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调查显示对性别差异的刻板印象犹存

更新时间:2017-12-9 8:01:55 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Men and Women Say They’re More Different Than Similar
调查显示对性别差异的刻板印象犹存

Men are tough; women are in touch with their feelings. Men are providers; women are nurturers. Men should punch back when provoked; women should be physically attractive.

男人是强硬的;女人了解自己的感情。男人负责挣钱养家;女人负责照顾孩子。男人被激怒时应该回击;女人应该有迷人的外貌。

These stereotypical beliefs about gender differences remain strong, found a new survey from the Pew Research Center on Tuesday. Even in an era of transgender rights, a surge of women running for office and a rising number of stay-at-home fathers, most Americans believe men and women are fundamentally different, and that masculinity is more valued than femininity.

皮尤研究中心(Pew Research Center)周二公布的一项最新调查显示,这些对性别差异的刻板印象依然很强烈。即使在这个争取跨性别者权利、竞选公职的女性急剧增多、全职奶爸越来越多的年代,大多数美国人依然认为,男人和女人在本质上是不同的,而且男子气概比女子气质更有价值。

The workplace is the one area in which a majority of men and women said the sexes were more alike than different in terms of what they were good at: 63 percent of respondents said men and women excelled at the same things at work, while 37 percent said they were good at different things.

在工作场所,大多数男性和女性都表示,从擅长的工作角度讲,两性的相似之处多于差异:63%的受访者表示,男性和女性在工作中擅长的事情是一样的;只有37%的受访者认为,男性和女性擅长不同的事情。

The survey results also shed light on some root causes of sexual harassment and discrimination. Nearly half of men, and 57 percent of men ages 18 to 36, said they felt pressure to join in when other men talked about women in a sexual way.

调查结果还揭示了性骚扰和性别歧视的部分根源。将近半数的男性——以及57%的18至36岁男性——表示,当其他男性在从性的方面谈论女性时,他们会感到有压力,觉得自己也需加入其中。

Sexism was described as widespread, and baked in from a young age. The belief that society placed a higher premium on masculinity than femininity was reflected in views of how to raise children: Respondents more often approved of teaching girls that it was acceptable to be like boys than the other way around.

人们认为性别歧视十分普遍,并且自幼形成。社会高度重视男性而非女性的看法,反映在了人们养育孩子的观点之中:受访者往往更支持去告诉女孩,她们可以像男孩子,但反过来就没那么支持了。

Three-quarters of people said it was important for parents of girls to encourage them to participate in the same activities as boys and to develop skills considered masculine. But a smaller majority — just under two-thirds of respondents — thought parents of boys should encourage them to do girls’ activities or develop skills considered feminine.

四分之三的人表示,女孩的父母鼓励孩子参加和男孩子一样的活动、学习有男子气的技能非常重要。认为男孩的父母应该鼓励他们参加女孩子的活动、学习一些女性化技能的受访者,虽占多数但要比前者少——略低于三分之二。

A large majority of women thought parents should break gender norms when raising either girls or boys, but men’s opinions changed depending on the sex of the child. Seventy-two percent thought parents should break gender norms for girls, and 56 percent for boys. Two-thirds of Republicans thought parents of girls should break gender norms, but less than half thought parents of boys should.

大部分的女性认为,父母在养育孩子时,不论男女,都应该打破性别规范。但男性的意见则根据孩子的性别有所不同。72%的男性认为父母在养育女孩时应该打破性别规范,而只有56%的人认为在养育男孩时也应如此。三分之二的共和党人认为女孩的父母应该打破性别规范,但认为男孩父母也要这么做的人却只有一半不到。

In questions about life outside the workplace, most respondents said men and women were different in how they expressed their feelings and in their physical abilities, hobbies and parenting styles, according to the survey, which was nationally representative. Pew surveyed 4,573 adults in August and September using its American Trends Panel. (See how your views compare by taking Pew’s quiz on the topic.)

