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鼓励客人给小费背后的心理学

更新时间:2017-12-20 19:21:34 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

The psychology that motivates tipping
鼓励客人给小费背后的心理学

Tipping is said to have originated in 16th Century England, when overnight guests would leave money for their hosts’ servants.

据称,给小费的习惯发源于16世纪的英国,当时过夜的客人会给招待他们的主人家里的仆人留下一点钱。

Tipping as a phenomenon has long fascinated economists: paying extra, even though we are not legally required to do so, seems to go against our own best interest.

给小费这种现象一直以来都令经济学家颇为着迷:额外支付一笔费用的行为似乎不符合你自己的利益,更何况法律也没有规定客人必须这么做。

The practice has spread all over the world. But anyone who has travelled internationally knows that the customs surrounding tipping – when to tip, how much, to whom and why – differs from place to place. In the United States, it is customary to tip a restaurant waiter or waitress 15-25%; in Brazil, 10%, in Sweden, 5-10%.

这种行为已经传遍世界各地。但出国旅行过的人都知道,每个国家给小费的习惯各有不同,包括时机、金额、对象和原因。在美国,餐厅顾客通常会拿出消费金额的15%到25%给餐厅服务员作为小费。巴西是10%,瑞典是5%到10%。

In other countries like Japan, however, it is so uncommon that leaving a monetary gratuity is almost taboo and can sometimes lead to confusion over who has left money and why.

但在日本等其他国家,给小费的情况非常少见,甚至成为一种禁忌。有的时候,这甚至会令人困惑,导致人们误以为是有人丢钱了。

“Research shows that the more extraverted the personality traits of people in a country, the greater number of service providers they tip and the larger amount they tip,” says Michael Lynn, a professor of food and beverage management at Cornell University who has studied tipping extensively. But, he says, that is not the only reason why some countries tip more than others. Social norms, differing wages, and whether service charges are customary also play a huge role.

"研究表明,一个国家的人性格越外向,他们给小费的情况就越多,小费金额也越大。"康奈尔大学(Cornell University)食品和饮料管理教授迈克尔·林恩(Michael Lynn)说,他曾经全面研究过小费问题。但他表示,这并非某些国家的小费多于其他国家的唯一原因。社会规范、工资差异以及是否习惯收取服务费,都在其中扮演重要角色。

There’s evidence tipping customs can also spread from place to place. One 2016 study revealed travel to the US is a factor in shaping tipping rates in other countries. “Tipping is economically consequential but at its root it’s a social norm,” says Edward Mansfield, a professor of international relations at the University of Pennsylvania and the author on the study.

有证据表明,收小费的习惯会从一个地方传播到另一个地方。2016年的一项研究表明,去美国旅行是其他国家小费比率的一个形成因素。"给小费是一种经济结果,但根源还在于社会规范。"宾夕法尼亚大学(University of Pennsylvania)国际关系教授、本报告的作者爱德华·曼斯菲尔德(Edward Mansfield)说。

Mansfield says that foreign students, business travellers and tourists that come to the US may adopt the practice of tipping and bring it back to their home country. “For countries where there are more people who come to the US as a percentage of the total population of that country for the rate of tipping in their country tends to be higher,” he says.

曼斯菲尔德表示,外国学生、商务旅行者和游客来到美国后,可能适应给小费的习惯,然后把它带回自己国家。"在一个国家中,去过美国的人占总人口的比例较高,该国的小费比率往往也比较高。"他说。

Lynn says we have several different motivations on an individual level for tipping, including wanting to encourage better service on the next visit, or to reward or please their server or gain social approval. While his surveys have shown that in the US, they are the minority, Lynn says many people also tip to abide by social norms and avoid disapproval.

