您现在的位置: 纽约时报中英文网 >> 纽约时报中英文版 >> 国际 >> 正文

俄罗斯被禁止参加2018年冬奥会

更新时间:2017-12-6 18:29:04 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Banned From Winter Olympics, Russia Faces Greatest Sports Crisis Since Soviet Era
俄罗斯被禁止参加2018年冬奥会

MOSCOW — Russia, which has long burnished athletic prowess as a symbol of its great power status, faced its largest international sporting crisis since the Soviet era on Tuesday when the International Olympic Committee banned the country from competing in the 2018 Winter Games.

莫斯科——周二,一直将运动实力作为大国标志的俄罗斯,遭遇了自苏联时期以来最大的国际体育危机:国际奥林匹克委员会(International Olympic Committee)禁止该国参加2018年冬季奥运会。

In a winter sports powerhouse covered by snow much of the year, the ban pitted the desire of ordinary Russians to cheer on their champion skaters, biathletes and hockey players against calls to boycott the games to prove that the Olympics without Russia is no Olympics at all.

在一个一年里大部分时间都覆盖着白雪的冬季体育项目强国,这项禁令将普通俄罗斯人想为他们的滑冰、冬季两项及冰球一流选手欢呼的愿望,与抵制该比赛,来证明没有俄罗斯的奥运会根本不是奥运会的呼声对立了起来。

Beyond sports, the decision carried the whiff of history, when Olympic playing fields were an extension of Cold War battlefields. Back then, to be sure, the sources of conflict were rooted in political ideology, not in performance-enhancing drugs.

在体育之外,这一决定也让人想起过去,当时奥运会赛场曾是冷战战场的延伸。诚然,那个时候冲突的根源源自政治意识形态,而不是能提高成绩的药物。

A raft of senior Russian politicians and sporting officials demanded that Russia avoid the Winter Games in South Korea entirely, while others thought individual competitors should make the decision. The ban left open the door for athletes to compete as individuals, under the Olympic flag.

许多俄罗斯高级政治人物及体育官员都要求俄罗斯完全回避在韩国举办的冬季奥运会,而其他人则认为应由个人参赛者来做这个决定。这项禁令为作为个人、以奥林匹克会旗名义参赛的运动员敞开了大门。

“The question now is to participate using this status, or not,” Aleksei Durnovo, a sports commentator on the Echo of Moscow radio station, said in an interview. “Some people think it’s humiliation to participate like this, others that we should, to allow the athletes an opportunity to compete.”

“现在的问题在于是否以这种身份参赛,”莫斯科回声电台(Echo of Moscow)的体育评论员阿列克谢·杜尔诺沃(Aleksei Durnovo)说。“一些人认为这样参赛是羞辱,其他人则觉得我们应该给运动员们一个机会,让他们去参加。”

President Vladimir Putin, the most important voice in the decision, was not heard from immediately. He had previously suggested that competing under anything other than the Russian flag would be “humiliating.”

这一决定中最为重要的声音弗拉基米尔·普京(Vladimir Putin)总统没有立即发声。他此前曾暗示,以俄罗斯国旗以外的名义参赛将是“蒙羞”。

Russia is expected to appeal.

俄罗斯预计将上诉。

There was also a political facet to it all, especially with Putin’s re-election campaign unrolling next February even as the games take place.

这其中还有政治的层面,尤其是随着普京的再次竞选活动正巧将于明年2月冬奥会期间开始。

Some political analysts predicted it would have no effect on Putin’s popularity — if anything it might increase his standing — as the president built his current popularity on the idea that he “brought Russia off its knees,” ending the perceived humiliations the West heaped on the ashes of the Soviet Union.

一些政治分析人士预测,这将不会对普京的受欢迎程度造成影响——如果说要有影响的话,也可能是提升了他的支持率——这位总统目前的高支持率是建立在他“重振俄罗斯”这个理念基础上的,并终结俄罗斯人所感受到的西方加诸在苏联余烬上的羞辱。

Other political analysts wondered whether the mounting number of scandals involving Russia might not begin to reverberate. There is the threat of new sanctions from the United States over election hacking, for example, as well as the investigation into the Trump campaign’s contacts with Moscow and a court case in the Netherlands over the shooting down of a Malaysia Airlines jetliner over Ukraine in 2014.

