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追寻UFO:隐匿在五角大楼深处的神秘项目

更新时间:2017-12-18 18:48:21 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Glowing Auras and ‘Black Money’: The Pentagon’s Mysterious U.F.O. Program
追寻UFO:隐匿在五角大楼深处的神秘项目

WASHINGTON — In the $600 billion annual Defense Department budgets, the $22 million spent on the Advanced Aerospace Threat Identification Program was almost impossible to find.

华盛顿——用于“先进航空威胁识别项目”(Advanced Aerospace Threat Identification Program)的2200万美元在国防部每年6000亿美元的预算中几乎无法被发现。

Which was how the Pentagon wanted it.

这正是五角大楼所期望的。

For years, the program investigated reports of unidentified flying objects, according to Defense Department officials, interviews with program participants and records obtained by The New York Times. It was run by a military intelligence official, Luis Elizondo, on the fifth floor of the Pentagon’s C Ring, deep within the building’s maze.

根据美国国防部官员的陈述、对项目参与者的采访,以及《纽约时报》获得的记录,多年来,该项目一直在调查关于不明飞行物的报告。该项目位于五角大楼C环五层,隐藏在这座迷宫般大楼的深处,由军事情报官员路易斯·埃利桑多(Luis Elizondo)管理。

The Defense Department has never before acknowledged the existence of the program, which it says it shut down in 2012. But its backers say that, while the Pentagon ended funding for the effort at that time, the program remains in existence. For the past five years, they say, officials with the program have continued to investigate episodes brought to them by service members, while also carrying out their other Defense Department duties.

国防部此前从未承认过该项目的存在,称其已于2012年终止。不过,它的支持者表示,尽管五角大楼当时停止了对该项目的资助,但它依然存在。他们表示,在过去五年里,该项目的官员们在执行国防部其他职责的同时,继续调查服役人员报告的事件。

The shadowy program — parts of it remain classified — began in 2007, and initially it was largely funded at the request of Harry Reid, the Nevada Democrat who was the Senate majority leader at the time and who has long had an interest in space phenomena. Most of the money went to an aerospace research company run by a billionaire entrepreneur and longtime friend of Reid’s, Robert Bigelow, who is working with NASA to produce expandable craft for humans to use in space.

该神秘计划的部分内容仍属机密。它始于2007年,最初主要是应内华达州民主党参议员哈里·里德(Harry Reid)的要求资助的。他当时是参议院多数党领袖,长期以来一直对太空现象很感兴趣。大部分资金都流向一个由亿万富翁企业家、里德的老朋友罗伯特·毕格罗(Robert Bigelow)经营的航空航天研究公司。毕格罗目前正在与美国国家航空航天局(NASA)合作,生产供人类在太空使用的可扩充飞行器。

On CBS’ “60 Minutes” in May, Bigelow said he was “absolutely convinced” that aliens exist and that UFOs have visited Earth.

今年5月,毕格罗在CBS的《60分钟》(60 Minutes)节目中表示,他“确信”外星人存在,UFO造访过地球。

Working with Bigelow’s Las Vegas-based company, the program produced documents that describe sightings of aircraft that seemed to move at very high velocities with no visible signs of propulsion, or that hovered with no apparent means of lift.

在与毕格罗在拉斯维加斯的公司合作时,该项目制作了一些文件,讲述有人目击到一些飞行器在没有明显外部推动力的情况下高速飞行,或者在没有明显外部升力的情况下在空中盘旋。

Officials with the program have also studied videos of encounters between unknown objects and U.S. military aircraft — including one released in August of a whitish oval object, about the size of a commercial plane, chased by two Navy F/A-18F fighter jets from the aircraft carrier Nimitz off the coast of San Diego in 2004.

该项目的官员也研究了不明物体与美军飞机遭遇的视频,包括今年8月发布的一个摄于2004年的视频。在视频中,两架海军F/A-18F战斗机从圣迭戈海岸附近的尼米兹航空母舰(Nimitz)上起飞,追逐一个商用飞机大小的白色椭圆形物体。

Reid, who retired from Congress this year, said he was proud of the program. “I’m not embarrassed or ashamed or sorry I got this thing going,” Reid said in a recent interview in Nevada. “I think it’s one of the good things I did in my congressional service. I’ve done something that no one has done before.”

今年从国会退休的里德表示,他为这个项目感到骄傲。“我不为推动这件事感到尴尬、羞愧或遗憾,”里德前不久在内华达州接受采访时说。“我认为它是我在国会任职时做的好事之一。我做了一件之前没人做过的事。”

Two other former senators and top members of a defense spending subcommittee — Ted Stevens, R-Alaska, and Daniel Inouye, D-Hawaii — also supported the program. Stevens died in 2010, and Inouye in 2012.

