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制裁压力下,波兰为何还在雇佣朝鲜劳工?

更新时间:2018-1-2 20:07:19 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Even in Poland, Workers’ Wages Flow to North Korea
制裁压力下,波兰为何还在雇佣朝鲜劳工?

POLICE, Poland — At an isolated shipyard on Poland’s Baltic coast, men in coveralls used welding torches under a cold drizzle, forging an oil tanker for a customer in the Netherlands. The scene was unremarkable, save for the provenance of a dozen of the workers.

波兰波利采——在波罗的海边的一座偏远的波兰造船厂里,身着工作服的男人们在冷雨中使用焊枪,为一个荷兰客户制造油轮。若不是其中十几个工人的身份,这本是一个平常的景象。

“Yes, we are from the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea,” one of them said. “We have been here quite a while.” Then he hurried away, alarm seizing his face.

“是的,我们来自朝鲜民主主义人民共和国,”其中一位说。“我们已经来了一段时间了。”然后他匆匆离开,脸上露出警惕的神情。

Four other welders confirmed that they were also from North Korea, the pariah state threatening the United States and much of East Asia with nuclear weapons. They, too, then scampered off.

另外四个焊工承认他们同样来自朝鲜,那个由于使用核武器威胁美国及东亚大部分地区而被国际社会遗弃的国家。接着,他们也跑开了。

For decades, North Korea has dispatched laborers to points around the globe, engaging tens of thousands in logging, mining and construction ventures while taking a hefty slice of their earnings. The United States has sought to shut down this enterprise, lobbying other countries to eject the workers and eliminate a source of hard currency for the North Korean economy.

数十年来,朝鲜一直在向世界各地派遣劳工,使数万人进入了伐木、采矿和建筑企业,并拿走这些人的收入的一大部分。美国在试图禁止这种活动,游说其他国家驱逐朝鲜工人,剔除朝鲜经济的一个硬通货来源。

But the continued presence of these workers in Poland — a NATO ally at the heart of the European Union — underscores how difficult it is to fully sever North Korea from the global economy, even as the nation accelerates efforts to build a nuclear missile capable of striking the United States.

但是在波兰——一个地处欧盟中心的北约(NATO)盟国,朝鲜工人的持续存在突出说明,要把朝鲜完全从全球经济中切除是多么困难,即使是在朝鲜加紧努力制造能打击美国的核导弹的时候。

In December, the United Nations Security Council adopted a resolution requiring all countries to expel North Korean workers within two years. The resolution, which followed the North’s launch of a new intercontinental ballistic missile in November, also imposed a sharp cut in oil shipments to the nation.

联合国安全理事会12月通过了一项决议,要求所有国家在两年内将朝鲜工人驱逐出境。这项紧随朝鲜11月发射的新型洲际弹道导弹而来的决议,同时还大幅削减了向朝鲜的石油运输。

Poland sent soldiers to fight alongside Americans in Iraq, but is nonetheless one of the few countries still hosting North Korean workers over Washington’s objections.

曾派遣士兵前往伊拉克与美国并肩作战的波兰,却也是少数在华盛顿的反对下接收朝鲜工人的国家之一。

The State Labor Inspectorate, which regulates working conditions at Polish companies, said that perhaps 450 North Koreans remained in the country as of mid-2017, employed by at least 19 companies, including a complex of greenhouses growing tomatoes south of Warsaw.

负责监管波兰公司工作条件的国家劳动监察局(State Labor Inspectorate)表示,截至2017年年中,可能有450名朝鲜人仍在波兰国内,受雇于至少19家企业,其中包括在华沙以南的一个种植西红柿的温室综合体。

But The New York Times found North Korean workers at two other businesses — the shipyard in Police, near the German border, and a factory that makes shipping containers in the town of Czluchow, 100 miles southwest of Gdansk.

但《纽约时报》发现了另外两家有朝鲜工人的企业——一家是靠近德国边境的波利采的造船厂,另一家是在格但斯克西南部160公里的奇武胡夫的货柜制造厂。

In Poland, provincial governments issue work permits to foreign laborers, and there is little coordination with national agencies. As a result, no one appears to know precisely how many North Koreans are in Poland or what they are doing.

在波兰,省级政府会向外国劳工签发工作许可,很少与国家部门进行协调。结果,没有人能清楚知道波兰有多少朝鲜人,或知道他们在做些什么。

The Foreign Ministry has urged local governments to stop approving work permits for North Koreans, and new legislation taking effect in January will require them to do so. But until now, the provinces have persisted, illustrating the durability of commercial relationships forged during the Cold War, when Poland was a fellow member of the Communist bloc.

波兰外交部已经敦促地方政府停止批准朝鲜人的工作许可,于1月生效的新法规也提出了这项要求。但是各地到目前为止依然我行我素,表明冷战期间形成的商业关系有多么牢固——当时波兰属于共产主义阵营。

Relations between Poland and North Korea cooled after the fall of the Soviet Union, but Poland remains one of seven European nations to maintain embassies in Pyongyang.

