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欢迎回到“木制大楼”时代

更新时间:2017-11-29 19:54:09 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

'Plyscrapers':The rise of the wooden skyscraper
欢迎回到“木制大楼”时代

When the Ingalls Building in Cincinnati, Ohio was unveiled in 1903, no one believed it would still be standing over a century later. In fact, it wasn’t expected to last the night.

1903年,俄亥俄州辛辛那提的英格尔斯大厦(Ingalls Building)揭幕。当时,没有人会相信这座建筑物在一个世纪以后仍会屹立不倒。事实上,有人还觉得它过不了一晚上就会倒塌。

The towering, 16-storey behemoth was the first concrete skyscraper in world history. Previously they had been made with burly metal alloys such as steel – concrete was extremely experimental. The media ran wild with speculation.

这座16层高的建筑物是世界历史上第一座水泥摩天大楼。此前的摩天大楼都采用结实的合金,比如钢——所以水泥的实验性极强。媒体纷纷作出疯狂的预测。

Some said it would crack and crumble under its own weight. Others even suggested it might be blown over. Legend has it that when the supports were removed, a local reporter stayed awake through the night, hoping to scoop the story of its collapse the very next morning.

有媒体称,它会无法承受自身的重量,出现裂缝,然后崩塌。也有媒体认为它会被风吹倒。甚至当时还有这样一个传闻:当脚手架等移除以后,当地的一名记者彻夜未眠,希望第二天一早就报道这个大楼倒塌的独家新闻。

In 2017 we’re on the cusp of a new revolution: wooden skyscrapers. It sounds completely ludicrous, like a modern twist on the construction fable the Three Little Pigs. But it’s really happening. Are they strong enough? Will they rot? And won’t they burn down?

2017年,我们正处于一场全新革命的风口浪尖:木制摩天大楼。这个想法听起来十分可笑,就好像是寓言故事《三只小猪》(Three Little Pigs)的现代版。但这场革命确实正在进行。木制摩天大楼足够牢固吗?会不会腐烂?不会遭遇火灾吗?

“Oh wood has some big advantages – how long do you have?” says Ola Jonsson, an associate partner at CF Möller Architects, which won a competition for their design of a 34-storey wooden building.

"木材有一些重要的优点——你有多少时间?"C·F·慕勒(C.F. Møller)建筑师事务所的助理合伙人欧拉·琼森(Ola Jonsson)说。该公司设计的一座34层木制大楼方案刚在一场比赛中获胜。

For a start they’re quicker to build, since even steel skyscrapers have concrete floors which can take weeks to dry. That’s several weeks per floor. On the other hand wood panels can be sliced to exact dimensions in the factory and then slotted into place within a matter of hours.

首先,木质建筑物的建造速度更快,因为即便是钢铁建造的摩天大楼也要几个星期水泥地板才会变干。每层地板都要等上几个星期。其次,木板可以在工厂中切割成精确的尺寸,在数小时内完成拼装。

Then there’s the issue of weight. For a long time Murray Grove, a nine-storey housing block in Hackney, was the highest in the world. “If we’d made it from concrete it would have taken 900 HGVs [heavy goods vehicles] rumbling through London to deliver all the material,” says Anthony Thistleton, a founding director of Waugh Thistleton Architects who designed the building. In the end it took only 100.

接着是重量的问题。在很长一段时间内,位于伦敦哈克尼区(Hackney)的九层住宅楼穆雷格罗夫(Murray Grove)曾是世界最高木制楼。"如果它以水泥为材料,那就需要900辆重型货车(HGV)穿过伦敦将所有材料送达。"沃夫西斯尔顿(Waugh Thistleton)建筑师事务所的创始总监、该建筑物的设计师安东尼·西斯尔顿(Anthony Thistleton)说。后来,他们只用了100辆重型货车运送材料。

That’s not to mention the environmental benefits. Though we don’t tend to think of the carbon footprint of our buildings, concrete and steel are secret super-villains, thought to be responsible for about 8% and 5% of global emissions respectively. On the other hand trees actively suck in carbon dioxide and lock it away in their wood.