另外两名前参议员和国防开支小组委员会的高级成员——阿拉斯加共和党参议员特德·史蒂文斯(Ted Stevens)和夏威夷民主党参议员丹尼尔·井上(Daniel Inouye)——也支持该项目。史蒂文斯于2010年去世,井上于2012年去世。

While not addressing the merits of the program, Sara Seager, an astrophysicist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, cautioned that not knowing the origin of an object does not mean that it is from another planet or galaxy.

麻省理工学院(Massachusetts Institute of Technology)的天体物理学家萨拉·希格尔(Sara Seager)虽然没有提到该项目的价值,但她警告说,不知道一个物体的来源并不意味着它来自另一个行星或星系。

“When people claim to observe truly unusual phenomena, sometimes it’s worth investigating seriously,” she said. But, she added, “what people sometimes don’t get about science is that we often have phenomena that remain unexplained.”

“当人们声称观察到真正不同寻常的现象时,有时值得认真调查,”她说。不过她又说,“人们有时候不明白,在科学当中,我们经常遇到无法解释的现象。”

In response to questions from The Times, Pentagon officials this month acknowledged the existence of the program, which began as part of the Defense Intelligence Agency. Officials insisted that the effort had ended after five years, in 2012.

本月,五角大楼的官员在回复时报提问时,承认该项目存在,它最初是美国国防情报局(Defense Intelligence Agency)的一个项目。官员们坚称,该项目已于五年前,也就是2012年结束。

“It was determined that there were other, higher priority issues that merited funding, and it was in the best interest of the DoD to make a change,” a Pentagon spokesman, Thomas Crosson, said in an emaile, referring to the Department of Defense.

“我们认为,有其他优先级别更高的问题更值得投资,做出这一改变符合国防部的最大利益,”五角大楼发言人托马斯·克罗森(Thomas Crosson)在接受电子邮件采访时说。

But Elizondo said the only thing that had ended was the effort’s government funding, which dried up in 2012. From then on, Elizondo said in an interview, he worked with officials from the Navy and the CIA. He continued to work out of his Pentagon office until this past October, when he resigned to protest what he characterized as excessive secrecy and internal opposition.

不过,埃利桑多表示,当时结束的只是政府的资助,那笔资金在2012年耗尽了。埃利桑多在一次采访中表示,从那之后,他便与海军和中央情报局(CIA)的官员们合作。他一直在五角大楼自己的办公室里工作,直到今年10月辞去职务,以抗议他所说的过度保密和内部反对。

“Why aren’t we spending more time and effort on this issue?” Elizondo wrote in a resignation letter to Defense Secretary Jim Mattis.

“我们为什么不在这个问题上花费更多的时间和精力呢?”埃利桑多在给国防部长吉姆·马蒂斯(Jim Mattis)的辞职信中问道。

Elizondo said that the effort continued and that he had a successor, whom he declined to name.

埃利桑多说,行动仍在继续,有人接替了他,但他拒绝透露继任者的姓名。

UFOs have been repeatedly investigated over the decades in the United States, including by the military. In 1947, the Air Force began a series of studies that investigated more than 12,000 claimed UFO sightings before it was officially ended in 1969. The project, which included a study code-named Project Blue Book, started in 1952, concluded that most sightings involved stars, clouds, conventional aircraft or spy planes, although 701 remained unexplained.

数十年来,美国包括军方在内的各方不断对UFO进行调查。1947年,美国空军开始进行一系列研究,调查了超过1.2万起据称看到了UFO的事件,直到1969年研究正式结束。其中包括一项始于1952年、代号为“蓝皮书计划”(Project Blue Book)的研究,最后得出的结论是,大部分目击事件涉及星星、云、常规飞行器或间谍飞机,不过有701起事件无法解释。

Robert C. Seamans Jr., the secretary of the Air Force at the time, said in a memorandum announcing the end of Project Blue Book that it “no longer can be justified either on the ground of national security or in the interest of science.”

时任空军部长小罗伯特·C·希曼斯(Robert C. Seamans Jr.)在宣布“蓝皮书计划”结束的备忘录中,声称这项计划的存在“无法再以国家安全或科学目的为理由”。

Contracts obtained by The Times show a congressional appropriation of just under $22 million beginning in late 2008 through 2011. The money was used for management of the program, research and assessments of the threat posed by the objects.