波兰和朝鲜之间的关系在苏联解体后有所冷却,但波兰仍是七个在平壤设有大使馆的欧洲国家之一。

The Times requested information on work permits issued to North Koreans from Poland’s 16 provincial governments. Nine responded, reporting that they had given 124 new permits to North Koreans in 2017, and 253 the previous year.

时报向波兰16个省级政府索要向朝鲜人签发工作许可的信息。有9个省级政府作出回应并报告称,2017年他们向朝鲜人签发了124份新的工作许可,前年则签发了253份。

Washington has intensified pressure on countries to stop hosting North Korean laborers, and the list of countries doing so has dropped to perhaps 16, including Austria and several Persian Gulf states, from about 40, according to human rights groups and U.N. reports.

根据联合国和人权组织的报告,华盛顿方面已经加大了要求各国停止接收朝鲜劳工的压力,而接收朝鲜劳工的国家可能已由40个减少至16个,其中包括奥地利和几个波斯湾国家。

The Polish government has repeatedly pledged to phase out work permits for North Koreans after negative attention in academic papers and news reports.

在学术论文和新闻报道的负面关注下,波兰政府再三承诺会逐步取消对朝鲜人发放工作许可。

But the European Union has not pressed the issue, fearful of ratcheting up tensions over sovereignty issues after Britain’s vote to exit the bloc. Poland’s right-wing government has bristled at European criticism of its moves to exercise greater control of the courts.

然而,由于担心在英国公投退出欧盟后加剧主权问题的紧张气氛,欧盟并没有在这方面施压。欧盟加强对法院控制的举措,曾引起右翼的波兰政府的愤怒。

“The EU has been afraid of driving Poland further away,” said Remco Breuker, a historian and Korea expert at Leiden University in the Netherlands.

“欧盟担心会把波兰越推越远,”荷兰莱顿大学(Leiden University)历史学家、朝鲜半岛专家厄恩科·布鲁克(Remco Breuker)说。

In a warren of streets near the Oder River in Police, a dreary town of 40,000, North Korean workers are often seen walking near train tracks from the Partner shipyard to a grocery store.

波利采是一个有4万人口的沉闷小镇,在奥得河边错综狭窄的街道中,人们经常能看见朝鲜工人从伙伴造船厂(Partner)顺着铁轨走向一家杂货店。

Sometimes they squat on the sidewalks in front of their dormitory, smoking cigarettes while braced against a biting wind. In the evenings, they trudge to buy pastries or vegetables. On Sundays, they congregate at a local elementary school for soccer games.

有时候,他们会蹲在宿舍前的人行道上,顶着刺骨的风抽烟。到了晚上,他们会疲惫地外出去买糕点或蔬菜。周日,他们会聚在当地一所小学踢踢足球。

“It’s something very unusual,” said Pawel Wieczorkowski, deputy director of the local unemployment office. “It’s exotic.”

“这种情况很不正常,”当地失业办公室副主任帕韦尔·维乔尔科夫斯基(Pawel Wieczorkowski)说。 “很奇怪。”

The workers appear intent on maintaining a low profile. With few exceptions, North Korea’s totalitarian government forbids citizens from mixing with outsiders. Those who fall under suspicion can face arrest.

这些工人似乎有意保持低调。除了少数例外情况,朝鲜的极权政府禁止公民与外国人交往。遭到怀疑的人可能会被逮捕。

“We are here legally. We pay taxes to the local government,” a North Korean worker said after being approached outside the dormitory. Asked about reports that workers have been mistreated, he snapped, “They are all lies!” Then he got in a van and drove away, down a muddy alley.

“我们在这里是合法的。我们向地方政府交税,”记者在宿舍外面接触到的一名朝鲜工人说。被问及有关工人受到虐待的报道时,他厉声说:“一派胡言!”然后,他上了一辆面包车,沿着一条泥泞的小路开走了。

The countries hosting North Korean workers have defended the arrangements, arguing that they expose the laborers to the outside world and help them support their families. Conditions back home can be so desperate that some North Koreans pay bribes to get these jobs.

接收朝鲜工人的国家为相关安排做出辩解,称他们让这些工人得以接触外部世界,并帮助他们养活自己的家庭。朝鲜国内的情况可能非常绝望,以至一些朝鲜人为得到这些工作机会而行贿。

But human rights organizations, North Korean defectors and U.N. monitors have described the assignments as forced labor because the workers are physically confined, under constant surveillance and deprived of most of their wages.

