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“Friluftsliv”:北欧人的户外生活理念

更新时间:2018-1-4 21:26:40 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Friluftsliv: The nordic concept of getting outdoors
“Friluftsliv”:北欧人的户外生活理念

It’s minus two degrees celsius. Frost-tipped grass lines the hiking trails snaking through the forest in Ursvik, a Stockholm suburb on the edge of the Swedish capital’s technology and science hub, Kista.

当时只有零下2摄氏度。在Ursvik的树林里,蜿蜒的小道两旁满是被冷霜覆盖的小草。这是斯德哥尔摩的一个郊区,紧靠着瑞典首都的科技中心希斯塔(Kista)。

Yet, despite the frigid temperature, there’s a steady footfall of walkers and joggers out and about during their lunch break.

然而,尽管寒气逼人,但在午餐时间,还是能在这里看到不少步行和慢跑的人。

“We do it all year round. You get so much energy from it,” says Tina Holm, a scientist at the Nordic headquarters of pharmaceutical and cosmetics firm Perrigo, who is here with her company’s running club. “We have a saying in Sweden ‘there’s no such thing as bad weather, only bad clothes’.”

"我们一年到头都是这样。这可以带来旺盛的精力。"任职于制药和化妆品公司Perrigo北欧总部的科学家蒂娜·霍尔姆(Tina Holm)说,"瑞典人认为,'只要穿着合适的服装,就没有不好的天气。'"

“It’s a very big part of our lives, to be able to see the greenery and the water and the forests,” adds Bo Wahlund, a packaging developer who organises the group. “It strengthens our mental and physical abilities.”

"能够看到树林里的青山绿水,已经成为我们生活的重要组成部分。" 包装开发者鲍·瓦赫朗德(Bo Wahlund)说,他是该团体的组织者,"这能加强我们的心理和身体能力。"

Their passion for nature cuts to the heart of what Scandinavians call friluftsliv (pronounced free-loofts-liv). The expression literally translates as “open-air living” and was popularised in the 1850s by the Norwegian playwright and poet, Henrik Ibsen, who used the term to describe the value of spending time in remote locations for spiritual and physical wellbeing.

这种对自然的热爱涉及到斯堪的纳维亚人所谓的“friluftsliv”(发音是"free-loofts-liv")的核心。这个词可以翻译为"户外生活",它于19世纪50年代由挪威剧作家兼诗人亨里克·易卜生(Henrik Ibsen)推广开来。易卜生用这个词来描述前往偏远地方寻求精神和肉体幸福的价值观。

Today, the phrase is used more broadly by Swedes, Norwegians and Danes to explain anything from lunchtime runs in the forest, to commuting by bike (or on cross-country skis when the snow falls) to joining friends at a lakeside sauna (often followed by a chilly dip in the water) or simply relaxing in a mountain hut. The concept is also linked closely to allmansrätten, the right to roam. Scandinavian countries all have similar laws which allow people to walk or camp practically anywhere, as long as they show respect for the surrounding nature, wildlife and locals.

如今,这个词在瑞典、挪威和丹麦得到更加广泛的应用,可以用于表达各种各样的活动,从午餐之后在林中跑步,到骑车上下班(或在雪天越野滑雪上下班),再到与朋友一起在湖畔桑拿(之后往往会到冰冷的湖水中泡一泡),或者单纯在山中的小木屋里放松休息。这个概念与“allmansrätten”(漫游的权利)紧密相连。斯堪的纳维亚国家都有类似的法律,允许人们到任何地方行走和露营,只要他们尊重周围的自然环境、动物植物和风土人情即可。

The great outdoors

自然风光

“The history of outdoor life in the Nordics is long and really incorporated with the culture, since we have a lot of land and a small population,” explains Angeliqa Mejstedt, who runs one of the region’s largest outdoor blogs, Vandringsbloggen, from the Swedish city of Västerås.

"北欧拥有悠久的户外生活历史,而且已经融入这里的文化,因为我们这里地广人稀。"安吉莉卡·梅耶斯泰德(Angeliqa Mejstedt)解释道,她在瑞典韦斯特罗斯市(Västerås)经营着当地最大的户外博客之一——Vandringsbloggen。

“Even after we became more urbanised we had this longing to get back to nature and for the last 100 years a lot of voluntary organisations like the Scouts and the tourist boards have organised and educated people about how and why to spend time outdoors,” says the writer, who also works as a consultant advising businesses and new immigrants on the history and benefits of friluftsliv.

"即便是在城镇化程度提高之后,我们仍然很愿意回到大自然的怀抱,而在过去100年,像童军(Scouts)和旅游委员会这样的团体也都组织和教育人们如何度过户外生活,以及为什么要进行户外活动。"这位作者写道,他还是一名顾问,专门为企业和新移民讲述“friluftsliv”的历史和好处。

In Sweden alone, a country of 10 million people, there are 25 non-profit associations anchored to friluftsliv, with 1.7 million memberships spread across 9,000 local and regional clubs. Research for Statistics Sweden, the government’s number-crunching agency, suggests that around a third of Swedes engage in outdoor activities at least once a week. More than half of the population have access to a summer house in the countryside or on the coast.