还有政治分析人士则好奇,越来越多涉及俄罗斯的丑闻是否会产生持久影响。比如,美国就大选受到黑客攻击一事威胁要采取新的制裁,以及对特朗普竞选团队与莫斯科接触的调查,此外还有荷兰的一桩诉讼案件,是关于2014年在乌克兰击落一架马航喷气客机的。

“There are too many fishy stories in the Kremlin’s relations with Europe and the U.S.,” said Aleksandr Morozov, a political analyst and frequent Kremlin critic, suggesting that the public will begin to trust the Kremlin less and Russia’s international reputation would further erode. “Moreover, the Kremlin does not want to investigate any of these scandals and publish its results, neither to its own society nor to the international community.”

“克里姆林宫与欧洲及美国的关系有太多可疑的说法,”经常批评克里姆林宫的政治分析人士亚历山大·莫罗佐夫(Aleksandr Morozov)说,并暗示公众将开始降低对克里姆林宫的信任,俄罗斯在国际上的名声会越来越差。“而且,克里姆林宫既不想调查这些丑闻中的任何一起,也不想公布调查结果,不管是对国内社会还是国际社会。”

State propaganda outlets like RT, the international television voice of the Russian government, went into overdrive attacking the international investigation as an attempt to demean Russia, while basically ignoring questions about whether something was rotten in Russian sports. One of the main state broadcasters announced immediately that it would not show the games.

像RT这样的官方宣传渠道开始大肆攻击国际上的调查是为了贬低俄罗斯的同时,基本上无视俄罗斯体育是否败坏的问题。RT是俄罗斯政府的对外电视台。一个主要的官方电视台则马上宣布,将不会转播这次的冬奥会赛事。

Hence most commentators thought public ire would likely focus on the international community, blamed again for singling out Russia unfairly, and perhaps the senior Russian sporting officials sanctioned by the IOC, but not on Putin himself.

于是,大多数评论人士都认为公众的愤怒很可能会对准国际社会,再次责怪不公平地孤立俄罗斯,公众可能还会迁怒于遭到国际奥委会制裁的俄罗斯高级体育官员,但不会是普京。

Aleksandr Zubkov, the president of the Russian Olympic Committee and a champion bobsledder, who was suspended from the IOC as part of the decision, said that it would be up to the individual athletes to decide whether to participate, as did Aleksei Kravtsov, the head of the skating union, according to the Interfax news agency.

作为此次决定的一部分,俄罗斯奥委会主席、曾经的雪橇世界冠军,作为处罚决定的一部分而被国际奥委会暂停委员资格的亚历山大·祖布科夫(Aleksandr Zubkov)说,是否参赛将取决于运动员个人的决定。据国际文传电讯社(Interfax)报道,滑冰联盟的负责人阿列克谢·克拉夫佐夫(Aleksei Kravtsov)也作出了如上表示。

Irina A. Avvakumova, a ski jumper, said she was inclined not to go but would consult her coaches.

跳台滑雪选手伊丽娜·A·阿瓦库莫娃(Irina A. Avvakumova)说她自己倾向于不参赛,但会就此咨询她的教练。

“I don’t know how other athletes will react, but I was not training for many years to go and not participate for my own country,” she was quoted as saying by the Tass news agency.

 “我不知道其他运动员会作何回应,但我训练这么多年,不是为了不代表我的国家去参赛的,”她的这段话被塔斯社(Tass)引述。

Alexander Tikhonov, a former champion Soviet biathlete and previous head of the Russian association, encouraged athletes to go. “We have to prove to everyone that we’re the best,” he was quoted as saying by Championat.com, a sports website. “Competing without the anthem and the flag is not a treachery. We have to go and to give hell to everyone: to the Americans, to the whole world.”

苏联冬季两项的前冠军、俄罗斯该项目联合会的前任领导人亚历山大·吉洪诺夫(Alexander Tikhonov)则鼓励运动员参赛。“我们要向所有人证明我们是最厉害的,”运动网站Championat.com引用他的话说。“没有国歌和国旗的陪伴去参赛并不是背叛。我们要去,还要让他们都不好过:让美国人、让全世界都不好过。”

On social media, some critics of participating said any athletes who went should lose their citizenship. Critics of the Olympic ban started a #NoRussiaNoGames account on Instagram. Arguments erupted on Twitter over whether the Russians should go as neutrals. One man suggested that the Olympians could be heroes without winning a single medal by not going, while another responded that going could strike a blow against excessive nationalism.

