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福特汽车董事长:中国将引领电动汽车的未来

更新时间:2017-12-6 11:19:58 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

China Will Lead an Electric Car Future, Ford’s Chairman Says
福特汽车董事长:中国将引领电动汽车的未来

SHANGHAI — The world’s automakers are just starting to bet on an electric car future — and already, one of the most powerful people in the industry says that future belongs to China.

上海——全球汽车制造商才开始把赌注押在电动汽车的未来上,就已经有一位业内最有影响力的人士说,这个未来属于中国。

The Ford Motor Company said on Tuesday that it planned to introduce 15 battery electric or plug-in gasoline-electric hybrid car models in China by 2025. Speaking in Shanghai, Bill Ford Jr., Ford Motor’s longtime executive chairman, outlined why in an unusually blunt comment.

福特汽车公司(Ford Motor Company)周二表示,计划在2025年前在中国推出15款纯电动或充电式油电混合动力汽车。长期担任福特汽车执行董事长的小比尔·福特(Bill Ford Jr.)在上海发表讲话时,用异常直率的语言概述了福特这个计划的原因。

“When I think of where E.V.s are going,” he said, using an abbreviation for electric vehicles, “it’s clearly the case that China will lead the world in E.V. development.”

他说,“当我思考EV的发展方向时,中国将在EV发展上引领世界是非常清楚的事情。”他用的是纯电动汽车的缩写。

Ford Motor is far from alone. General Motors, Volkswagen, Daimler and other automakers have put big bets on the market for electric cars in China in recent months.

福特汽车远不是唯一这样认为的公司。近几个月来,通用汽车(General Motors)、大众汽车(Volkswagen)、戴姆勒(Daimler)和其他汽车制造商都对中国纯电动汽车市场押下了重注。

Still, Mr. Ford’s statement was notable given his own long-held ambitions to develop vehicles that run on something other than gasoline. Two decades ago, he drove an electric Ford Ranger compact pickup truck around the Detroit area even as his wife drove a gasoline-powered Lincoln Navigator sport utility vehicle.

不过,考虑到小比尔·福特本人长期以来一直有开发使用非汽油动力的其他汽车的野心,他的上述说法值得注意。20年前,当他的妻子还在开汽油驱动的林肯导航员(Lincoln Navigator)运动型多功能车时,他就已经开着一辆电动的福特Ranger小型卡车行驶在底特律附近了。

China now appears to be behind that wheel. The government has taken a major role in electric car development and is pushing to dominate the market. Beijing hopes the push will add to its technological know-how, help address its pernicious pollution problems and curb its dependence on oil imports from politically volatile countries.

现在看来,驾驭电动汽车的是中国。中国政府在纯电动汽车的发展中一直起着重要的作用,并在为主宰这个市场而努力。北京希望这种努力将提高中国制造的技术水平,帮助解决中国日益恶化的污染问题,减少本国对从政治动荡国家进口石油的依赖。

To achieve this, China is offering global automakers enticing financial carrots. Automakers have begun putting massive investments into electric car production. Meanwhile, Beijing has mandated that automakers must start selling large numbers of electric cars and plug-in hybrid cars or risk losing their right to sell gasoline-powered cars in China, now the world’s largest auto market.

为了实现这一目标,中国正在向全球汽车制造商投出财政支持这个诱人的胡萝卜。国内汽车制造商已经开始大规模投资电动汽车生产。与此同时,中国政府规定,汽车制造商必须开始销售相当数量的纯电动汽车和充电式油电混合动力汽车,否则将失去在中国销售汽油动力汽车的权利,中国目前是全球最大的汽车市场。

“Certainly having the full weight and power of the Chinese government behind it gave them a pretty good head start,” said James Chao, a China automotive analyst at IHS Markit.

“当然,有中国政府的全部实力和大力支持做后盾,让他们有一个相当好的起点,”研究公司IHS Markit的中国汽车行业分析师詹姆斯·曹(James Chao)说。

China is already the world’s dominant producer not just of electric motors but of practically all their components. Chinese companies even mine most of the valuable minerals, called rare earth metals, that go into the tiny magnets often used to make many of the motors.

