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芝加哥地下城——意想不到的建筑空间

更新时间:2017-12-20 19:34:11 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Chicago's underground city thats becoming a design star
芝加哥地下城——意想不到的建筑空间

The only sounds came from strip lights fizzing in the ceiling and the slow, eerie echo of footsteps in the distance.

唯一的声响来自天花板上长条状灯具的嘶嘶声和远处缓慢而怪异的脚步的回声。

Aromas of coffee, grease and chlorine mingled in my nostrils as I pushed through heavy double doors, rounding a corner to a dizzyingly long magnolia-coloured corridor.

当我穿过沉重的双扇门,绕过拐角,走到一道令人眼花缭乱的玉兰色长走廊时,咖啡、油脂和氯气的混合香气飘进我的鼻子。

To my right was the ground-floor entrance to Macy’s department store, its food hall, with few customers inside, visible through the glass. Opposite was a different kind of window display – a row of 22 rectangles of American Victorian stained glass, backlit and glowing dramatically from the inky black wall.

在我的右边是梅西百货公司的地下入口,可以通过玻璃看到,食品大厅里面几乎没有顾客。在我对面是一种不同类型的橱窗设计——一排共22个维多利亚时代的矩形彩色玻璃,这些玻璃从后面照亮,在墨黑色的背景下显得格外鲜艳。

I was exploring Chicago's weirdest neighbourhood, the Pedway – an unlikely candidate for regeneration, and an even less likely design muse.

我正在探索芝加哥最奇怪的街区——地下步行系统Pedway——都市更新的创新的设计思路。

Mazing for five miles under 40 blocks of The Loop (Chicago’s business district), this network of tunnels connects some of the city’s most famous buildings, including Macy’s, City Hall and the Chicago Cultural Center.

这个错综复杂的五英里的隧道网络在鲁普区(Loop,芝加哥商业区)40座大楼的地下,连接这座城市最著名的建筑物,包括梅西百货商场(Macy's),市政厅(City Hall)和芝加哥文化中心(Chicago Cultural Center)。

Construction began in 1951 to provide safe, weatherproof passage between the buildings, and the hotchpotch of corridors has been built piecemeal ever since. Each section is independently owned and maintained by the corresponding building above, so each section has different lights, even different air temperatures.

1951年,为在建筑物之间提供安全的防风雨通道,隧道开始施工。从那以后,开始零零散散地建造一些走廊。隧道的每个部分由上面相应的建筑物独立拥有和维护,因此每个部分灯光不同,甚至气温也不同。

“Most people don’t get it,” said Margaret Hicks, who runs tours of the Pedway with her company Chicago Elevated. “But I just love it."

芝加哥高架公司(Chicago Elevated)的玛格丽特·希克斯(Margaret Hicks)在Pedway负责导览活动,她说,"大部分人不理解,但是我爱这里。"

The stained glass display was installed in December 2013, a joint project between Macy’s and Chicago’s Smith Museum of Stained Glass Windows before the latter closed the following October. It was unusual at the time, and it still feels incongruous in this empty subterranean stretch.

彩色玻璃展示橱窗于2013年12月安装,这是梅西百货公司和芝加哥史密斯彩色玻璃博物馆(Smith Museum of Stained Glass Windows)之间的一个联合项目,后者在十月份关闭。这在当时是不寻常的,现在看来,在这个空旷的地下空间里仍然感到不和谐。

Those who use the Pedway do so to escape sweltering summers and bitter winters, striding through on their daily commutes and lunch breaks. The busiest part is through Millennium Station, a Metra train hub with a wavy, fluorescent ceiling and floor lined like a race track. Scenes from the Batman film, The Dark Knight, were filmed here.

那些在Pedway里通行的人是为了免受酷暑和寒冬之苦,在日常的通勤和午餐时间里大步前进。人最多的一段是经过千禧站(Millennium Station)的一段,这里是一个地铁枢纽,上面是波浪状的荧光天花板,地板用线标出,像跑道一样。蝙蝠侠电影《黑暗骑士》(The Dark Knight)中的一些场景就是在这里拍摄的。

But, Hicks reckons, most people who pass through the station don’t realise they are in the Pedway, or even know what the Pedway is. And it isn’t considered a place to linger, to stop and smell the daisies – or even to admire the daisies intricately fashioned from tiny triangles of glass.

但是,希克斯认为,大部分穿过车站的人都没有意识到他们在Pedway里面,甚至不知道Pedway是什么。人们不认为这是一个可以逗留和驻足来嗅闻雏菊香气的地方——甚至不想欣赏那些由小的三角形玻璃做成的精致雏菊。

The stained-glass panels include a gourd overspilling with blooms, a blackbird soaring against a patchwork sky of greys and blues, and an owl in the heart of a bold floral display. Many are by unknown artists but one – Spider Web – was created by renowned stained-glass artist Louis Comfort Tiffany, whose father founded jewellery giant Tiffany & Co. This window has tangles of blushing petals overlapping a watery, ethereal blue.

