纽约时报中英文版 >> 旅游 >> 正文

荷兰和比利时“与众不同”的边界

更新时间:2018-1-7 11:14:22 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Europe's strange border anomaly
荷兰和比利时“与众不同”的边界

In a quiet corner of northern Europe there exists a geopolitical anomaly, where many buildings have an international border running right through them. It’s a place where a person might be in the same bed as his or her spouse, but sleep in different countries. A place where people move their front doors for economic advantage.

在欧洲北部一个不起眼的角落,存在一个地缘政治异常,国界线从这里的许多建筑上贯穿而过。在这里,一个人也许和配偶睡在同一张床上,却处于不同的国家。这里的人会为了经济优势迁移自己家的前门。

Not far from the Belgian border, the Netherlands municipality of Baarle-Nassau is home to nearly 30 Belgian enclaves, known collectively as Baarle-Hertog. On the map, they look like cartographic amoebae, some of them with Dutch nuclei inside.

荷兰的巴勒納紹(Baarle-Nassau)距离比利时边境不远,拥有近30个比利时飞地,统称为巴勒海托克(Baarle-Hertog)。在地图上,位于荷兰的比利时国土看起来像变形虫,其中一些比利时飞地当中还包含荷兰的飞地,就像变形虫的细胞核。

This whole confused mess dates to the Middle Ages when parcels of land were divvied up between different local aristocratic families. Baarle-Hertog once belonged to the Duke (hertog is the Dutch word for ‘duke’) of Brabant, while Baarle-Nassau was the property of the medieval House of Nassau. When Belgium declared independence from the Netherlands in 1831, the two nations were left with an international muddle so complicated that successive regimes were deterred from defining exact jurisdictions. The borders were not actually finalised until 1995, when the last remaining piece of no man’s land was attributed to Belgium.

这种混乱可以追溯到中世纪,当时一块块的土地被不同的当地贵族家庭分割了。巴勒海托克曾经属于布拉班特公爵(Duke of Brabant),(Hertog在荷兰语中是"公爵"的意思),而巴勒納紹是中世纪納紹家族(House of Nassau)的财产。1831年,比利时宣布从荷兰独立时,这两个国家的国界划分一片混乱,十分复杂,以至于后来的政权都无法界定确切的管辖权。直到1995年,最后剩下的一块无主之地被划归比利时之后,边界才最终得以确定。

On first impression, it’s not easy to tell the territories apart, as they look no different from any typical red-brick small Dutch town. Around three-quarters of the region’s roughly 9,000 total residents are Dutch passport holders, and the Dutch municipality also has by far the larger share of land (76 sq km compared to 7.5 sq km). But after a while the differences become apparent, albeit with the help of pavement markings – white crosses with ‘NL’ on one side and ‘B’ on the other – and house numbers which are marked with the appropriate flag.

第一印象是,要区分两国领土并不容易,因为它们看起来和任何一个典型的荷兰红砖小镇都没有区别。这个地区大约9000名居民中有四分之三都持有荷兰护照,巴勒纳绍也拥有较大的土地面积(相较于巴勒海托克的7.5平方公里,它占76平方公里)。但过了一段时间,在路面标记——白色十字一边是"NL"(荷兰),一边是"B"(比利时)——以及适当的旗帜上标记的房屋编号的帮助下,差异就变得明显了。

The Dutch properties are more uniform in appearance than their Belgian counterparts, and Dutch pavements are lined with lime trees, their limbs carefully pruned and braided like vines. The Belgian areas tend to be more architecturally diverse.

荷兰的房屋比比利时的房屋更加统一,荷兰人行道两边种着酸橙树,树枝经过精心修剪,像藤蔓一样交织在一起。比利时地区的建筑往往更加多样化。

If I had an ear for it, I’d be able to differentiate accents, too, explained Willem van Gool, chairman of the Baarle tourist office (himself a Dutch passport holder, though his mother is Belgian). Although French is taught in the Belgian schools, Dutch is the primary language of both communities.

如果我有语言方面的天赋,就能够区分口音,巴勒(Baarle)地区旅游局主席(他自己是荷兰护照持有人,尽管他的母亲是比利时人)威廉·凡古尔(Willem van Gool)解释道。尽管比利时学校教授法语,但荷兰语是两个社区的主要语言。

However, van Gool noted, “With the Belgians it is more like a dialect, and with the Dutch it is more… clean.”

