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当我们谈论制裁时,朝鲜人正在挨饿

更新时间:2017-12-18 19:14:04 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

While We Talk Nuclear Weapons, North Koreans Go Hungry
当我们谈论制裁时,朝鲜人正在挨饿

One cool morning last April in Pyongyang, North Korea, I watched a woman squat over a patch of grass along the Daedong River. A large handkerchief covering her head was knotted below her chin, encircling her sunburned and wrinkled face. As a van passed by blaring patriotic hymns from the oversize speakers on its roof, she weeded the riverbank. In North Korea, keeping the neighborhood clean is a civic duty. But she was far from any neighborhood. She was gathering the weeds for food.

去年四月,朝鲜平壤一个凉爽的早晨,我看到一个女人蹲在大同河畔的一片草地上,头上裹着一块大手帕,下巴底下打着个结,脸上布满皱纹与晒伤。她在河岸边拔草,一辆面包车从她身边经过,车顶超大号的扬声器高声播放着爱国歌曲。在朝鲜,保持邻里清洁是一项公民义务。但是她身边没有什么邻居。她采摘野草是为了吃。

On Nov. 13, a North Korean soldier in his 20s was shot multiple times as he ran across the demilitarized zone into South Korea. His surgeons reported finding dozens of parasitic intestinal worms inside his abdominal cavity, some as long as 11 inches, suggesting severe malnutrition.

今年11月13日,一名20多岁的朝鲜士兵在越过非军事区进入韩国时身中数枪。外科医生报告称在他腹腔内发现了数十条肠道寄生虫,有些长达11英寸,表明他患有严重的营养不良。

As these stories show — and as I have seen during my 16 visits to North Korea in the past decade — hunger remains a way of life there. Forty-one percent of North Koreans, about 10.5 million people, are undernourished, and 28 percent of children under 5 years old have stunted growth. When my 4-year-old daughter visited Pyongyang in 2013, she, all of three feet, towered over children twice her age.

正如这些事情所示——正如我在过去十年间16次访问朝鲜所看到的——饥饿仍然是这里的一种生活状态。有41%的朝鲜人(约1050万人)营养不良,五岁以下的儿童中,有28%的人发育不良。2013年,我四岁的女儿去了平壤,她身高三英尺,比年龄长她一倍的孩子都要高出一头。

The hunger is devastating. And it’s our fault.

饥饿是毁灭性的。而这是我们的错。

Led by the United States, the international community is crippling North Korea’s economy. In August and September, the United Nations Security Council passed resolutions banning exports of coal, iron, lead, seafood and textiles and limiting the import of crude oil and refined petroleum products. The United States, Japan and South Korea have each imposed bilateral sanctions on Pyongyang to further isolate the country.

在美国的领导下,国际社会正在破坏朝鲜的经济。今年8月和9月,联合国安理会通过决议,禁止朝鲜出口煤、铁、铅、海鲜和纺织品,限制其对原油和成品油的进口。美国、日本和韩国都对平壤实施双边制裁,进一步孤立这个国家。

We are trying to inflict pain on the North Korean regime to stop the development of nuclear weapons and missiles. That’s understandable. But in the process, we are also punishing the most vulnerable citizens and shackling the ability of humanitarian agencies to deliver aid to them.

我们试图给朝鲜政权造成伤害,令其停止发展核武器和导弹。这是可以理解的。但是在这个过程中,我们也在惩罚最弱势的公民,限制人道主义机构向他们提供援助。

That North Korea cannot feed its people on its own is not new. It was the catastrophic famine in the 1990s that caused the reclusive government to open itself to international aid. Despite recent improvements in the nation’s food-production capacity, frequent natural disasters such as floods and droughts still cause severe food shortages.

朝鲜无法养活自己的人民,这一点并不新鲜。1990年代灾难性的饥荒导致这个与世隔绝的政府向国际援助敞开大门。尽管近期它的粮食生产能力有所提高,但频繁的洪涝和干旱等自然灾害仍然造成严重的食品短缺。

This year is no different. In July, drought reportedly reduced the harvest by 30 percent compared with last year. As of August, each person receives a daily ration of 300 grams per day, about half the government target of 573 grams per day. That is like having only two medium potatoes for the day, every day.