仅在瑞典这个拥有1,000万人口的国家,就有25家跟“friluftsliv”有关的非盈利组织,总计170万名会员参加了全国各地的9,000家地方性和区域性俱乐部。瑞典统计研究院(Statistics Sweden)表示,大约三分之一的瑞典人至少每周进行一次户外活动。有超过半数人口去过乡下或海边的夏日小屋。

Many Scandinavian employers also incentivise staff to spend time outside during their working hours. The shiny activewear sported by pharmaceutical workers like Wahlund and Holme hint these are people who schedule exercise without any help from their bosses. But their club is able to meet every week thanks to a company policy that blocks 90 minutes out of employees’ calendars every Wednesday. No-one is forced to exercise, but a majority of staff choose to, with many making a beeline for the surrounding woodland.

斯堪的纳维亚的很多雇主也都鼓励员工在工作时间到户外走走。像瓦赫朗德和霍尔姆这样的制药公司员工身穿的色彩鲜艳的运动服,表明这些人都准备在工作期间锻炼身体。他们每周都能在俱乐部会面一次,这还要得益于公司每周三从员工的日程表中空余出来90分钟的政策。没有企业会强制任何人锻炼,但多数员工都自愿为之,很多人都会径直前往附近的林地。

Wahlund finds it funny when “cool companies like Apple or Google” make headlines for testing out similar initiatives, noting that “in Sweden it’s regular, there’s a lot of companies doing it”.

当"苹果或谷歌这样的炫酷公司"因为尝试类似的项目而登上媒体头条时,瓦赫朗德感觉很好笑,他们指出,"这在瑞典很常见,很多公司都这么做。"

Deciding when to work

灵活工作制

With flexible hours already commonplace in Scandinavia, thanks to policies encouraging both parents to participate in family life, many businesses are also giving employees the chance to work around their passions – including the great outdoors – more regularly.

由于国家政策鼓励父母双亲参与家庭生活,所以灵活工作制已经在斯堪的纳维亚非常普遍,而很多企业也因此为员工创造机会,使之可以有机会经常发展自己的爱好——包括各种户外活动。

“We have a very free work environment and believe that our employees work best when they decide when to work,” says Jakob Palmers, the co-founder of Graphiq, a design agency based in the Norwegian capital, Oslo. “That means people can go and experience friluftsliv when the sun is up and work when it's dark”.

"我们拥有非常自由的工作环境,我们相信,如果能让员工自己决定工作时间,就能取得最好的工作效果。"雅克布·帕尔莫斯(Jakob Palmers)说,他是挪威首都奥斯陆的设计公司Graphiq的联合创始人,"这意味着人们可以在太阳升起的时候去体会friluftsliv,等到天黑了再去工作。"

The company has also piloted holding meetings outdoors at a nearby pond and plans to do so more regularly when warmer weather returns. “You get a different perspective as soon as you get out of the building," Palmers says.

该公司还尝试在附近的池塘边举行户外会议,他们还准备等到天气变暖时更多地从事这种活动。"走出大楼之后,你立刻就能获得不同的视角。"帕尔莫斯说。

There are even tax breaks for firms that incentivise friluftsliv: firms in Sweden and Finland can subsidise employees’ sports activities or equipment, while some Finnish businesses are starting to pay compensation to employees if they cycle or walk to work.

鼓励员工进行friluftsliv的公司甚至可以获得税收减免待遇:瑞典和芬兰的企业可以为员工的体育活动或设备提供补贴,而部分芬兰企业还开始针对骑车或走路上班的员工发放补助。

But while all this implies that Scandinavia’s obsession with friluftsliv is as deep-rooted as a Nordic forest, there are signs that things are starting to shift.

然而,虽然这都表明斯堪的纳维亚人对待friluftsliv的态度就像对北欧森林一样痴迷,但却有迹象表明,情况开始发生变化。

Ibsen may have been able to clear his mind while out walking in the countryside but the aspect of friluftsliv that champions feeling “remote” feels less relevant in a region made up of the most digitally advanced economies in Europe.

易卜生或许可以在乡间行走时理清思绪,在这个由欧洲数字化程度最高的经济体组成的地区,friluftsliv中蕴含的"偏远"元素似乎已经感觉不太明显。

Fast broadband and widespread 3G or 4G mobile coverage ensure there’s pretty much nowhere that phone calls, emails, or Slack notifications can’t get through. Meanwhile globalisation means that growing numbers of Nordic companies need to stay in contact with colleagues and customers operating in different time zones.

高速宽带和广泛的3G或4G移动网络覆盖率,确保这里几乎可以随处接打电话、收发邮件,接收Slack通知。与此同时,全球化也意味着越来越多的北欧公司需要与不同时区的同事和客户保持联系。

Sweden’s largest union, Unionen, reports that while some embrace the freedom to work or check messages “wherever, whenever”, rising numbers of members report feeling stressed as a result of being unable to unwind during weekends and holidays in the same way they did in the past.