另外还有环境方面的好处。虽然我们通常不会考虑建筑物的碳排放,但是水泥和钢铁看不见的碳排放罪魁祸首,分别占全球碳排放总量的8%和5%。而树木会主动吸收二氧化碳,并将其锁在木头里面。

Today wooden skyscrapers are sprouting up across the globe, from Norway to New Zealand. There’s the 18-storey T3 project in Minneapolis, made from pine felled by mountain pine beetles, a tiny insect pest that lives in their bark; the 60m (£44m/$58m) HoHo tower, a sleek spruce confection currently under construction in Vienna; and the lofty 133m (436ft) Trätoppen proposed for Stockholm. Translating as “the treetop” in Swedish, it would sit on top of a 1960s carpark.

如今,木制摩天大楼已经遍及挪威、新西兰等世界各地。在美国明尼阿波利斯(Minneapolis)有一个18层的T3项目,它以被松甲虫啃倒的松树为材料(松甲虫是生活在松树树皮里的害虫);维也纳还有一个投资6000万欧元、以云杉木为材料的HoHo大厦正在建造中;斯德哥尔摩计划建造高133米、名为Trätoppen的木质大厦。Trätoppen是瑞典语,意为"树梢"。它将建在一个20世纪60年代的停车场上。

As you’d expect, insurance companies aren’t delighted, but a small band of renegade architects is determined to lead us into a wood renaissance nevertheless. Together they envisage entire cities of timber buildings – “We want to talk on that level,” says Jonsson – complete with forests of mighty plywood skyscrapers, affectionately known as plyscrapers.

如你所料,保险公司对此并不感冒。但是一些具有叛逆精神的建筑师决心带领我们掀起木制建筑的文艺复兴。他们设想了全部是木制建筑的城市——一片牢固的木制摩天大楼森林。"我们希望在该层面上展开讨论,"琼森说。

Timber may be the most advanced building material of the 21st Century, but it’s not like we invented it. The Sakyamuni Pagoda of Fogong Temple in China is one of the oldest wooden structures. It was built by Emperor Daozong of the Liao Dynasty at the site of his grandmother’s home – without a single nail, screw or bolt.

木材可能是21世纪最先进的建筑材料,但这不是我们的发明。中国山西省朔州市应县的佛宫寺释迦塔(又称应县木塔)是世界上现存最古老的木结构建筑之一。它是辽道宗皇帝在他祖母的住处建造的,没有使用钉子,螺丝或者螺栓。

And yet, thanks to skilful craftsmanship and sturdy design, the pagoda is still standing 900 years later. At 67m (219ft) high, it remains the tallest timber building in the world – at least, until the HoHo building is completed. It has survived at least seven serious earthquakes, including one in 1556 that killed nearly a million people. This makes a lot of sense, since wood is famously flexible. When the ground starts shaking, wooden structures tend to sway without collapsing. In earthquake-prone areas such as New Zealand, the majority of houses are wooden.

高超的工艺和坚固的设计让这座木塔屹立900年不倒。塔高67米,仍是世界上最高的木建筑——至少在HoHo大厦建成之前是这样。它经过了至少七次严重地震,包括1556年造成近100万人死亡的大地震。原因显然是木结构的灵活性较好。当地面开始震动时,木结构会摇晃,但是不会倒塌。在新西兰等容易遭受地震的地方,大部分房屋都是木结构。
 
For millennia, forests were often the only building material around. In medieval England, houses, offices, forts, factories, cathedrals and even castles were all made of wood. Raw timber is incredibly resilient – it doesn’t rot unless you get it wet. “If you can keep it dry it will last forever,” says Andy Buchanan, a leading structural engineer from PTL consultants in New Zealand.