彩色玻璃板的图案包括一个开花的葫芦、一只翱翔在灰色和蓝色拼凑而成的天空中的乌鸦,以及一只位于醒目花朵中心位置的猫头鹰。许多图案是不知名的艺术家设计的,但有一个——蜘蛛网——是由著名的彩色玻璃艺术家路易斯·康福特·蒂凡尼(Louis Comfort Tiffany)设计的,他的父亲创立了珠宝巨头蒂芙尼公司(Tiffany&Co.)。橱窗里,一朵朵红色花瓣飘在天蓝色的水面上。

“It’s weird, right?” said Hicks, as we gazed at the display. “I mean, there’s nothing else down here.”

"这很奇怪,对吧?"当我们凝视着展览的时候,希克斯说。"我是说,这里没有其他东西了。"

But that’s changing, as others are learning what Hicks has known for years – that the Pedway’s oddness is oddly alluring.

但这正在改变,就像希克斯已经知道的,多年来其他人也认识到——Pedway的奇怪之处是诱人的,这点很奇怪。

The second Chicago Architecture Biennial, which runs from September 2017 to January 2018, spotted potential in these corridors.

2017年9月到2018年1月举办的第二届芝加哥建筑双年展,发现了这些走廊里潜在的美。

Between the colonnaded entranceways to the Chicago Cultural Center ­– the main Biennial hub – neon tubes glow behind a panel of glass. Inspired by the Pedway’s fluorescent lighting, the installation hints at this mysterious underground world.

芝加哥文化中心是主要的双年展中心,在其廊柱入口之间,霓虹灯管在一块玻璃板后面发着光。这种安装方式受Pedway里荧光灯的启发,暗示着这一神秘的地下世界。

The Los Angeles architects behind the work, Fiona Connor and Erin Besler, scoured the tunnels, examining fixtures and fittings in granular detail and drawing inspiration from the lighting, the textures and the colour palette of off-white and grey.

其设计者、洛杉矶建筑师菲奥娜·康纳(Fiona Connor)和艾琳·贝丝勒(Erin Besler)在隧道中四处观察,仔细检查了灯具和配件,并从照明、纹理以及灰白色的调色板中汲取灵感。

Inside the centre, just behind the vitrine housing the neon installation, an elevator plunges to a section of the Pedway built in 1989.

在中心的内部,霓虹灯装置的玻璃橱窗后面,有一台电梯通往1989年建成的Pedway区域。

On arrival, visitors might wonder if they pressed the right button. Stepping out, they are greeted by a mirror image of what lies above. Connor and Besler have painstakingly replicated one of the Cultural Center’s Beaux Arts doorways, right down to its brass patina.

到达后,游客可能怀疑他们是否按下了正确的按钮。走出电梯,映入眼帘的是上方的镜像。康纳(Connor)和贝丝勒(Besler)煞费苦心地在此复刻了文化中心中的一个美术门廊,就连黄铜古色都是一样的。

By turning the two worlds upside down, this piece and the light installation above ground – collectively titled ‘Front Door’ – highlight their connection and their separateness.

通过将两个世界调转过来,这一部分与地面上安装的灯具——统称为"前门"——显示出联系与区别。

“The project connects unsuspecting users of the Pedway to the Biennial experience, by acknowledging the presence of a grand civic space in these somewhat forlorn corridors,” said Todd Palmer, Biennial executive director.

"这个项目通过告知人们在这些孤立的走廊里存在一个巨大的公民空间,将经常在Pedway里通行的人与双年展连接起来,"双年展执行董事托德·帕默(Todd Palmer)表示。

“What is taken for granted is seen afresh, very much in the spirit of the Biennial theme, ‘Make New History’.”

"这被认为是理所当然的,非常符合双年展主题'创造新历史'的精神。"

Longer term, local nonprofit Environmental Law & Policy Center (ELPC) has raised $125,000 to transform the Pedway into a tourist attraction, and is seeking further investment from local businesses, tourism groups and owners of buildings linked to the tunnels.

从长远来看,当地非营利机构环境法律和政策中心(ELPC)筹集了12.5万美元,将Pedway改造成旅游景点,并且正在寻求当地企业、旅游集团和负责相关隧道的建筑物所有者的进一步投资。

Plans include a farmers’ market and an underground library with a cafe and cosy reading nooks. Art galleries will be dotted about the tunnels, making the stained glass less of an anomaly.

计划包括建造一个农贸市场和一个带有咖啡馆和舒适阅读角落的地下图书馆。美术馆将点缀在隧道周围,这样彩色玻璃看起来就不会那么异常。

The most ambitious design element is to be displayed above ground in Millennium Park – a glinting glass cube housing a lift to transport people below ground.

耗资最多的设计元素将在地上的千禧公园(Millennium Park)展出——一个装有升降机的闪光玻璃立方体,可将人们运送到地下。

It’s certainly a step up from the existing entrance points, tucked around shady corners and down escalators that seem to lead into an abyss.

这无疑是现有入口点的一个进步,现有入口设在隐蔽的角落,向下的自动扶梯仿佛将人们带到深渊。

“The Chicago Pedway can be transformed from an under-utilised asset to a more vibrant part of downtown Chicago, better used by Chicagoans and visitors alike,” said ELPC executive director Howard Learner. “Now we're working on finding the best paths to transform this better Pedway vision into reality.”

