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即使逃离了屠杀,罗辛亚儿童仍无法逃离厄运

更新时间:2018-1-7 10:35:08 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Rohingya Children Facing ‘Massive Mental Health Crisis’
即使逃离了屠杀,罗辛亚儿童仍无法逃离厄运

BALUKHALI, Bangladesh — Jehora Begum was a fast runner, racing through rice paddies and splashing through canals.

孟加拉巴鲁卡里难民营——婕霍拉·贝甘(Jehora Begum)跑得很快,她飞奔过稻田,趟过了水渠。

But how can a 12-year-old girl outrun a bullet?

但一个12岁的女孩怎么能跑得过子弹?

When Myanmar’s military and Buddhist vigilantes descended on Rohingya Muslim villages in late August, burning homes and spraying gunfire, 14 members of Jehora’s family — including her mother, her father and four of her siblings — couldn’t run quickly enough.

八月下旬,缅甸军队和佛教徒民兵袭击了罗辛亚穆斯林村庄,烧毁房屋,肆意射击。婕霍拉一家14口——包括她的母亲、父亲和4个兄弟姐妹——都没来得及跑出去。

They all died, according to witnesses and human rights groups investigating the massacre in Maungdaw Township.

根据目击者和调查孟都镇大屠杀的人权组织所说,他们都死了。

Jehora was shot as she waded through a canal, the bullet lodging near her pelvis. Still, she and her younger brother, Khairul Amin, made it to safety in southeastern Bangladesh, where refugee camps now house far more Rohingya than remain in their homeland in Rakhine State in Myanmar.

婕霍拉中枪时正趟过一条水渠,子弹打进了她的骨盆附近。尽管如此,她和弟弟海鲁尔·阿明(Khairul Amin)还是抵达了孟加拉国东南部的安全地点,那里的难民营现在安置的罗辛亚人,远远比留在缅甸若开邦故乡的人多。

“I have nightmares that the military is chasing me,” Jehora said. “I wake up, and I think of my parents, and then I stay awake for a long time.”

“我会做噩梦,梦到军队在追我,”婕霍拉说。“我醒来,想到我的父母,就会很久都睡不着。”

Of the more than 655,000 Rohingya who have fled to Bangladesh since the Myanmar military began its crackdown in late August, around 380,000 are minors, according to Save the Children, the international aid organization. At least 30 percent of the refugee population is younger than 5.

据国际救援组织“救助儿童会”(Save the Children)称,在八月下旬缅甸军方的镇压开始后逃至孟加拉国的逾65.5万罗辛亚人中,大约有38万是未成年人。至少有30%的难民不到5岁。

The prospects of these young refugees, say child development experts, are grim.

儿童发育专家表示,这些年幼难民的前景堪忧。

“What we’re seeing is the perfect breeding ground for a massive mental health crisis for children,” said Lalou Rostrup Holdt, a mental health adviser for Save the Children.

“我们眼前所见是重大儿童心理危机滋生的完美温床,”救助儿童会的心理健康咨询师拉卢·罗斯特拉普·霍尔特(Lalou Rostrup Holdt)说道。

“You have trauma on a huge scale, children seeing brutal killings and being forced to leave home with nothing,” Holdt said. “You have hunger. You also have significant developmental delays due to malnutrition and understimulation that predate the recent trauma. It’s absolutely devastating for an entire community.”

“这是大规模的心理创伤,孩子们看到了残酷的杀戮,被迫一无所有地离开家园,”霍尔特说。“还有饥荒。还有在最近这次创伤之前由于营养不良、刺激不足而导致的发育严重迟缓。这对整个种族团体来说肯定是灾难性的。”

Holdt, who has been working in the camps for two months, said that many Rohingya children are living in a state of near constant “fight or flight” arousal, a hyperstressed condition that can change the architecture of their brains.