但人权组织、脱北者和联合国观察员称这些工作是强迫劳动,因为工人的人身自由受到限制、受到不间断的监视,而且他们的大部分工资都被剥夺了。

As many as 147,000 North Koreans now work abroad, according to a recent estimate by the Korea Institute for National Unification in Seoul, and the ruling Workers’ Party in Pyongyang is said to seize anywhere from 30 to 80 percent of each laborer’s earnings.

根据首尔的韩国统一研究院(Korea Institute for National Unification)最近的估计,目前在国外工作的朝鲜人多达14.7万。据称,朝鲜执政的劳动党会收走每个工人收入的30%到80%。

That amounts to a significant revenue source for a regime increasingly pinched by international sanctions — between $200 million and $500 million annually, according to most experts.

对于一个因国际制裁而越来越拮据的政权来说,这是一个巨大的收入来源。大部分专家认为,朝鲜每年通过这种方式获取的收入在2亿到5亿美元之间。

The call that would put her in business with North Korea came around 2007, Cecylia Kowalska recalled.

塞西莉亚·科瓦尔斯卡(Cecylia Kowalska)回忆说,2017年前后她接到一个电话,促使她后来开始和朝鲜做生意。

At the time, she ran a company in the port city of Gdansk that supplied electrical and welding services to the shipping and construction industries.

当时,她在港口城市格但斯克经营一家公司,为航运和建筑行业提供电工和焊接服务。

A shipyard in Gdansk needed someone to manage 10 North Korean welders who had worked there in the past, she said. They had been employed through another firm that had struggled to pay them on time.

她说,当时格但斯克的一家造船厂找人管理过去在那里工作的10名朝鲜电焊工。那些工人是通过另一家公司雇用的,但这家公司无法按时支付工资。

Kowalska, now 67, said her company, Armex, assumed responsibility for the workers, and then established a relationship with the North Korean partners who had brought them to Poland.

现年67岁的科瓦尔斯卡说,她的公司阿麦科斯(Armex)承担起了对这些工人的责任,然后与把他们带到波兰的朝鲜合作伙伴建立了关系。

She later began supplying North Korean welders to two other shipyards, run by Crist SA and Nauta SA, both companies that make war vessels for NATO members.

后来,她开始为另外两个分别属于克里斯SA(Crist SA)公司和诺塔SA(Nauta SA)公司的造船厂提供朝鲜电焊工。这两家公司都为北约成员国制造军舰。

“They were skilled and hardworking,” she said of the North Koreans.

“他们技术熟练,工作努力,”她这样评价朝鲜工人。

Kowalska also served as the legal representative of a company called Wonye that was established to supply workers to factories, shipyards, and fruit and vegetable wholesalers, according to Polish corporate records.

波兰的企业记录显示,科瓦尔斯卡还是一家名叫原叶(Wonye,音)的公司的法人代表。该公司的业务是向工厂、造船厂和水果蔬菜批发商提供工人。

The records identify Wonye’s president as a North Korean named Jo Chol-yong.

相关记录显示,原叶公司的总裁是一个名叫赵哲永(Jo Chol-yong,音)的朝鲜人。

In the mid-1990s, a man of the same name and birth date worked for a North Korean company controlled by the ruling party department that oversees the nation’s nuclear and missile programs, according to a registry of Pyongyang residents smuggled out of North Korea.

一份从朝鲜偷运出来的平壤居民登记簿显示,90年代中期,一个姓名和出生日期与此人相同的男子供职于一家朝鲜公司。控制该公司的是执政党内部一个负责朝鲜核武器和导弹计划的部门。

Wonye’s vice president is listed as Kang Hong-gu, who appears to have previously served as commander of a unit involved in construction, the 8th Sokdojon Brigade, according to the Pyongyang registry.

原叶公司登记的副总裁是姜弘丘(Kang Hong-gu,音)。平壤的那份登记簿显示,此人之前似乎担任过一个从事建筑施工工程、名为“第八突击队”的团队指挥官。

Kowalska said she helped establish Wonye in 2015 as a favor to one of her North Korean partners but never took an active role and sold her shares the next year.

科瓦尔斯卡说,她在2015年参与成立原叶公司是帮一个朝鲜合作伙伴的忙,她从没发挥过积极作用,并且第二年就把自己的股份卖了。

According to research by Breuker and his colleagues, Armex received its workers from the Rungrado General Trading Corp., a North Korean supplier of overseas workers sanctioned by the United States in 2016 and accused of funding the department that oversees the nuclear weapons program.

布鲁克和同事的研究显示,为阿麦克斯提供工人的是朝鲜的绫罗岛综合贸易公司(Rungrado General Trading Corp.)。2016年,这家为外国提供工人的公司受到美国制裁,被指为前文中负责核武器计划的部门提供资金。

Asked about her partners, Kowalska said she was uncertain of their names and promised to look them up. But she later declined to identify them, saying that doing so would divulge “trade secrets.”