中国已经不仅仅是世界上最大的电动马达生产国,中国也生产电动马达的几乎所有零部件。中国公司甚至开采制造微型磁铁所需的、被称为稀土元素的宝贵金属,许多电动马达的生产通常需要微型磁铁。

Volkswagen has said that together with its Chinese partners it would invest almost $12 billion to introduce 25 models of electric cars in the Chinese market between 2020 and 2025. VW already planned to bring 15 electric models to the country by 2020.

大众汽车表示,公司将与其合资伙伴一起,为在2020年至2025年期间在中国市场推出25款电动汽车,投入近120亿美元的资金。大众已经计划在2020年前在中国推出15款电动汽车。

Daimler AG, the maker of Mercedes-Benz and Smart cars, said at the Guangzhou auto show last month that it also planned a sharp increase in its electric car production investments, particularly for making the batteries.

梅赛德斯-奔驰(Mercedes-Benz)和Smart汽车的制造商戴姆勒上月在广州车展上表示,公司计划大幅增加电动汽车的生产投资,尤其是电池生产投资。

“China will, in my view, be the biggest market for passenger cars for a very long time,” said Hubertus Troska, the company’s management board member responsible for China. Many of them, he added, will be electric.

“在我看来,中国将是小客车的长期最大市场,”戴姆勒管理委员会负责中国的成员唐仕凯(Hubertus Troska)说。这些汽车中有许多将是纯电动的,他补充说。

General Motors, VW’s rival as the market leader in China, has put much of its electric car development effort in China and is laying plans to expand its electric car offerings here.

与大众汽车在中国竞争市场领袖地位的通用汽车,已经把自己纯电动汽车研发努力的大部分搬到了中国,并正在制定在中国扩大纯电动汽车销售的计划。

“Globally, but especially here in China, car companies are shifting and new companies emerging with a focus on electrified products,” Jennifer Goforth, the chief engineer of electrification at General Motors China, said in a statement on Tuesday afternoon.

“在全球范围内,特别是在中国,汽车企业正在发生转变,新公司正在出现,他们的重点都是电气化产品,”通用汽车中国的电气化首席工程师詹妮弗·戈福斯(Jennifer Goforth)周二下午在一份声明中说。

Jason Luo, the chairman and chief executive of Ford China, said in an interview on Tuesday that the supply base for electric car parts is expanding rapidly in China thanks to automakers’ changing production plans. That makes possible the same kind of formidable economies of scale that have allowed China to become the world’s dominant supplier of everything from solar panels to drones.

福特汽车(中国)董事长兼首席执行官罗冠宏(Jason Luo)周二在接受采访时表示,由于汽车制造商生产计划的改变,纯电动汽车零部件的供应基地正在中国迅速扩大。这有可能让中国拥有他人难以竞争的规模经济,正是这种规模经济让中国成为从太阳能电池板到无人机等各种产品的全球主要供应商。

Once that electric car parts volume materializes, Mr. Luo said, “I call it an inflection point,” producing a drop in prices and a takeoff in sales.

罗冠宏说,“我称之为转折点”的纯电动汽车零部件大规模生产一旦成为现实,将导致价格的下跌和销售的腾飞。

Ford Motor’s market research has also found that Chinese customers are less concerned than customers elsewhere with issues like an electric car’s range on a single charge, said Peter Fleet, the president of Ford Motor’s Asia-Pacific operations. That may partly reflect the fact that cars in China tend to be used mainly for driving within cities.

福特汽车亚太业务总裁彼得·弗利特(Peter Fleet)说,福特的市场研究还发现,与其他地方的消费者相比,中国消费者对纯电动汽车充一次电后能行驶多远等问题不太关心。这可能在一定程度上反映小汽车在中国主要是在城市内行驶的事实。

Mr. Ford has a long history of interest in alternative-fuel vehicles. As a young man, he has said in interviews, he toyed with becoming an environmental activist before deciding that he could make more of a difference in the world going to work in the company his great-grandfather founded.

小比尔·福特长期以来就对替代燃料汽车有兴趣。他在接受采访时说,自己年轻的时候,曾有过当环保活动者的想法,后来才决定进入曾祖父创立的公司工作,他觉得这样能对世界做出更大的贡献。

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