《纽约时报》拿到的合同显示一笔略低于2200万美元的国会拨款,时间从2008年底开始,直到2011年。这些钱被用于该项目的管理、研究和评估这些不明物体所构成的威胁。

The funding went to Bigelow’s company, Bigelow Aerospace, which hired subcontractors and solicited research for the program.

资金进入了毕格罗的公司——毕格罗航空航天公司(Bigelow Aerospace),由公司雇佣分包商,并为该项目招募研究队伍。

Under Bigelow’s direction, the company modified buildings in Las Vegas for the storage of metal alloys and other materials that Elizondo and program contractors said had been recovered from unidentified aerial phenomena. Researchers also studied people who said they had experienced physical effects from encounters with the objects and examined them for any physiological changes. In addition, researchers spoke to military service members who had reported sightings of strange aircraft.

在毕格罗的指示下,该公司对拉斯维加斯的一些建筑进行改造,用于存放金属合金和其他材料。埃利桑多和项目承包商称,这些材料来自不明空中现象。研究人员还对自称遇到相关物体后身体受到影响的人进行了研究,并检查他们的生理状况是否出现了改变。此外,研究人员还走访了声称看见奇怪飞行器的服役人员。

“We’re sort of in the position of what would happen if you gave Leonardo da Vinci a garage-door opener,” said Harold E. Puthoff, an engineer who has conducted research on extrasensory perception for the CIA and later worked as a contractor for the program. “First of all, he’d try to figure out what is this plastic stuff. He wouldn’t know anything about the electromagnetic signals involved or its function.”

“想象你给莱昂纳多·达·芬奇(Leonardo da Vinci)一个车库门遥控开关,他会怎么做,我们的工作大致就像这样,”曾为CIA研究过超感官直觉,后成为该项目承包商的工程师哈罗德·E·帕特霍夫(Harold E.Puthoff)说。“首先,他会试着搞清楚这个用塑料做的东西是什么。他对它涉及的电磁信号和功能一无所知。”

The program collected video and audio recordings of reported UFO incidents, including footage from a Navy F/A-18 Super Hornet showing an aircraft surrounded by some kind of glowing aura traveling at high speed and rotating as it moves. The Navy pilots can be heard trying to understand what they are seeing. “There’s a whole fleet of them,” one exclaims. Defense officials declined to release the location and date of the incident.

该项目收集了各种经上报的UFO事件视频和音频制品,其中包括一架海军F/A-18“超级大黄蜂”(Super Hornet)飞机拍摄到的一组镜头。镜头显示,一个飞行器被某种高速移动并不断旋转的发光体包围着。可以听到画外音中海军飞行员试图理解他们看到的景象。“有整整一个舰队,”其中一人惊呼。防务官员拒绝透露该事件发生的具体地点和日期。

“Internationally, we are the most backward country in the world on this issue,” Bigelow said in an interview. “Our scientists are scared of being ostracized, and our media is scared of the stigma. China and Russia are much more open and work on this with huge organizations within their countries. Smaller countries like Belgium, France, England and South American countries like Chile are more open, too. They are proactive and willing to discuss this topic, rather than being held back by a juvenile taboo.”

“从国际上来看,我们在这个问题上是全世界上最落后的国家,”毕格罗在采访中说。“我们的科学家害怕被排斥,我们的媒体害怕这种耻辱。中国和俄罗斯坦要率得多,它们和国内的大型机构合作。像比利时、法国、英国这样的小国,以及智利等南美国家,也都更加开放。它们愿意主动讨论这个话题,而不是受制于一个幼稚的禁忌。”

Elizondo, in his resignation letter of Oct. 4, said there was a need for more serious attention to “the many accounts from the Navy and other services of unusual aerial systems interfering with military weapon platforms and displaying beyond-next-generation capabilities.” He expressed his frustration with the limitations placed on the program, telling Mattis that “there remains a vital need to ascertain capability and intent of these phenomena for the benefit of the armed forces and the nation.”

埃利桑多在10月4日的辞职信中说,有必要更加严肃地关注“来自海军和其他部队有关不同寻常的空中系统干扰军事武器平台,并表现出超出下一代的能力的众多描述”。他表达了对该计划所受限制的失望,对马蒂斯表示,“为了军队和国家的利益,迫切需要查明这些现象的能力和意图。”

For his part, Reid said he did not know where the objects had come from. “If anyone says they have the answers now, they’re fooling themselves,” he said. “We do not know.”

里德则表示,不知道相关物体是从哪里来的。“如果有人说他们现在知道答案,他们就是在自欺欺人,”他说。“我们不知道。”

But, he said, “we have to start someplace.”

但他说,“我们必须从某个地方开始。”

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