在长达一千年的时间里,森林常常是唯一的建筑材料来源。在中世纪的英国,房屋、办公室、要塞、工厂、教堂甚至城堡都是木制。原木的韧性非常强——除非把它弄湿,否则不会腐烂。"如果保持干燥,它永远都不会坏,"PTL咨询公司的首席结构工程师安迪·布坎南(Andy Buchanan)说。

Many ancient wooden buildings are found in miserable climates, from Britain’s rustic Tudor houses of oak to Norway’s fairy-tale stave churches, carved from a special type of fir called "malmfuru". The former were typically given a wattle and daub coating of wooden strips covered in straw mixed with mud or animal dung, while staves were raised above the ground to keep them dry.

从都铎王朝的乡村橡木房屋到挪威童话般的木板教堂(用一种名为"malmfuru"的特别枞木雕刻而成),很多古代木建筑都处于糟糕的气候下。前者常常会包裹一层编木藤加泥,就是把混入泥土或动物粪便的稻草包在木条上。而木板教堂则会在地面加高,以保持干燥。

“Now we enclose the structural wood in a weathertight envelope, such as glass or fabric. Or if you want the building to look woody, you can use cladding,” says Buchanan.

"现在,我们会把木结构包裹在防潮材料里,比如玻璃或纤维。如果你希望房子看起来有木制风格,你可以使用包覆板,"布坎南说。

The main reason there aren’t legions of super-old timber buildings is fire. In the wood-age, nearly every city had its own giant fire. In AD 64 there was the Great Fire of Rome, which lasted for six days. In 1657, there was the Great Fire of Meireki, which scorched the capital city of Edo (now Tokyo) and claimed over 100,000 lives. In the US there were fires in New York City, Chicago, Washington and San Francisco.

世界上不存在大片古老木建筑群的主要原因是火灾。在木建筑的时代,几乎每座城市都起过大火。公元64年的罗马大火(Great Fire of Rome)持续了六天。1657年发生了明历大火(Great Fire of Meireki),江户(现东京)化为焦土,10万人在火灾中丧生。美国的纽约、芝加哥、华盛顿和旧金山都曾发生过火灾。

In London the major shift came after the Great Fire of 1666, which destroyed tens of thousands of buildings. It heralded a new era of regulations and the city was rebuilt in stone and brick. Is going back to wood a terrible mistake?

1666年的伦敦大火后出现了重大的转折。当时的大火烧毁了数万栋建筑。它开启了一个新的建筑管理规章制度时代,开始用石块和砖重建伦敦。那么回归木材会不会是一个可怕的错误?

As it happens, it isn’t straight-up wood. “The tall buildings I’m talking about are made out of engineered wood – small pieces of wood glued together,” says Buchanan. There are three main types. “There’s glued laminated timber, glulam, which is used for straight beams and columns. It’s been around for 50 years or more. Then there’s laminated veneer lumber, LVL, which has the same strength as concrete. But the newest material is cross-laminated timber (CLT), which is really starting to take off now.”

实际上,木制高楼并不是指直接使用木头。"我所说的高层建筑用的是工程木材——胶合的小块木头,"布坎南说。主要有三种。"第一是用于直梁和直柱的层板胶合木。这种木材已经使用了五十多年。第二是单板层积材(LVL),它的强度相当于水泥。最新的材料是交错层压木材(CLT),现在才开始快速发展。

CLT is a true wonder material. Made from thin layers of wood criss-crossed and stuck together with fire-resistant glue, this “plywood on steroids” is claimed to be as strong as structural steel; alternating the direction of the grain offsets the weaknesses in any given plank and stops the material warping if it gets wet. It’s made into massive, flat panels up to six metres (20ft) wide and 20 inches (50cm) thick that can be used whole, to form entire walls, floors or part of a roof.

交错层压木材的确是一种神奇的材料。它是用防火胶水把交叉的薄木片粘合起来,据称这种类固醇木材的强度相当于钢结构。纹理方向交错增大了木片的强度,当木片变潮时还能阻止材料变弯。最大的尺寸是六米宽、50厘米厚,可用来制作整块墙壁、地板或房顶的一部分。

The size of the panels is crucial. “If you’re making a fire, everyone knows you don’t start with giant logs,” says Thistleton. “It would take a lot to ignite them. The first thing that happens is they char and that actually protects the wood beneath.”