在社交媒体上,一些批评参赛行为的人表示,所有参赛的运动员都应被取消国籍。批评奥林匹克禁令的人开通了一个#没有俄罗斯就没有比赛(#NoRussiaNoGames)的Instagram账号。Twitter上爆发了有关俄罗斯运动员是否应中立参赛的争论。有人说,只要不参赛,即使一块奖牌不拿,这些奥运会运动员也是英雄。但也有人回应说,参赛可以打击过度的民族主义。

Television cameras focused on the glum faces of the Russian Olympic hopefuls watching the announcement made their perspective clear. There was great sympathy for the clean athletes who might now be barred from competing by a Russian boycott.

电视镜头对准了那些有望在冬奥会上得奖的俄罗斯运动员们在听到明确决定后愁眉苦脸的样子。人们十分同情清白的运动员们,现在,他们可能会因俄罗斯发起的抵制而无法参赛。

“This is a very sad story — Russia has a lot of athletes who are suspected of nothing in this story,” said Durnovo, the sports commentator. “These are people with a good reputation, they were never suspected of anything, why should they not go to the Olympics?”

“这是个非常令人悲伤的故事——在这个件事中,有很多完全没有涉嫌违规的俄罗斯运动员,”体育评论员杜尔诺沃(Durnovo)说。“这都是一些有良好声誉的人,从来没有任何嫌疑,他们凭什么不能参加奥运会?”

Russian officials and sports figures tend to call the issue an extension of the current tensions between the West and Russia over issues like hacking the U.S. election rather than a question of sports violations.

俄罗斯官方和体育界人士倾向于把这个事件视为西方世界和俄罗斯因黑客攻击美国大选等问题导致的紧张关系的延伸,而非单纯的体育违规问题。

“We understand why this happened — this is an echo of political differences,” said Dmitry Svishchev, a member of the Russian parliament’s sports committee and the president of the Russian Curling Federation.

“我们理解为什么会这样——这是政治分歧的回响,”俄罗斯议会的体育委员会成员、俄罗斯冰壶协会(Russian Curling Federation)主席德米特里·斯维晓夫(Dmitry Svishchev)说。

Asked in October about possible action by the Olympic committee, Putin suggested it was a U.S. plot and hinted at a boycott if there was either an outright ban on Russia or an order to compete under a neutral flag. “Either way, it is humiliating for our country,” he said.

在10月被问及奥委员会可能会采取的行动时,普京指出,这是美国的阴谋,还暗示如果出现了对俄罗斯的直接禁令或要求运动员以中立身份参赛,都有可能引发抵制。“不论如何,这对我们国家来说都是一种羞辱,”他说道。

Investigators did not find any direct link to Putin in the doping scandal, said Samuel Schmid, the former president of Switzerland who led the investigation.

曾任瑞士联邦主席的萨穆埃尔·施密德(Samuel Schmid)领导本次调查,他表示,调查人员并未发现普京与兴奋剂丑闻有直接关联。

Like the Soviet Union, Putin invested in the Olympics as a means to burnish Russia’s international reputation and his own political fortunes. His public approval rating had been in steady decline before the 2014 Winter Olympics at Sochi, Russia.

和苏联一样,对奥运会的投资是普京给俄罗斯的国际声誉以及自己的政治命运增色的手段。在2014年俄罗斯索契冬奥会前,他的公众支持率曾持续下滑。

Russian athletes dominated those games, winning 33 metals, 13 of them gold. A month later he annexed Crimea and his domestic approval ratings soared to 86 percent and have barely retreated since.

在那次冬奥会上,俄罗斯运动员占了主导,曾赢得33块奖牌,包括13块金牌。冬奥会后的一个月,俄罗斯吞并克里米亚,普京的公众支持率飙升至86%,之后也少有回落。

The IOC has now retroactively banned 25 Russians who competed in Sochi for doping offenses, stripping them of 11 medals. Investigations are ongoing.

目前,因之前在索契冬奥会上违规使用兴奋剂,国际奥委会对25位俄罗斯参赛者下了禁赛令,收回了11枚奖牌。调查还在继续。

“全文请访问纽约时报中文网,本文发表于纽约时报中文网(http://cn.nytimes.com),版权归纽约时报公司所有。任何单位及个人未经许可,不得擅自转载或翻译。订阅纽约时报中文网新闻电邮:http://nytcn.me/subscription/”

相关文章列表