已经在难民营工作了两个月的霍尔特表示,许多罗辛亚儿童都生活在一种近乎于常态的“战或逃”戒备状态之中,这是一种可以改变他们大脑结构的超高压状态。

Yet the children who made it to the camps are the lucky ones. Doctors Without Borders estimates that at least 730 Rohingya children younger than 5 were killed in Myanmar between late August and late September, mostly by gunshot, according to a survey released in December. Nearly 10 percent of those children were burned in their homes, while 5 percent were beaten to death.

但能抵达难民营的孩子已算得上幸运。根据一个12月发布的调查,无国界医生(Doctors Without Borders)估计在八月下旬至九月下旬期间,至少有730名不到5岁的罗辛亚儿童在缅甸被杀害,且大多死于枪击。其中,将近10%的儿童被烧死在家中,5%被殴打致死。

The international medical charity cautioned that its estimate was conservative and probably understated the true mortality figures.

国际医疗慈善机构警告,这是保守估计,真实的死亡人数可能更高。

Although the governments of Bangladesh and Myanmar say they will proceed with a voluntary repatriation scheme in the coming weeks, there is little enthusiasm among Rohingya refugees for returning to the site of what Western governments have labeled ethnic cleansing.

尽管孟加拉国和缅甸政府表示他们会在往后的几周内开始自愿遣返计划,但罗辛亚难民对重回这个西方政府称存在种族大清洗的地方并没有多少兴趣。

The Myanmar government has stripped most Rohingya of citizenship and considers them to be illegal immigrants from Bangladesh.

缅甸政府剥夺了大部分罗辛亚人的公民身份,将其视为来自孟加拉国的非法移民。

The likelihood, then, is that hundreds of thousands of Rohingya children will grow up both stateless and homeless — an untethered life of displacement that bodes ill for a people already wounded by decades of military persecution in Rakhine State.

于是,数十万的罗辛亚儿童很可能就这样无国籍、无居所地长大——这种孤身一人的流亡生活,预示一个在若开邦已被军事迫害数十载而伤痕累累的民族未来堪忧。

“There have been other recent crises in places like Congo where children saw their families slaughtered or mothers being raped,” said Benjamin Steinlechner, a spokesman for UNICEF in Cox’s Bazar, Bangladesh. “But the scale of what has happened with the Rohingya is so much greater than what we’ve seen in other places. We have no idea how all these children are going to process this trauma.”

“在刚果这些地方近来也有一些危机,会让孩子们看到家人被屠杀,母亲被强奸,”联合国儿童基金会(UNICEF)驻孟加拉国科克斯巴扎尔的发言人本杰明·施泰因莱希纳(Benjamin Steinlechner)说。“但罗辛亚人事件的规模远远大于我们在别处所见。我们不知道所有这些孩子将如何处理这个创伤。”

For now, aid workers in the camps in Bangladesh are preoccupied with more immediate matters of life and death.

现在,孟加拉国难民营的救援工作者正忙于生死攸关的更紧要问题。

UNICEF says that 7 percent of children in the camps are suffering from severe acute malnutrition, a condition from which they will die unless they get proper care. That figure is three times higher than in other recent humanitarian emergencies.

联合国儿童基金会表示,难民营里有7%的儿童患有严重的急性营养不良,如果得不到妥善医护会导致死亡。这一数字比近期其他人道主义危机高出三倍。

The longer-term consequences for Rohingya children are nearly as daunting. Chronic malnutrition stunts not only physical growth but intellectual development as well. Few youth in the camps have any idea how old they are.

这对罗辛亚儿童的长期影响几乎同样令人揪心。长期营养不良不仅阻碍身体发育,还会妨碍智力发育。在难民营里,很少有孩子知道自己的年龄。

Most children who fled to Bangladesh experienced significant trauma, whether witnessing relatives being killed or waiting for military raids to engulf their villages. Even hearing stories about massacres, a common currency in refugee camps, brings its own distress.