木板的尺寸很重要。"如果要生火,大家都知道不能用大圆木,"西斯尔顿说,"它是很难引燃的。它一开始就会烧焦,保护下层的木头。"

If you need a bit more reassurance, take a study by the Committee on Tall Wood Buildings earlier this year. The test was conducted at the Fire Research Laboratory, Virginia, a state-of-the-art facility that basically lets scientists set things on fire and then watch what happens. When they set alight two one-bedroom apartments made of engineered wood, the fire raged until it had burnt through the furnishings, then extinguished itself. The contents were turned to ash, but the structure itself charred and remained intact.

如果你有点担心,那么不妨看一下今年早些时候高层木建筑委员会(Committee on Tall Wood Buildings)的研究。美国最先进的研究机构弗吉尼亚州消防研究实验室(Fire Research Laboratory)进行测试,科研人员点燃材料,并观察会发生什么。他们点燃了两个用工程木材建造的一居室公寓,装修的部分被烧毁之后,火自然熄灭了。一些东西被烧成了灰,但是结构本身烧焦后保持完好。

Other than preventing the spread of a fire, one of the most important factors is what happens to CLT when it’s heated. In this respect, the material wins hands down over steel and concrete, which tend to melt and weaken. “There’s an image that we often use in our lectures. It’s a devastated fire site with a big timber column supporting a timber beam. At the top is a steel beam that’s completely melted,” says Thistleton.

除了阻止火势蔓延以外,交错层压木材更重要的好处之一是当温度升高时它自身的表现。在这方面,木材完胜钢铁和水泥,因为它们在温度升高时一般会融化,强度变弱。"我们在讲课时经常使用一幅照片:在一个火灾现场只剩下巨大的木柱子,支撑住木横梁,而上面的钢横梁已经完全熔化了,"西斯尔顿说。

As the tragedy at Grenfell tower showed earlier this year, fire resistance is even more of a challenge in tall buildings, which are harder for firefighters to reach. According to Buchanan, this is one of the reasons wooden buildings typically tend to have fewer than 10 storeys.

今年早些时候,格伦费尔塔(Grenfell tower)发生的惨剧说明高层建筑的防火难度更大,消防员很难够到高层。布坎南认为,这也是木建筑通常不超过十层的原因之一。

Right now the tallest is Brock Commons, a residential building at the University of British Columbia. The lift shaft and stairwell is made of concrete, but all the beams and columns and floors are made of wood. “As you enter the building you don’t see any wood at all. That’s because of fire safety – it’s all covered with fire-proof gypsum board,” he says.

目前最高的木建筑是不列颠哥伦比亚大学(University of British Columbia)的学生公寓(Brock Commons)。它的电梯井道和楼梯间是用水泥建造的,但是所有的横梁、柱子和地板都是木制。"进入大楼时,看不到任何木头。这是为了消防安全——整体都覆盖了防火石膏板,"他说。

Besides, lofty heights bring a range of other issues.  The main concern for most skyscrapers is their sheer weight. The material they’re built from has to be strong enough to support its own bulk, or the structure will collapse – the very reason everyone was so worried about the Ingalls Building back in the early 20th Century.

此外,高层楼房还会带来一系列问题。大多数摩天大楼都会遇到重量的问题。材料的强度必须足够支撑自重,否则建筑物会坍塌——20世纪初人们对英格尔斯大厦的担忧也是同样原因。

But wooden buildings are so light, the main challenge isn’t keeping them up, but holding them down. As you get higher up, wind becomes faster – at the top of the tallest building in the world, the Burj Khalifa in Dubai, the wind can reach 150km/h (90mph). These lateral forces have been plaguing skyscrapers for years and are the leading factor in their structural design.