在这份具有全国代表性的调查中,大多数的受访者在回答有关工作以外的生活的问题时,会表示男女在表达情感以及在身体能力、爱好、育儿方式上都有不同。在8月和9月间,皮尤美国趋势小组(American Trends Panel)对4573名成年人进行了调查。

There was a partisan divide about whether these gender differences were the result of biology  (and thus unlikely to change) or societal norms. More than half of Republicans said biology determined differences in how men and women parented, expressed feelings or spent their free time. About two-thirds of Democrats described society as the primary driver of these differences.

关于这些性别差异是否源自生理因素(并且因此难以改变)还是社会规范,还曾有过党派分歧。过半的共和党人认为,生理因素决定了男女两性在育儿方式、情感表达、闲暇活动上的差别;而三分之二的民主党人将社会因素看做这些差异的主要驱动力。

Women were also likelier than men to attribute gender differences to nurture, not nature.

女性还比男性更可能将性别差异归咎于培养教育,而非天性。

For instance, 87 percent of survey respondents said men and women expressed feelings differently. But two-thirds of women said this was based on societal expectations, while more than half of men thought it was because of biological differences. This was the gender difference that the largest share of respondents of both sex — about a quarter — thought was a bad thing.

比如说,在回应问卷的人中,有87%的人表示男女在情感表达上有差别。三分之二的女性认为这是基于社会期望,而超过半数的男性认为这是由于生理差异。受访者中认为这方面的性别差异是坏事的人占比最高——约四分之一。

In terms of gender differences in parenting styles and approaches, 60 percent of women said they were societal, while a similar share of men said they were biological. This was the gender difference that the largest share of respondents — just over half — thought was a good thing.

关于育儿的方式方法上的性别差异,60%的女性认为这是社会因素,而相似比例的男性认为这是生理原因。受访者中认为这个差异是好事的人占比最高——刚刚过半。

Being a woman, according to respondents, meant pressure to be physically attractive and to be an involved parent.

在受访者看来,作为女人,就意味着要外形好看,还要做一个尽心的母亲。

Being a man meant facing pressure to support a family financially and to be professionally successful, emotionally strong and interested in sports. To a lesser extent, it also meant being willing to throw a punch if provoked. Nearly half of men, and more than half of millennial men, said it also meant facing pressure to have many sexual partners and to join in when other men talked about women in sexual ways.

作为男人,意味着要面对养家糊口的压力,要做到职业成功、感情坚毅,还要对运动感兴趣。或许也可能意味着一被挑衅就想去打架。将近一半的男性以及超过半数千禧一代的男性表示,压力迫使他们需要去拥有许多的性伴侣,或者当其他男人在从性的方面谈论女性时,他们感到有必要加入。

Democrats were more likely than Republicans to say that society looks up to masculine men — but Democrats were also much more likely to say that society’s esteem for masculinity is a bad thing.

民主党人比共和党人更有可能说出“社会推崇阳刚的男性”这样的话——但民主党人也更可能说社会推崇阳刚之气是一件坏事。

Despite the deep-seated beliefs about gender differences, there were some signs in the survey responses that attitudes about gender roles were becoming less rigid, particularly among women and Democrats, who were more likely to say that society should be more accepting of nontraditional gender roles.

尽管性别差异的观念根深蒂固,调查反馈中也有迹象表明,人们对性别角色的态度正在慢慢软化,尤其是在女性和民主党人中,他们更有可能表示社会应更接纳非传统性别角色。

When survey respondents thought about the next generation, there were certain qualities associated with one gender — like taking on leadership for boys and expressing emotions for girls — that most thought should be encouraged more equally.

当受访者在考虑下一代时,大多数人认为应鼓励某个性别的某些特质的培养——比如男性要去担起领导工作、女性允许有情感流露——更加平等。

More than half of respondents said there should be more emphasis for boys to talk about their emotions when they are upset and to do well in school. As for girls, more than half of respondents said there should be more emphasis on being leaders and on standing up for themselves. In playground games, at least, we might see more girls leading the teams, and more boys explaining how winning or losing makes them feel.

超过半数的受访者表示,应该更重视男孩在难过时如何抒发感情,以及如何在学校表现优秀。超过半数的受访者表示,对女孩来说,应该更重视培养领导力,并学会去维护自己。这样,至少在操场上玩游戏时,我们还有可能看到女孩成为队长,而有更多的男孩能说说获胜或失败让他们有何感受。

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