然而,凡古尔指出,"比利时人讲荷兰语更像是说方言,而荷兰人讲的更好。"

That, and the less prescriptive approach to residential landscaping on the Belgian side, has led to a tendency on the part of some of the Dutch to look down on their neighbours. “Back in the days when the schools emptied out at the same time, teenagers would fight,” recalled van Gool, but that all stopped in the 1960s when the town’s two mayors (one Dutch and one Belgian) altered the school timings so that they didn’t overlap and combined the youth club to promote positive interactions.

而且,比利时方面对住宅景观的规定不那么规范,导致一些荷兰人总是看不起他们的邻居。"以前,两边的学校同时放学,青少年们会打架",凡古尔回忆。但是20世纪60年代,两位市长(一位是荷兰人,一位是比利时人)改变了学校的时间安排,放学时间不再重叠,打架的现象不复存在了。他们还将青年俱乐部进行结合,促进积极的互动。

Today, many residents of Baarle-Nassau and Baarle-Hertog have dual citizenship and both a Belgian and a Dutch passport. The peaceful interweaving of the two nations has attracted the interest of advisors to Israeli prime minister Benjamin Netanyahu, as an example of how two different communities can live harmoniously together.

今天,巴勒纳绍和巴勒海托克的许多居民拥有双重市民身份,还有比利时和荷兰两国的护照。两国的和平交织引起了以色列总理本雅明·内塔尼亚胡(Benjamin Netanyahu)的顾问的兴趣,作为两个不同社区如何和谐共处的例子。

So is all this border obscurity to Baarle-Nassau and Baarle-Hertog’s benefit? It certainly attracts tourists, said van Gool. “The number of shops, hotels and cafes we have would be more suited to a town of 40,000 rather than 9,000. And when the Belgian shops have to close on Sunday, the Dutch don’t.”

模糊的边界对巴勒纳绍和巴勒海托克都有益处吗?这当然可以吸引游客,凡古尔说。"我们拥有的商店、酒店和咖啡馆的数量更适合一个四万人而不是九千人的小镇。而比利时的商店星期天必须关闭,荷兰的商店不会关。"

The complexities can still prove difficult, however, especially when it comes to infrastructure. Building permits can be particularly tricky, said Leo van Tilburg, mayor of the Belgian municipality, whose town hall is bisected by the border. Because of its location, Belgium had to seek Dutch permission to build part of their mayoral building – the part delineated by the brightly illuminated border strip running right through the meeting room.

然而事实证明,有些复杂的问题很难处理,尤其是在基础设施方面。房屋的建筑许可特别复杂,巴勒海托克市长利奥·范蒂尔伯格(Leo van Tilburg)说。该市的市政厅被国界线一分为二。由于地理位置特殊,比利时一方必须得到荷兰的许可才能修建一部分市政厅——这一部分由灯火通明的国界线勾勒出来,国界线恰好穿过会议室。

Much of Tilburg’s time is devoted to sorting out the delivery of services – education, water, infrastructure – in co-operation with his Dutch counterpart, Marjon de Hoon. Resurfacing the roads is his particular bugbear, as roads can cross borders several times within a few hundred metres. And then there are issues like the planning of sewage pipes.

范蒂尔伯格的大部分时间都致力于与巴勒納紹市长马洪·德勋(Marjon de Hoon)一道,将各种公共服务——教育、水资源、基础设施安排妥当。重铺路面是最让他烦恼的事,因为道路会在几百米之内数次穿过国界线。然后还有下水管道规划的问题。

“The road under which the pipe is being installed may be all Belgian, but who pays if the pipework has to be enlarged thanks to Dutch houses nearby? And who pays to service the streetlights, where the pavement is Belgian but the light shines on Dutch windows?” Tilburg said. “[But] if there are 100 problems, 98 of them will turn out to be no problem – after plenty of discussions, of course.”

"正在安装的管道上方的道路可能都是比利时的,但是如果附近有荷兰的房屋,而管道需要扩建,那么谁该出资呢?人行道是比利时的,而灯光却照在荷兰人的窗户上,谁来承担路灯的费用呢?"蒂尔伯格说。"但是,如果有100个问题,其中98个最终都不是问题——当然,经过多次讨论。"

Everything is a matter of negotiation.

