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权力与利益:默多克如何成为特朗普的亲密心腹

更新时间:2017-12-27 17:47:59 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Rupert Murdoch and President Trump: A Friendship of Convenience
权力与利益:默多克如何成为特朗普的亲密心腹

The calls to the White House come at least once a week. “Murdoch here,” the blunt, accented voice on the other end of the line says.

打给白宫的电话至少一周一次。“我默多克,”电话另一头传来一个突兀的、带口音的声音。

For decades, Rupert Murdoch has used his media properties to establish a direct line to Australian and British leaders. But in the 44 years since he bought his first newspaper in the U.S., he has largely failed to cultivate close ties to an American president. Until now.

几十年来,鲁伯特·默多克(Rupert Murdoch)利用自己的媒体产业建立起了与澳大利亚和英国领导人的直线联系。但在美国买下第一份报纸后的44年里,他在很大程度上未能与美国总统建立密切的联系。现在不同了。

Murdoch and President Donald Trump — both forged in New York’s tabloid culture, one as the owner of The New York Post, the other as its perfect subject — have traveled in the same circles since the 1970s, but they did not become close until recently, when their interests began to align more than ever before.

自70年代以来,默多克和唐纳德·特朗普总统——都经过了纽约小报文化的锻炼,一个是《纽约邮报》(The New York Post)的老板,一个是它完美的报道对象——在相同的圈子里游走,但直到最近两人的利益变得比以前任何时候都更加一致时,他们才变得亲密起来。

Since Inauguration Day, Murdoch has talked regularly with Trump, often bypassing the White House chief of staff, Gen. John F. Kelly, who screens incoming calls. Murdoch has felt comfortable enough to offer counsel that others may shy away from, such as urging the president to stop tweeting and advising him to improve his relationship with Secretary of State Rex Tillerson. Murdoch also has weekly conversations with Trump’s son-in-law and senior adviser, Jared Kushner.

自就职日起,默多克一直和特朗普保持着频繁的联系,常常要绕过筛查来电的白宫幕僚长约翰·F·凯利(John F. Kelly)。默多克已经感觉良好到敢于提出其他人可能会有顾忌的建议,比如劝总统停止发推文,并建议他改善与国务卿雷克斯·蒂勒森(Rex Tillerson)的关系。默多克还与特朗普的女婿兼高级顾问贾里德·库什纳(Jared Kushner)保持着一周一次的交谈。

Before the news broke that Murdoch had agreed to sell vast parts of his 21st Century Fox to the Walt Disney Co. for $52.4 billion, Trump called him to get his assurance that the Fox News Channel, the highly rated cable network and frequent bullhorn of the Trump agenda, would not be affected.

默多克此前同意以524亿美元(约合3400亿元人民币)的价格将自己持有的21世纪福克斯公司(21st Century Fox)股份的很大一部分出售给华特迪士尼公司(Walt Disney Co.),消息传出前,特朗普来电要求得到他的保证,有着高收视率、经常为特朗普的议程做宣传的有线电视台福克斯新闻频道(Fox News Channel),在该交易中不会受到影响。

On Dec. 14, the day the agreement was announced, Trump let the world know that he had made a congratulatory call to Murdoch. Sarah Huckabee Sanders, the White House press secretary, also passed along the president’s belief that the deal would be “a great thing” for jobs — a claim disputed by Wall Street analysts.

在协议公布的12月14日,特朗普向全世界表示,他已致电默多克表示祝贺。白宫新闻发言人萨拉·哈克比·桑德斯(Sarah Huckabee Sanders)也传达了总统的看法,认为这项协议对就业来说是“一件好事”。但这个说法遭到了华尔街分析师的质疑。

After decades of ups and downs, Trump now counts Murdoch as one of his closest confidants. The two titans made a show of their improved relationship in June 2016, when Murdoch visited Trump at the Trump International Golf Links Scotland before a group of reporters. They appeared together again at a black-tie dinner in May in honor of American and Australian veterans who fought side by side in World War II. Murdoch introduced the president as “my friend Donald J. Trump” before they engaged in a brief hug.

经历了几十年的兴衰起伏后,特朗普现在视默多克为他最亲密的心腹之一。2016年6月,这两大巨头向外界展示了两人关系的改善。当着一群记者的面,默多克前往苏格兰特朗普国际高尔夫球场(Trump International Golf Links)看望特朗普。今年5月,在一场纪念在二战中并肩作战的美国和澳大利亚老兵的正式晚宴上,两人再度一起现身。默多克在介绍特朗普总统时称其是“我的朋友唐纳德·J·特朗普”,之后两人短暂拥抱。

They are opposites in personal style, with Murdoch gruff and low-key, preferring schlubby newsrooms to Trump’s gilded towers and glitz. But they have much in common.