被问及合作伙伴时,科瓦尔斯卡说她不确定他们的姓名,并承诺去查一查。但后来,她拒绝透露这些人的身份,称这么做会泄露“商业秘密”。

Though the European Union maintains extensive labor protections, North Koreans who have worked there describe a parallel reality.

尽管欧盟实行广泛的劳动保护,但在那里工作过的朝鲜人仿佛生活在另一个平行世界里。

“Our girls lived as if they were in prison,” said Kim Tae-san, a North Korean defector who worked in the Czech Republic from 2000 to 2002 supervising 200 young North Korean women in a shoe factory.

“我们的姑娘像活在监狱里一样,”脱北者金泰三(Kim Tae-san,音)说。他曾于2000年到2002年期间在捷克共和国工作,管理一家鞋厂的200名年轻朝鲜女工。

He said the women were forced to remain during off-hours in their dormitory, where they attended ideological study sessions and could watch only movies and propaganda documentaries sent from home.

他说,下班后这些女子被迫待在宿舍里。在那里,她们要参加意识形态学习活动,并且只能看从家里寄来的电影和宣传纪录片。

Once a week, he added, they were allowed out to go to the market — but only in groups.

他补充说,她们每周有一次去市场的机会,但只能多人同行。

North Koreans sent to work overseas are vetted for political loyalty, but the government also sends minders to watch them. Kim said the workers also “monitored each other.”

被派去国外工作的朝鲜人要接受政治忠诚的审查,但政府还会派人监视他们。金泰三说,工人还“互相监视”。

The women worked six days a week, earning $150 a month but keeping only about $25 for food and savings. Their supervisors took the rest, Kim said, spending some of the money on housing but sending most of it back to the authorities in North Korea.

这些女工每周工作六天,每月挣150美元,但大约只留25美元用于买食物和攒钱。金泰三说,剩下的钱被主管拿走,部分用作房租,但大部分都寄回给了朝鲜当局。

Poles who have worked with North Koreans describe similar conditions. A shipyard worker at Crist, for example, recalled how a North Korean colleague fell ill on the job and was urged by a paramedic to stop working. Instead, the man became frantic, insisting he had to continue.

曾和朝鲜工人共事的波兰人介绍的情况也很类似。例如,克里斯公司的一名船厂工人回忆说,一名朝鲜同事在上班期间生病了,医务人员劝他不要再上班了。但这名男子疯了似的坚持说,他必须继续上班。

“This is slave labor,” said Agnes Jongerius, a Dutch member of the European Parliament, who has urged European authorities to force Poland to stop admitting North Korean workers.

“这是奴工,” 欧洲议会(European Parliament)的荷兰议员阿格尼斯·荣格里斯(Agnes Jongerius)说。他敦促欧洲当局逼迫波兰停止接收朝鲜工人。

Kowalska scoffed at allegations of abuse and said the North Koreans she managed enjoyed “a normal life.”

科瓦尔斯卡对虐待指控嗤之以鼻,说她管理的朝鲜工人享受着“正常的生活”。

“They asked us for advice on what to buy their wives and kids,” she said. “They liked to buy lingerie for their wives. It was a popular gift, and they would ask us about inexpensive shops.”

 “他们给妻子和孩子买东西时会征求我们的建议,”她说。“他们喜欢给妻子买内衣。这是一种很受欢迎的礼物,他们会问我们哪里有不贵的内衣店。”

She said her company paid the workers about $780 per month. She acknowledged at first that Armex sent a portion of their wages to a North Korean company, but later said she had misspoken and no one took a cut.

她说她的公司每个月付给工人大约780美元。她一开始承认Armex把工人的一部分工资寄给了一家朝鲜公司,但后来又说自己说错了,没人克扣工资。

As international scrutiny has intensified, the State Labor Inspectorate has vowed to investigate claims of abuse. So far, the agency has found “no signs of forced labor,” said Dorota Gorajska, an official responsible for companies that employ foreign workers.

随着国际社会的关注加强,国家劳动监察局承诺调查虐待传闻。负责处理雇佣外国员工公司事务的官员多萝塔·约拉斯卡(Dorota Gorajska)说,迄今为止,国家劳动监察局“未发现强迫劳动的迹象”。

Officials acknowledged, however, that inspections have generally been confined to paperwork and that when interviews are conducted, investigators typically rely on translators provided by employers.

然而,官方承认,检查通常仅限于文件,并且进行访谈时,调查人员往往依赖雇主提供的翻译。

Given North Korea’s reputation, does that not taint their findings? An official at the inspectorate, Michal Tyczynski, took a deep breath.

考虑到朝鲜的名声,这不会影响他们的调查结果吗?检查团的官员米哈乌·蒂青斯基(Michal Tyczynski)深吸了一口气。

“It’s a tricky question,” he said. “There is no good answer to this question.”

“这是个棘手的问题,”他说。“没有好的答案。”

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