一切都是协商的问题。

Given that Belgium’s planning laws are less restrictive than the Netherlands’, there are clear advantages to having a front door in Belgium, as Kees de Hoon (no relation to the Dutch mayor) explained when I met him at his border-straddling apartment block. A Dutch passport-holder living in Baarle-Hertog, Kees wanted to redevelop the original building, but the front door was in the Netherlands and he couldn’t get planning permission from the Dutch town hall. He solved the problem by simply installing a second front door, adjacent to the first but on the other side of the border. So now with two front doors to the building, one of his apartments is Dutch, and the other three are Belgian.

鉴于比利时的规划法比荷兰的限制性要小,所以把前门建在比利时境内就会有明显的优势,正如我在基斯·德勋(Kees de Hoon)(与荷兰的那位市长没有关系)的跨国界公寓楼见到他时,他所解释的那样。基斯·德勋是一位住在巴勒海托克的荷兰护照持有者,他想重建原来的住房,但是房子的前门位于荷兰境内,而他得不到荷兰市政厅的规划许可。他仅仅通过安装一个第二前门就解决了这个问题。这个门靠近第一个前门,但是在边界的另一侧。现在,这所房子有两个前门。而他的其中一个公寓在荷兰,另外三个在比利时。

Kees isn’t the only one who has taken advantage of jurisdictional loopholes; many long-established families and business owners will admit to have benefited in some small way. The most flagrant example is a former bank that was built right on top of the border so paperwork could be moved from one side of the building to the other whenever one nationality’s tax inspectors came calling.

基斯·德勋不是唯一一个利用管辖漏洞的人。许多历史悠久的家庭以及企业主都承认曾从一些小的方面获益。名声最坏的一个例子是,之前有座银行建在边界之上,所以只要有一个国家的税务检查员来访,文书就可以从建筑的一侧移到另一侧。

Although loophole-exploiting isn’t as common as it once was, I couldn’t help imagining the glory days of cross-border rule-bending. The cattle that mysteriously changed fields overnight. The shop stock that was acquired in one country and sold in the other without bothering the tax man. “It is a subject the locals like to talk about,” agreed van Gool, “and it was done on both sides of the border.”

虽然现在利用漏洞的现象不如以前常见,我还是不禁想象人们跨越国界破坏规则的日子。牛在一夜之间离奇地换了放牧的田野。一个国家的商店库存不交税就在另一国销售。"这是当地人喜欢谈论的话题,"凡古尔说,"边界两边都有人这样做。"

That doesn’t mean the two jurisdictions are without friction. The drinking age in the Netherlands is 18 but Belgians can legally drink beer and wine at 16, so if a Dutch barkeeper refuses to serve a crowd of teenagers, they can just thumb their nose at him and walk across the road. And the many fireworks shops in the Belgian parts of town are a source of irritation to the Dutch authorities. In the Netherlands, the sale and carriage of fireworks is illegal (except for around the New Year). So when I came to the end of my November visit in Baarle-Nassau/Baarle-Hertog, I had to face Dutch police who were scrutinising everyone leaving town.

这并不意味着两国的管辖权没有冲突。在荷兰,18岁才可以饮酒。而在比利时,16岁就可以合法饮用啤酒和红酒。所以如果荷兰的一位酒吧老板拒绝为一群青少年服务,那么这些人可以无视他,走到道路的另一边去。而比利时的许多烟花店对荷兰当局来说都是一个刺激的来源。在荷兰,售卖和运输烟花是违法的(新年前后除外)所以,当我11月结束在巴勒纳绍和巴勒海托克的旅行时,不得不面对荷兰警方对离开镇子的人的彻底检查。

It seems that, in this laboratory of trans-frontier co-operation, there are still a few outstanding issues to be resolved.

看来,在这个跨国界合作的试点之处,还有许多突出的问题亟待解决。

“全文请访问纽约时报中文网,本文发表于纽约时报中文网(http://cn.nytimes.com),版权归纽约时报公司所有。任何单位及个人未经许可,不得擅自转载或翻译。订阅纽约时报中文网新闻电邮:http://nytcn.me/subscription/”

相关文章列表