他们的个人风格截然相反。默多克粗暴而低调,更喜欢凌乱的新闻编辑室,而不是特朗普的镀金高楼大厦和浮华。但两人有很多共同之处。

Both were born to wealth, but at a distance from the centers of power. Trump grew up in Jamaica, Queens, the son of a real estate developer content to earn his fortune in the boroughs outside Manhattan — so close but so far from glittering Midtown, where the son would make his name and his home. Murdoch, the son of a journalist who became the owner of a newspaper chain, spent his childhood in Melbourne, Australia. Murdoch, 86, and Trump, 71, are also alike in that they were both sent to military schools as boys before going on to outdo their fathers in the family businesses.

两人天生富有,但离权力中心都有一段距离。特朗普在皇后区的牙买加长大,父亲是一名房地产开发商,安于在曼哈顿以外的城区攫取财富,距离光鲜的中城——他的儿子日后扬名立万的地方——近在咫尺,却又远在天涯。默多克在澳大利亚墨尔本度过了自己的童年,父亲是一名记者,后来成了一家报纸连锁的老板。现年86岁的默多克和71岁的特朗普还有一个共同点是,两人都曾被送进军校,后在家族企业中超越了自己的父亲。

Although both men parlayed their inheritances into global power, they have stubbornly viewed themselves as outsiders at odds with the establishment. When Murdoch entered the British newspaper market in 1968, London society shunned him and his vulgar tabloids, The Sun and The News of the World, which he used to wound his enemies and advance his political interests. Trump withstood a similar wariness among the elite after he made himself a Manhattan player through his brazen deal making and hucksterism.

两人都是将世袭的财富增值成了全方位的实力,但他们仍固执地将自己视为与体制对抗的外来者。当默多克在1968年进入英国报业市场时,伦敦的上流社会对他以及他用来伤害敌人、提高自身政治利益的低俗小报《太阳报》(The Sun)和《世界新闻报》(The News of the World)冷眼相待。而特朗普在通过不择手段地做生意和营销成在曼哈顿占据一席之地后,精英阶层对他也有过类似的怀疑。

To make their way upward in New York, both men relied on a powerful friend, lawyer Roy M. Cohn, a ruthless fixer who made his name in the 1950s as the chief counsel to Joseph McCarthy, the Red-baiting senator, before representing some of the city’s most powerful figures, including the mobster John Gotti and the New York Yankees owner George Steinbrenner.

为了在纽约爬得更高,两人都依靠过一个有权势的朋友,律师罗伊·M·科恩(Roy M. Cohn)。这位冷酷无情的操盘手在50年代以反共参议员约瑟夫·麦卡锡(Sen. Joseph McCarthy)的首席法律顾问身份成名,随后又代表了纽约一些最有权势的人物,包括黑帮大佬约翰·高提(John Gotti)以及纽约洋基队的老板乔治·史坦布瑞纳(George Steinbrenner)。

Cohn connected Trump to Murdoch and the tabloid he bought in 1976, The New York Post. The upstart developer saw that he could benefit from the brash daily — especially its Page Six gossip column, which started a year after Murdoch became the paper’s owner.

科恩将特朗普与默多克以及他在1976年买下的小报《纽约邮报》撮合在了一起。作为一名刚刚发迹的开发商,特朗普看到这份低俗日报能给他带来的益处——尤其是它在被默多克买下一年后开创的“第六版”绯闻专栏。

Trump’s enthusiastic response to the planned Disney-Fox megadeal may have been lost in the swirl of Washington news had it not been for his vehement opposition to another recent attempt at media consolidation — AT&T’s proposed $85.4 billion acquisition of Time Warner, the parent company of CNN, a frequent target of the president’s “fake news” complaints. While so far making no move on the Disney-Fox plan, the Justice Department has sued to block the AT&T-Time Warner deal on antitrust grounds in a rare instance of governmental interference in a merger of two companies that do not directly compete with each other.

