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为什么《纽约时报》称特朗普为“先生”?

更新时间:2017-12-5 18:38:26 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Why The Times Calls Trump ‘Mr.’ (No, We’re Not Being Rude)
为什么《纽约时报》称特朗普为“先生”?

Readers occasionally express concern about articles referring to the president as “Mr. Trump.”

读者偶尔会对文章中用“特朗普先生”来称呼总统的做法表示关切。

They believe it is disrespectful to call him “Mr.” rather than “President” Trump, and some suggest that our doing so is a sign of political bias. “It’s President Trump, not Mr. Trump,” wrote one reader who uses the name Batman (you read that right) in the comments section. “If we’re really going to bad mouth the President of the United States, why don’t we at least learn his title.”

他们认为,叫特朗普“先生”而不是“总统”是不敬,一些人还表示,我们这么做是政治偏见的表现。“是特朗普总统,不是特朗普先生,”一位用户名为蝙蝠侠(你没有看错)的读者在评论区写道。“如果真的要说美国总统的坏话,为什么不至少了解他的头衔。”

The complaint isn’t new to me. For years, we got complaints that our references to “Mr. Obama” betrayed our disrespect for him. And before that, “Mr. Bush” made some readers suspect that we were showing our disdain for that president.

对我来说,这种抱怨不新鲜。多年来,我们收到很多抱怨,认为我们用“奥巴马先生”暴露了我们对他的不尊重。在那之前,“布什先生”的称谓也让一些读者怀疑我们是在表示对这位总统的鄙视。

I’m not sure whether one of my long-ago predecessors got similar complaints about The Times’s references to “Mr. Lincoln.” But I can assure readers that we have been consistent for many years in how we refer to an incumbent president: It’s “President Trump” (or President Obama, or President Bush) on first reference, and “Mr. Trump” or “the president” (lowercase) thereafter.

我不确定很久以前我的某位前任是否收到过有关时报使用“林肯先生”的抱怨。但我可以向读者保证,对在位总统的称呼,我们的标准多年保持一致:第一次提到时用“特朗普总统”(或奥巴马总统,布什总统),之后用“特朗普先生”或“总统”(首字母小写)。

No disrespect is intended.

并不是为了表示不敬。

In fact, most news organizations dispense with the “Mr.” altogether and simply call the president “Trump” after the first reference. The Times is among the few outlets still using courtesy titles like “Mr.” or “Ms.” (with exceptions in our sports coverage and a few other areas). Some readers (me included) like the tone of civility and seriousness the titles convey; others find them old-fashioned and stodgy. And still others are just confused.

实际上,大部分新闻机构在第一次提到之后完全省去了“先生”,只用“特朗普”来称呼总统。时报是少数几个仍然使用“先生”或“女士”(体育和其他几个领域的报道除外)等尊称的新闻机构之一。有一些读者(包括我在内)喜欢这些称谓传达出的礼貌和严肃气息,有一些却觉得它们过时、枯燥乏味,还有一些感到迷惑。

Besides questions about the president, readers have asked about our references to the White House chief of staff, John F. Kelly, as “Mr. Kelly.” As a retired Marine officer, these readers say, he should be “General Kelly.”

除有关总统的问题外,读者还问到了我们用“凯利先生”称呼白宫幕僚长约翰·F·凯利(John F. Kelly)的做法。这些读者说,凯利是一名退役的海军陆战队军官,应该是“凯利将军”。

In most cases, The Times follows tradition and continues to use the titles General and Admiral for retired military officers. But we make an exception for those who take high-level civilian positions in government — the chief of staff is “Mr. Kelly” after the first reference; the defense secretary, Jim Mattis, also a retired Marine general, is “Mr. Mattis.” (With this, too, we take a bipartisan approach: The retired Army general David Petraeus was “Mr. Petraeus” as C.I.A. director in the Obama administration.)

大部分情况下,时报会遵循传统,在提到退役军官时依然使用将军的称谓。但在政府担任高层文职的那些人是例外。在第一次提到之后,幕僚长会变成“凯利先生”;同为海军陆战队退役将领的国防部长吉姆·马蒂斯(Jim Mattis)会变成“马蒂斯先生”。(在这一点上,我们对两党一视同仁:退役的陆军将领戴维·彼得雷乌斯[David Petraeus]在担任奥巴马政府的中央情报局局长后成了“彼得雷乌斯先生”。)

The idea is to avoid confusion and make it clear that the official is serving in a civilian role, not a military one. By contrast, Mr. Trump’s national security adviser, H.R. McMaster, is still “General McMaster” because he remains on active duty in the Army.

这么做的目的是为了避免制造困惑,并明确表示涉及的官员担任的是文职而不是军职。相比之下,特朗普的国家安全顾问H·R·麦克马斯特(H.R. McMaster)依然是“麦克马斯特将军”,因为他依然在陆军服役。

Questions also arise about titles for medical doctors. Our style is to use “Dr.” only for those whose medical practice remains their primary occupation. That means doctors-turned-politicians get “Mr.” or “Ms.,” not “Dr.” Here, too, the practice is nonpartisan. Howard Dean, a doctor, former Vermont governor and onetime Democratic candidate for president, is “Mr. Dean” for us, and Senator Rand Paul, a Republican and ophthalmologist, is “Mr. Paul.”

还有人对医生的称呼提出了疑问。我们的规范是只对行医依然是其主要职业的人使用“医生”这个称呼。也就是说,医生从政后,称呼会变成“先生”或“女士”,而不是“医生”。同样,这一条两党也都一样。作为医生的前佛蒙特州州长、一度成为民主党总统候选人的霍华德·迪恩(Howard Dean)是“迪恩先生”,共和党参议员、眼科医生兰德·保罗(Rand Paul)是“保罗先生”。

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