逃到孟加拉国的大部分儿童都经历了严重的精神创伤,无论是目睹亲人被杀还是等着军事突袭吞噬他们所在的村庄。即使是在难民营里听到关于大屠杀的故事,也会让他们感到痛苦。在难民营,和大屠杀有关的故事颇为常见。

“When we got to Bangladesh, my grandmother described how my parents had been chopped to death,” said Mohammed Ismail, 13, most of whose family members were killed in a village in northern Maungdaw Township, according to fellow villagers. “I can never forget what she told me.”

“到达孟加拉国后,我奶奶说过我的父母是怎么被砍死的,”13岁的穆罕默德·伊斯梅尔(Mohammed Ismail)说。“我永远无法忘记她告诉我的事情。”据同村村民说,伊斯梅尔的大部分家人都在孟都镇(Maungdaw Township)北部的一个村子里遇害了。

And the suffering began long before the latest military campaign. For years now, most Rohingya children in Rakhine had no access to government health care or schools. College is all but out of the question.

早在最近这场军事行动之前,苦难就已经开始了。多年来,若开邦的大部分罗辛亚儿童无法享受政府提供的医疗保健服务或教育。上大学几乎不可能。

Shut out of the state education system, some Rohingya children attended private madrassas in Rakhine instead. But after Rohingya insurgents attacked Myanmar security posts last year, soldiers forced the closure of many of those Islamic schools as well.

在若开邦,被国家教育系统拒之门外的一些罗辛亚儿童在私立经文学校上学。但去年罗辛亚反叛分子袭击缅甸安全哨所后,士兵逼迫了很多经文学校关门。

“If we cannot teach Islam to our children, then we have nothing left to pass on to them,” said Said Hossein, an imam whose mosque in the town of Taung Bazar was shut down by the military.

“如果不能把伊斯兰教给孩子,那我们就没有什么可以传给他们了,”身为伊玛目的赛义德·侯赛因(Said Hossein)说。他在同巴扎(Taung Bazar)镇的清真寺被军方关闭。

Two weeks after he arrived in Bangladesh, Hossein opened a temporary mosque in Balukhali by binding stalks of bamboo with a piece of tarpaulin. Between prayer times, he is teaching children again.

到达孟加拉国两周后,侯赛因在巴鲁卡里用竹竿和一块柏油帆布建起了一座临时清真寺。在祈祷的间歇,他又开始教授孩子。

But experts on Islamic militancy in Bangladesh worry that some of these makeshift schools, which have received funding from both local and Middle Eastern extremist groups, could become centers of religious radicalism or Rohingya militancy.

但这些临时学校得到了当地和中东激进组织的资助,孟加拉国研究伊斯兰好战主义的专家担心,一些学校可能会成为宗教激进主义或罗辛亚好战主义的中心。

Today, at least 5,600 households in the Bangladesh camps are headed by children who arrived unaccompanied by adult family members, according to the U.N. refugee agency.

根据联合国难民署的数据,目前孟加拉难民营中至少5600户家庭的户主,是抵达难民营时没有成年家庭成员陪同的儿童。

Even in families with a mother or father, a high birthrate — it is not uncommon for Rohingya to have six or seven children — means that parents struggle to feed their families.

即使在有父亲或母亲的家庭,高出生率——罗辛亚人有六七个孩子的情况不少见——也意味着父母很难养活一家人。

To survive, some have begun offloading their girls to work as maids for middle-class Bangladeshis, or in the local garment industry.

为了生存,一些人已经开始把女儿送去给孟加拉国的中产阶级当女佣,或是进入当地的服装行业。

“Children and adolescents are super vulnerable to being trafficked, whether for sexual exploitation or for household work,” said Steinlechner of UNICEF. “Right now we are still busy delivering aid, but we are aware that trafficking is happening under our noses.”

“儿童和青少年非常容易被贩卖,无论是为了性剥削还是做家务,”联合国儿童基金会的施泰因莱希纳说:“目前我们依然忙于提供援助,但我们知道,人口贩卖就发生在我们眼皮底下。”

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