若不是因为他对近来另一起媒体并购尝试——AT&T提出要以854亿美元收购常常被特朗普控诉为“假新闻”的CNN的母公司时代华纳(Time Warner)——的强烈反对,特朗普对迪士尼-福克斯大交易的盛赞,或许早就被淹没在了华盛顿新闻的漩涡之中。司法部目前对迪士尼-福克斯计划还没有什么举措,但它以反垄断为由提起诉讼,以求阻止AT&T-时代华纳的交易。政府很少出面干预两家并无直接竞争关系的公司的并购案。

Murdoch, whose ideology is more malleable than his critics realize, has long gained from his knack for placing himself close to power. In the 1980s, when he was cozy with Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher, his London tabloids took a pro-Tory stance. In 1997, his newspapers endorsed the Labor Party leader Tony Blair for prime minister.

而在意识形态上,默多克并不像他的批评者以为的那样不思变通,实际上一直都在靠与权贵拉近关系谋取利益。在80年代,当他与玛格丽特·撒切尔(Margaret Thatcher)首相关系亲近时,他的伦敦小报选择了亲托利党的立场。1997年时,他的报纸又支持工党领袖托尼·布莱尔(Tony Blair)担任首相。

Before the recent rapprochement, Murdoch privately called Trump “phony,” and accused him of exaggerating his net worth. For his part, Trump once threatened to sue Murdoch for libel after The Post reported that the storied Maidstone Club in East Hampton, New York, had denied him membership.

在最近的和解之前,默多克私底下曾称特朗普为“假货”,并谴责他夸大了自己的资产净值。而在《纽约邮报》报道了纽约东汉普顿大名鼎鼎的梅德斯通俱乐部(Maidstone Club)拒绝给特朗普会员资格之后,特朗普也曾一度威胁要起诉默多克诽谤。

During much of the 2016 presidential campaign, Murdoch — who initially swooned over Jeb Bush — stood against Trump, declaring on Twitter that he was “embarrassing his friends” and “the whole country.” The Wall Street Journal, Murdoch’s crown jewel, ran an editorial calling the candidate a “catastrophe.” The Post led with the headline “Don Voyage” and declared, “Trump is toast.”

在2016年总统竞选期间,默多克——起初他一心支持杰布·布什(Jeb Bush)——大多数时候都在反对特朗普,在Twitter上宣称特朗普是在让“全国上下”和“他的朋友们丢脸”。默多克的王牌媒体《华尔街日报》发表社论称这位候选人是一个“大灾难”。《纽约邮报》则以“唐纳德一路走好”为标题宣告“特朗普完蛋了”。

Trump shot back on Twitter: “Wow, I have always liked the @nypost but they have really lied when they covered me in Iowa.” He also went after the Journal: “Look how small the pages have become @WSJ,” he wrote. “Looks like a tabloid — saving money I assume!”

特朗普在Twitter上回击道:“哇,我一直都喜欢纽邮,但他们对我在艾奥瓦州的报道的确是在撒谎。”他也对《华尔街日报》穷追不舍:“看看这些版面变得多小@WSJ,”他写道。“看着就像个小报——是在省钱吧我猜!”

The Post ended up endorsing Trump, with reservations, in the New York primary, but refrained from endorsing either him or Hillary Clinton in the general election.

《纽约邮报》在纽约州的初选中最后又有所保留地转为支持特朗普,但在大选中既没支持特朗普也没支持希拉里·克林顿(Hillary Clinton)。

More recently, Murdoch expressed exasperation with Trump’s immigration policies. In response to the White House ban on travel of people from majority-Muslim nations, his company, 21st Century Fox, released a memo offering assistance to any employees hurt by the executive order and reminding them that “21CF is a global company, proudly headquartered in the U.S., founded by — and comprising at all levels of the business — immigrants.” In August, James Murdoch, the younger son of Murdoch and the chief executive of 21st Century Fox, condemned the president’s response to the riots in Charlottesville, Virginia.

前段时间默多克对特朗普的移民政策表现出了愤怒。白宫发布禁令禁止来自以穆斯林为主的国家的人入境后,默多克的公司——21世纪福克斯公司(21st Century Fox)——发布了一份备忘录作为回应,向所有受到该政令影响的员工提供帮助,并提醒他们,“21世纪福克斯公司是一个全球化的公司,为总部设在美国而自豪,这个公司由移民建立,企业的各个层面都包含了移民。”八月,詹姆斯·默多克(James Murdoch)——21世纪福克斯公司的首席执行官、默多克的小儿子——谴责了总统对弗吉尼亚州夏洛茨维尔骚乱的反应。

The man partly responsible for the détente was another moneyed outsider who craved status and respect: Jared Kushner.