今年也没有什么不同。据报道,今年7月,旱情令朝鲜的粮食产量比去年减少了30%。到了8月,每人每日只能得到300克的粮食配给,约为政府目标(每天573克)的一半。这相当于每人每天只能得到两个中等大小的土豆,每一天都是如此。

It should be no surprise that around 60 percent of North Koreans buy food at informal markets to supplement their diets. To do that, they need money.

大约60%的朝鲜人要通过非正规市场购买食物,为自己的饮食提供补充,这应该不会令人奇怪。要做到这一点,他们需要钱。

Last year, former President Park Geun-hye of South Korea shut down a joint project in the border town of Kaesong that employed 53,000 North Korean factory workers. This year, with the United Nations Security Council ban on textile exports, countless factory workers — far more than the tens of thousands from last year — will no longer have jobs. The ban on seafood exports means that fishermen will no longer be able to sell their catches to the Chinese. The reduction in how much oil North Korea can import will also cause food prices to rise. The impending loss of income from the sanctions will mean that people will go without food.

去年,韩国前总统朴槿惠关闭了边境城镇开城的一个合营项目,该项目雇用了5.3万名朝鲜工人。今年以来,联合国安理会禁止了朝鲜的纺织品出口,这意味着无数工人——远超去年的数万人——将失去工作。禁止朝鲜的海产品出口意味着渔民不再能向中国出售渔获物。对朝鲜进口石油许可量的减少也会导致粮食价格上涨。制裁即将导致人们收入的损失,这意味着他们将会失去食物。

The sanctions have also crippled humanitarian help. In one troubling example, Tomas Ojea Quintana, the United Nations special rapporteur on human rights in North Korea, has written that cancer patients may not get access to chemotherapy because of the sanctions. Just last month, Britain announced it was cutting off all humanitarian aid to North Korea.

制裁也严重破坏了人道主义援助。联合国朝鲜人权特别报告员托马斯·奥耶·金塔纳(Tomas Ojea Quintana)写道,由于制裁,朝鲜的癌症患者可能无法获得化疗。就在上个月,英国宣布正在切断对朝鲜的一切人道主义援助。

There is disagreement on whether the sanctions are even effective. The United Nations Security Council has unanimously passed eight sanctions resolutions against Pyongyang since 2006, the year North Korea first tested a nuclear device. But as many as 49 countries may be in violation of the sanctions because the United Nations does not have the power to enforce them.

对于制裁是否有效也一直存在分歧。朝鲜于2006年进行了第一次核试验,自那一年以来,联合国安理会一致通过了八项制裁决议。但有多达49个国家可能违反制裁,因为联合国没有强制执行这些制裁的权力。

Their effectiveness is also limited because North Koreans are used to shortages and hardship, and the country can survive without exports. (Sanctions on Iran, often cited as an example to justify sanctions on North Korea, were more effective because the country is much more dependent on exports.) Even President Trump acknowledged recently that he doesn’t know if sanctions will work in North Korea.

这些制裁的效果也是有限的,因为朝鲜人已经习惯于物资短缺和穷困,国家可以在没有出口的情况下生存。(对伊朗的制裁经常被当作范例,用来说明制裁朝鲜的合理性,但伊朗更依赖出口,因此制裁也更为有效。)就连特朗普总统最近也承认,他不知道制裁朝鲜是否会奏效。

The North Korean regime could halt its costly nuclear and missile program and use the money to feed its people. But the leaders have made it clear that they will never give up their quest for nuclear weapons as long as the United States continues its “hostile policies.”

朝鲜政权本可以停止昂贵的核武器和导弹计划,用这笔钱来养活人民。但是该国领导人已经明确表示,只要美国继续实行“敌对政策”,他们就决不会放弃继续寻求掌握核武器。

This is a chicken and egg game. While we are playing, people starve.

这是一个先有鸡还是先有蛋的游戏。当我们玩这个游戏的时候,人民在挨饿。

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