瑞典最大的工会Unionen报告称,虽然有的人信奉自由工作,或者"随时随地"查看信息,但越来越多的成员因为无法像以前一样在周末和节假日放松而感觉紧张。

“We are a hardworking people, we are a very loyal people and that loyalty means that some of us work a little too much in inappropriate situations – on sailboats and in summer cottages,” says Peter Hellberg, a vice chairman at the union.

"我们都很努力,也很忠诚,这种忠诚意味着我们中的某些人在不合适的时候从事的工作有点过多——例如在帆船上,以及在避暑别墅里。"该工会副主席彼得·希尔博格(Peter Hellberg)说。

“I’m scheduling my ‘friluftsliv’ now. In the old days, you just went out. Now I have to see ‘oh I have time for my walk in the nature on Friday at 5 o'clock’,” he says.

"我目前正在规划自己的friluftsliv。以前可以直接动身。现在,我必须确保自己有时间在星期五5点去大自然散散步。"他说。

He’s also concerned that a boom in the region’s start-up scene has resulted in a new generation of entrepreneurs unsure when they are allowed to stop working. “Ten thousand of our members are self-employed. They don’t have anyone to talk to, to reason with, to realise when they are reaching the limit”.

他还担心,这一地区的创业热潮导致新一代企业家不确定自己什么时候可以停止工作。"我们有数万名会员是自己给自己当老板。他们没有人说话,所以就没有人理解,也就无法意识到自己什么时候达到极限。"

However, others argue that younger Scandinavians are simply discovering new methods to switch off and recoup energy, albeit on a more short-term basis.

但还有人认为,年轻的斯堪的纳维亚人只是在寻找休息和恢复精力的新方法,尽管花费的时间更短。

“I think the real crisis for friluftsliv is that my generation, we don’t want to sit for long periods of time in the countryside doing nothing,” says Hjalmar Nilssonne, CEO of Swedish green energy start-up Watty. “We want to do exciting stuff, we want to travel, we want to go to see new places, meet new people”.

"我认为,对friluftsliv来说,我们这代人面临的真正风险在于,我们不想长时间坐在乡下,什么也不做。"瑞典绿色能源创业公司Watty首席执行官哈吉尔玛·尼尔松尼(Hjalmar Nilssonne)说,"我们想做振奋人心的事情,我们想去旅行,我们想看看新地方,认识新朋友。"

When it comes to relaxation he says meditation, silent retreats and even psychedelic drugs are, within the start-up scene at least, becoming popular alternatives to more traditional outdoor pastimes.

他认为冥想、沉默静养甚至迷幻剂,都成为了新的放松方式,成为了传统户外休闲方式的热门替代品。

“You have this interesting sort-of counter-culture developing. So I think maybe for us, our generation – in the big cities at least – might find other ways of achieving something similar to friluftsliv, maybe more with a spiritual note.”

"现在出现了这种有些反文化的情况。所以我认为,对我们来说,我们这代人或许可以找到其他类似于friluftsliv的方式(至少在大城市),或许更多地在于精神层面。"

Swedish data confirm that the amount of time young people are active outdoors has dipped slightly over the past three decades, with around 25% now spending time in the countryside or forest at least once a week, compared to 29% in the early 1980s.

瑞典的数据证实,年轻人在户外活跃的时间过去30年略微有所减少,约有25%的年轻人每周至少在乡下或树林里待一段时间,而20世纪80年代初达到29%。

But Angeliqa Mejstedt insists that the success of her blog, and the more than 100 hikes she’s organised in 23 locations over the past year, are a sign that friluftsliv continues to inspire young Scandinavians and that the concept has found new ways to thrive in a more digital world.

但安吉莉卡·梅耶斯泰德坚称,她的博客取得的成功,以及她过去一年在23个地方组织的100多场远足活动,都表明friluftsliv仍在激励斯堪的纳维亚的年轻人,而这个概念也在数字化日益盛行的时代找到了新的繁荣方式。

“The more screen time we have, the more we need to get back to basics. But I think that the digital area can help us in many ways, it makes it easier to plan adventures for example with modern apps,” she says. “I’ve also found a lot of mindfulness in taking pictures because it makes me add more value to being outdoors and I think it could be the same for other people as well.”

"我们跟屏幕待在一起的时间越长,就越要回归根本。但我认为,数字时代可以在很多方面帮助我们。例如,借助现代化的搜集应用,它就能简化我们规划探险的过程。"她说,"我还发现拍照也很有意义,因为这能让我为户外活动增加更多的价值,我认为其他人可能也有同样的感受。"

She’s also convinced that while other countries might not have the same history or infrastructure when it comes to promoting friluftsliv, it’s still a concept that can be quickly exported.

她还相信,虽然其他国家可能在推广friluftsliv方面也有相同的历史传统或基础设施,但这仍然是一个可以快速输出的理念。

“If you have time to watch Game of Thrones on Netflix, you also have time to be outdoors. It’s a matter of making choices,” she argues. “And being able to see something green really adds value to everyday life”.

"如果你有时间在Netflix上看《权利的游戏》(Game of Thrones),那也应该有时间去户外活动一下。这是个选择问题。"她说,"能够看到一些绿色的东西,真的能给日常生活增加一些价值。"

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