但是木建筑的重量很轻,主要的挑战不是保持建筑不倒,而是扎稳根基。越高的地方,风速也越快。在世界第一高楼迪拜的哈利法塔(Burj Khalifa),风速可能达到150公里/小时。多年来,这些横向的作用力困扰着高层建筑,也是结构设计时首先需要考虑的因素。

The heavier the building, the better. In strong winds, Trump Tower in New York had a nausea-inducing – but perfectly safe – amount of sway until it was reinforced with concrete columns in 1995. One way to overcome this in wooden buildings is to give them a concrete core, but some architects see this as cheating.

这时候建筑物的重量越大就坚固。当风速很大时,纽约的特朗普大厦(Trump Tower)会晃的让人感到头晕目眩,但仍然是绝对安全的,该问题直到1995年它的水泥柱进行了强化改造才解决。一种解决方式是在木建筑的中间加一个水泥芯,但是一些建筑设计师认为这样做是造假。

Which brings us to the second problem. Though panels of engineered wood are exceptionally strong individually, there’s the big challenge of how to attach them together. At these scales, nails and screws don’t cut it. “To stop the building blowing over you need lots and lots of walls and floors,” says Buchanan.

这又引出了第二个问题。虽然一块工程木板很坚固,但是很大的一个难点是如何把它们连接起来。这么大规模的工程,钉子和螺丝无法解决问题。"为了防止建筑物被风刮倒,你需要很多的墙壁和地板,"布坎南说。

In residential buildings, this isn’t a problem, since ceilings don’t need to be so high and architects can carve out the building into a honeycomb of separate rooms. But open-plan environments such as offices and shops are a real test. Over a certain height, these buildings tend to need some more heavy-duty anchoring, such as steel bars that run all the way from the bottom to the top of the building.

居民楼没有这个问题,因为天花板不需要很高,建筑师可以把整栋楼变成蜂窝式隔间。真正的考验是开放式布局的办公楼和商场。在超过了一定的高度后,这些建筑物需要重型锚定,比如从楼底到楼顶贯穿整栋楼的钢柱。

These are just some of the reasons that, if we’re being pedantic, technically there aren’t actually any wooden skyscrapers yet. The Emporis Standards Committee, a database for building information, says skyscrapers should be at least 100m (330ft). That’s well above the height of any wooden building currently planned.

以上是我们在理论上还没有真正意义上的木制摩天大楼的部分原因。建筑物信息数据库机构安波利斯标准委员会(Emporis Standards Committee)称,摩天大楼至少要有100米高。这远远超过了目前规划中的任何一个木建筑的高度。

For Thistleton, the current fashion for building upwards with wood is about showing off. “We should be building in timber for environmental reasons,” he says. “The need to build the highest is just a manifestation of the ego of the architect.” In addition to locking away CO2, wood buildings have much better environmental credentials all round. At Murray Grove in Hackney, people aren’t using their heating because the wood is such a good insulator.

对西斯尔顿来说,当下的木建筑潮流只是为了炫耀。"我们建造木建筑应该是出于环境方面的考虑,"他说,"建造最高的建筑物只是建筑师自大的表现。"除了锁住二氧化碳以外,木建筑在环境方面的整体优势好很多。哈克尼区的穆雷格罗夫大楼不使用供暖设备,因为木头本身就是很好的隔热体。

Jonsson agrees. “It would be great to do a 100m-tall building out of wood. We’ve done the calculations and it’s theoretically possible, but there are some major challenges. The important thing is that just one cubic metre of wood sequesters a ton of CO2.”

琼森表示赞同:"如果能建一栋100米高的木建筑会非常不错。我们进行了计算,这在理论上是可能的,但是还存在一些重大挑战。重要的一点是一立方米的木头可以锁住一吨二氧化碳。"

“The 20th Century was the concrete age, it was all about the dominion of man over nature. Now we’re transitioning towards a different attitude, a more nurturing one,” says Thistleton. Welcome back, perhaps, to the age of wood.

"20世纪是水泥时代,一切都是围绕人类对自然的征服。现在我们正在朝着另一种态度转变,一种哺育自然的态度,"西斯尔顿说。欢迎回归木材时代。

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