林恩表示,我们个人给的小费金额取决于几项不同的动机,包括希望在下次再来时享受更好的服务,或者奖励或感谢自己的服务员,或者得到社会认可。虽然他的调查表明,美国的这种情况只是少数,但很多人也会为了遵守社会规范和避免别人反对而这么做。

Our various motivations for tipping also determine when we are likely to tip. Those who tip for social status more often tip for infrequently tipped occupations like car mechanics or veterinarians. People who tip for the sake of the server are more likely to tip workers in all occupations and especially those that are infrequently tipped. However, people who tip out of obligation tend to only tip frequently tipped occupations, such as a parking valet.

从我们给小费时的动机差异也可以判断出我们可能在什么时候给小费。如果一个人为了社会地位而给小费,此人便更有可能为汽车修理师和兽医等不太经常获得小费的职业提供小费。那些为了服务员的利益而给小费的人更有可能为所有职业提供小费,尤其是不经常获得小费的职业。然而,如果是出于义务给小费的人,往往只会给经常拿小费的职业提供小费,例如代客泊车服务员。

A restaurant may include a line on its bill that suggests customers pay a further 20%. Suggesting or recommending a high tip amount risks backfiring but could end up in a higher payoff. “The higher the recommended tip amount, the fewer people will leave a tip,” says Lynn, who has studied the phenomenon by looking at tipping through a laundry service app. “More people will just say ‘oh forget it.’ But those who do tip will tip more, and overall the servers come home with more money.”

餐厅的帐单里可能有一行内容建议顾客额外支付20%。建议或推荐较高的小费可能事与愿违,但最终可以获得较高的回报。"推荐的小费金额越高,给小费的人就越少。"林恩说,他通过一款洗衣服务应用中的小费来研究这种现象。"更多的人只会轻描淡写地说一句'哦,我忘记了。'但真正给小费的人往往给的更多,所以服务员赚的钱也就更多了。"

But given our different motivations for tipping, is tipping a good practice in the first place? Is it advantageous? Or even fair?

但考虑到我们给小费的动机各有不同,这种行为究竟是好是坏?有没有优势?或者说,给小费究竟公不公平?

That depends on whose perspective you take, says Lynn. The government would stand to gain if we abolished tipping, since much of the money changing hands goes unreported and is not taxed in the same way other income is.

林恩认为,这取决于你从谁的视角来看待这件事。如果取消小费,政府肯定能够获益,因为多数小费都不会上报,也就不会像其他收入一样征税。

The majority of workers in service industries, however, may be better off in a tipping culture, since they can make more than in a job with similar skill requirements. “As one example, restaurant servers in New York City are making roughly $30 an hour. Cooks in the back of the house make about half of that. You could argue that tipping overpays service,” says Lynn.

但服务行业的多数员工应该都支持小费,因为他们可以比有着类似技能要求的其他工作获得更高收入。"例如,纽约市的餐厅服务员每小时收入约为30美元,后台的厨师大约只有这个数字的一半。可以说是小费给了他们更多报酬。"林恩说。

From a restaurateur perspective, tips allow a restaurant to pay their staff less and therefore offer lower menu prices. However, owners also don’t have access to tips and can’t redistribute them to other staff members, like back-of-house employees.

从该餐厅角度来讲,小费能让一家餐厅减少员工工资,因而能够保持更低的菜单价格。然而,餐厅老板拿不到小费,也无法将小费重新分配给其他员工,例如后厨员工。

And it might affect customer satisfaction. A forthcoming article in the International Journal of Hospitality Management by Lynn and Zachary Brewster indicates that in many cases, restaurants will be rated less favourably by customers online if they move to a no-tipping policy. Restaurants that abolished tipping rated a third of a point lower, on an online five-point scale customer rating, with restaurants that replace tipping with a mandatory service charge seeing worse reviews than if the restaurants used service-inclusive pricing.