"芝加哥的Pedway可以从利用率低下的资产转变为芝加哥市中心更加活跃的一部分,更好地为芝加哥人和游客所用,"ELPC执行董事霍华德·勒纳(Howard Learner)说。"现在我们正在寻找将改善Pedway的愿景变成现实的最佳途径。"

Hicks has mixed feelings about all this change. Dubbed ‘Mrs Pedway’, she knows everybody in her favourite locale.

对于这些变化,希克斯心里感觉很复杂。她被称为"Pedway夫人",在这个她最爱的地方,每一个人她都很熟悉。

There’s the security guards, the shoe shiners, and Bill, a folk guitarist who has been ‘playing the Pedway’ for several years.

这里有保安、鞋匠和一个已经在Pedway演奏过许多年的民谣吉他手比尔(Bill)。

Hicks even lived down there for a week, sleeping at the Fairmont hotel – which has access to the Pedway – meeting friends at Starbucks (there are three of them down here), and using basement entrances to see films, use the gym and dine at restaurants. All without seeing the light of day.

希克斯甚至在地下住了一个星期,在费尔蒙特酒店(Fairmont Hotel)睡觉——那里有通往Pedway的入口——在星巴克(Starbucks)和朋友见面(Pedway里有三家星巴克),经由地下室入口去影院、健身房以及去餐厅用餐。所有事情都不需要见到日光。

“I really do think the Pedway is one of Chicago's neighbourhoods. I don't want to see it gentrified,” Hicks said. “Save the weird, you know? Obviously, there is lots of room for improvement in the Pedway – I don't want people to feel lost and confused in it. But what I love about it is its strangeness.”

"我确实认为Pedway是芝加哥的一个街区。我不想看到这里被改造成贵族化的样子,"希克斯说。"保留怪异元素,你知道吗?很显然,Pedway里还有许多有待改进的空间——我不想让人们在此感到迷茫和困惑。但我爱的就是它的奇怪之处。"

The two other guests on my tour, a Chicagoan and her mother, visiting from out of town, were unfamiliar with the Pedway.

和我一起参加导览活动的还有另外两位客人,一对从郊外来的芝加哥母女,她们对Pedway并不熟悉。

“I never knew this existed,” the daughter said. “When I heard about the tour, I had to come. It’s just so strange.”

"我从不知道Pedway的存在,"女儿说。"听说有这个导览活动时,我必须要来。因为这里太奇怪了。"

Hicks is used to that. “Even most locals don’t know about the Pedway,” she said. “They certainly don’t understand it.”

希克斯已经习惯听到这些了。"即使在当地,也有大部分人不知道Pedway,"她说。"他们当然也不理解。"

We weaved our way through the network, tiptoeing down dim stairwells and ducking through doorways.

我们在这个地下网络里穿行,小心翼翼地走下昏暗的楼梯间,穿过门口。

Around one corner, photographer Ed sat slumped on a ledge, staring at the wall with glassy eyes. He perked up as we came into view. Then he slumped back, realising we were a tour group rather than a happy couple.

在一个拐角处,摄影师埃德(Ed)坐在一个平台上,面无表情地盯着墙看。看到我们来了,他立马打起了精神。意识到我们只是个旅行团,而不是幸福的情侣时,他又坐回原来的位置。

Ed stoically watches the doors of the Marriage Court, whose entrance is in the Pedway beneath City Hall, almost every single day, waiting for newlyweds who might pay him to take some portraits. A mounted image of a beaming couple stands at his feet next to a bunch of balloons and a bouquet of flowers, props for a potential photo shoot.

埃德注视着婚姻法庭的大门,法庭的入口在市政厅下面的Pedway里。他几乎每天都在等待新婚夫妇前来,花钱请他拍一些肖像照。他身边摆放着一堆气球、一束鲜花、裱好的笑容满面的情侣照片,以及为可能前来拍照的人准备的道具。

Some days the corridors are teeming with giddy couples. But on this day, business was quiet. Asked how long Ed might wait there before giving up, Hicks shrugged and whispered: “I’ve never seen him in daylight.”

有些日子,走廊里满是情侣,让人头晕目眩。但是今天生意很冷清。当被问到埃德会在这里等多久时,希克斯耸耸肩,低声说:"我从来没有在白天见过他。"

As we rounded another corner, she added: “I'd love to see more people here in the Pedway, because I want it to grow. I want it to get bigger and bigger.”

走到另一个拐角处时,她补充说:"我希望能在Pedway里见到更多的人,因为我想让它发展起来。我想让这里越来越受欢迎。"

If it does become one of Chicago’s must-sees, Hicks will be down here as usual – guiding tours, getting to know the new locals and reminiscing about the ‘good old days’, when the only excitement came from hearing a couple of newlyweds, giggling and skipping down the empty corridors.

如果这里真的成为芝加哥的必看景点之一,希克斯将像往常一样来到地下,带领旅行团,结识新的当地人,追忆"过去的美好时光"。在那些日子里,唯一的兴奋来源是听到一对新婚夫妇,笑着跳着,走下空荡荡的走廊。

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