还有另一个渴望地位和尊重的富有局外者,也在一定程度上促进了关系的缓和:贾里德·库什纳(Jared Kushner)。

When Kushner bought The New York Observer in 2006, he wasted little time reaching out to Murdoch. “He wanted to be Murdoch,” said one person close to both men at the time. In early 2016, after a presidential debate during which Trump faced aggressive questioning from Megyn Kelly, then a Fox News anchor, the candidate sent Kushner to Murdoch on a media diplomacy mission.

2006年买下《纽约观察家》(New York Observer)后,库什纳迅速与默多克取得了接触。“他想成为默多克,”一位当时与两人都很亲近的人表示。2016年初,特朗普在一场总统竞选辩论上遭到时任福克斯新闻主播梅根·凯利(Megyn Kelly)的激烈质疑,随后特朗普派库什纳去和默多克见面,展开了一场媒体外交。

Kushner’s wife, Ivanka Trump, is close friends with Murdoch’s third wife, Wendi Deng. Murdoch and Deng attended the Kushner-Trump wedding in 2009 at the Trump National Golf Club in Bedminster, New Jersey, and the Murdoch daughters, Grace and Chloe, served as flower girls.

库什纳的妻子伊万卡·特朗普(Ivanka Trump)是默多克第三任妻子邓文迪的密友。2009年,默多克和邓文迪曾前往新泽西州贝德明斯特的特朗普全国高尔夫俱乐部(Trump National Golf Club)参加贾里德·库什纳和伊万卡·特朗普的婚礼。默多克的女儿格雷丝(Grace)和克洛依(Chloe)担任花童。

Before Murdoch and Deng divorced in 2013, Kushner and Ivanka Trump vacationed on Rosehearty, Murdoch’s 184-foot sailing yacht. In a further sign of the two families’ closeness, Ivanka Trump took on the job of Murdoch trustee responsible for overseeing the two girls’ $300 million fortune — a role she gave up a month before her father took office.

在2013年默多克和邓文迪离婚前,库什纳和伊万卡会去默多克的那艘184英尺长的游艇罗斯哈蒂号(Rosehearty)上度假。更加彰显两家关系之亲密的是,伊万卡·特朗普曾受托于默多克,负责监管两个女孩的3亿美元财富——她在父亲就任总统一个月前放弃了这一职位。

Murdoch arrived with former model Jerry Hall, his fourth wife, whom he married in March. Under cloudy skies, the newlyweds toured the property in a golf cart large enough for four. Trump was at the wheel, with Hall seated beside him. Murdoch, wearing sunglasses, sat on a backward-facing rumble seat as they made their way to the Trump-refurbished Macleod House, a 15th-century mansion, where they had dinner.

默多克和三月结婚的第四任妻子、前模特杰里·霍尔(Jerry Hall)一同抵达球场。在多云的天空下,新婚夫妇乘坐一辆可容纳4人的高尔夫球车游览了这个场地。特朗普把着方向盘,他的身边坐着霍尔,戴着墨镜的默多克坐在面朝后的后座,一行前往由特朗普翻修过的15世纪大宅麦克劳府(MacLeod House)共进晚餐。

Trump’s mended relationship with Murdoch has not gone unnoticed by Time Warner executives, who wonder why AT&T’s attempt to buy the company has run into regulatory trouble at a time when the president has smiled on the Disney-Fox deal.

时代华纳的高层也注意到了特朗普与默多克关系的改善。他们在想,为什么AT&T收购时代华纳的尝试会遇到监管问题,与此同时总统对迪士尼-福克斯交易却表示认可。

“If you look at the facts of our case, even before you heard the administration’s endorsement of the Disney-Fox deal, it was hard to understand how the Justice Department could reach a decision to block our deal,” Jeffrey L. Bewkes, the chief executive of Time Warner, said.

“从我们这一案的事实来看,就算你还没有听闻政府对迪士尼-福克斯交易的支持,都很难理解司法部怎么会阻止我们的交易,”时代华纳的首席执行官杰弗里·L·比克斯(Jeffrey L. Bewkes)说道。

A spokesman for the White House, Raj Shah, said that Trump hadn’t spoken to Attorney General Jeff Sessions about the AT&T-Time Warner deal and that “no White House official was authorized to speak with the Department of Justice on this matter.”

白宫发言人拉吉·沙阿(Raj Shah)表示,特朗普未与司法部长杰夫·塞申斯(Jeff Sessions)谈及有关AT&T-时代华纳的交易,并且“没有哪位白宫官员曾获得与司法部讨论此事的授权。”

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