这可能对顾客满意度产生影响。林恩和扎卡里·布鲁斯特(Zachary Brewster)即将在《国际接待管理期刊》(International Journal of Hospitality Management)上发表的文章中指出,在很多情况下,改成无小费政策的餐厅在网上获得的用户评价不太理想。按照5分制的用户评价计算,取消小费的餐厅获得的评分降低了1/3分。而用强制服务费取代小费的餐厅,比把服务费包含在定价内的餐厅,获得的评价更差。

“The reduction of (higher) customer service ratings has a lot of underlying factors. Customers expect that tips motivate better service. So I expect a restaurant that has tipping to have better service and expect to be more satisfied, which can bias my perception,” Lynn says. “Tipping decreases the perceived expensiveness of restaurants because the cost of service isn’t built into menu prices. If you replace it with a hated service charge, it’s clearly a cost. If you build it into menu prices, I don’t hate the idea of paying for service through menu prices it but your menu prices are now higher, so it seems more expensive.”

"(较高的)服务评级之所以会降低,背后有很多因素。顾客认为小费能够带来更好的服务。所以会认为,收小费的餐厅服务更好,满意度也更高,这可能导致我的观念形成偏见。"林恩说,"小费让人们觉得餐厅没那么贵了,因为服务费并未包含在菜单内。如果你把它直接替换成令人讨厌的服务费,那就变成了显性成本。如果你把它计入菜单价格,虽然我不讨厌通过菜单价格来购买服务,但你的菜单价格更高了,所以看起来更贵了。"

There was an exception though. Upscale restaurants that used service-inclusive pricing did not see a decline in reviews.

但也有例外。把服务费包含在定价中的高档餐厅并不会出现评价降低的现象。

“Expensive restaurants have other cues to indicate good service. I expect it to have great service even if they don’t have tipping, because it’s so damn expensive and everything around me, [like] the ambiance, is telling me it’s a fancy place with good service. Expensive restaurants are also typically smaller and the server-to-customer ratio is lower, so management can make sure servers are doing a good job, even if they don’t have tipping as an incentive. Finally, wealthier customers care less about increases in price, and are more likely to have encountered no tipping systems when they’ve traveled outside the US.”

"高消费餐厅可以透过其他迹象来显示优秀的服务。即便它们不收小费,我也认为他们能提供优秀的服务,因为它们实在太贵了,而且包括氛围在内,我周围的一切都告诉我这是个有着良好服务的高档场所。高价餐厅通常规模更小,服务员与顾客的比例也较低,所以管理层可以确保服务员较好地完成任务,即便他们无法通过小费获得激励。最后,较为富裕的顾客也不太在意价格上涨,而且当他们在美国之外旅行时,也更有可能去往没有小费的地方。"

The risk associated with changing to a no-tipping policy hasn’t kept some restaurants from trying. The Union Square Hospitality Group (USHG) started eliminating tipping in their restaurants, starting with The Modern, located in New York’s Museum of Modern Art, in 2015.

由于改成无小费模式会存在很多风险,导致一些餐厅不敢尝试。联合广场餐饮集团(USHG)从2015年开始取消旗下餐厅的小费,首先从纽约现代艺术博物馆(Museum of Modern Art)的现代餐厅(The Modern)开始。

Erin Moran, chief culture officer at USHG, says the group decided to eliminate tipping so they could increase wages for the back-of-house team and directly manage career paths for staff members.

USHG首席文化官艾琳·莫兰(Erin Moran)表示,该集团决定取消小费,这样就能给后勤团队加薪,并且直接管理员工的职业路径。

“In a tipping world, our guests are deciding how much our front-of-house team members are being compensated.”

"在小费的世界里,我们的顾客决定前台团队的薪酬。"

Moran acknowledges that their bottom line took a hit with the new policy. And that it has been more of a challenge than they expected. But guests have embraced the change, staff turnover has started to decline at The Modern, and she believes not paying servers extra will pay off in the long run.

莫兰承认,新模式对他们的利润构成了冲击。他们面临的挑战也超出了预期。但顾客接受了这种变化,The Modern餐厅的员工流动率也已经开始降低。她相信,不给服务员额外的小费可以带来长远利益。

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