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东京拟在公共场所禁烟,日本吸烟文化面临挑战

更新时间:2017-11-28 18:53:31 来源:纽约时报中文网 作者:佚名

Tokyo, Once a Cigarette Haven, Could Finally Kick Out the Smokers
东京拟在公共场所禁烟,日本吸烟文化面临挑战

TOKYO — This is a compliant city. During rush hour, a horde of commuters exiting a subway platform will not dare step onto a staircase labeled “down.” Nobody jaywalks. People don’t litter. Train operators apologize when their trains are seconds late — or even early.

东京——这是一个遵规守矩的城市。上下班高峰时段,离开地铁站台的一群上班族不敢踏上写着“下”的楼梯;没人乱穿马路;没人乱扔垃圾;火车晚点几秒钟甚或早到,司机都要道歉。

A manager at the gym where I work out asked me to wear rented shoes instead of a pair of sneakers I had worn outside; my son’s soccer teammates scolded a friend when he dropped a small piece of cracker on the sidewalk.

在我锻炼的健身房,一名经理让我穿出租的鞋子,而不是我在外面穿的运动鞋;我儿子在足球队的队友因为朋友把一小片饼干掉在了人行道上而责怪对方。

But one group occasionally breaks the rules: smokers.

但有一个群体偶尔会破坏规则:烟民。

Walking to the subway on my way to work, I regularly pass a group of puffers loitering in an alley, their wafting cigarettes quietly rebuking the signs marked “No Smoking.” Once in a while, patrolling officers shoo them away, but the smokers always return.

上班走去地铁站的路上,我经常从一群在一条小巷子里吞云吐雾的人身边走过。冉冉升起的烟雾默默嘲弄着“禁止吸烟”的标识。巡警偶尔会把他们赶走,但他们总会回来。

Every time I see them, I am struck by the brazen rule-breaking, given the strict codes that govern society here.

鉴于这是一个有着严格的规范准则的社会,每次看到他们,我都会对这种公然破坏规则的行为感到震惊。

Not so long ago, smoking was as much a part of the culture as obedience. Before my family moved here last year when I took up the post of Tokyo bureau chief of The New York Times, this was a smokers’ town. In previous years when we visited, it was difficult to find nonsmoking restaurants or cafes.

不久前,吸烟还和服从一样,都是这里的文化的一部分。在去年我们一家因为我接受了《纽约时报》东京分社社长的职务而搬来之前,这是烟民的城市。前些年我们来旅游时,很难找到禁止吸烟的餐厅或咖啡厅。

But more recently, the rest of the world’s no-smoking culture has spread to Japan.

但最近,世界其他地方的禁止吸烟文化也传到了日本。

As more people have grown aware of the health hazards, the number of smokers in Japan has dropped sharply, according to data from the cigarette maker Japan Tobacco. And an increasing number of employers, restaurant owners and public facilities throughout the country have voluntarily banned cigarettes after a 2002 bill that encouraged a reduction in passive smoke.

香烟制造商日本烟草产业公司(Japan Tobacco)的数据显示,随着更多人对健康危害的意识增强,日本烟民人数大幅减少;并且在2002年一项鼓励减少被动吸烟的议案出台后,日本全国各地越来越多的雇主、餐厅老板和公共设施自愿禁烟。

I remember being astonished the first time we saw segregated smoking lounges at Tokyo’s Narita Airport.

我还记得第一次在东京成田国际机场看到隔开的吸烟室时的震惊。

Now train platforms, department stores and many restaurants are smoke free, while office workers who have yet to kick the cigarette habit are consigned to small smoking rooms or outside shelters. The Ueno Zoo even announced that it was considering a smoking ban to protect visitors coming to see a newborn panda.

现在,火车站台、商场和很多餐厅都禁止吸烟,还没有戒掉吸烟习惯的上班族被要求去狭小的吸烟室或去外面找地方。上野动物园甚至宣布正在考虑禁烟,以保护前去看一只刚出生的大熊猫的游客。

A more drastic step may be in store. Early next year, Tokyo’s metropolitan assembly will vote on whether to ban smoking indoors in most public places, including restaurants, hotels, offices, department stores, airports, universities and gyms. Outside, smokers would be restricted to specially designated shelters or zones.

还有一个更大的动作可能即将出台。明年年初,东京都议会将投票表决是否在大部分公共场所,包括餐厅、酒店、办公室、商场、机场、大学和体育馆等地的室内禁止吸烟。在户外,吸烟的人会被限制在专门指定的场所或区域。

Sure, some may still break the rules. But in Japan, a country where individuals are reluctant to stand out, many people say that if such a smoking ban is imposed, they will have no choice but to follow it.

当然,可能还是会有人违反规则。但在个体不愿特立独行的日本,很多人表示,如果实行禁烟令,他们除了遵守外别无选择。

“I will be in trouble,” said Yuta Ishimoto, 40, who has a pack-a-day habit.

“我会很麻烦,”40岁的石本裕太(Yuta Ishimoto,音)说。他保持着一天一包烟的习惯。

On a recent afternoon, he sat sending emails from his laptop and taking drags from a cigarette in a Tsubaki Café, one of a few chains of coffee shops that allow customers to light up freely. But come the ban, he shrugged, he would follow the rules. “Shikataganai,” he said, which, roughly translated, means “It can’t be helped.”

前不久的一个下午,坐在惠比寿咖啡店(Tsubaki Café)里的他一边在笔记本电脑上发邮件,一边吸烟。惠比寿是少数几家允许顾客自由吸烟的连锁咖啡店之一。说到禁烟令,他耸了耸肩。他会遵守相关规定。“Shikataganai,”他说,翻译过来大致意思是“无能为力”。

Still, as strong as the impulse is to follow the rules, the culture of smoking is also ingrained. And smoking is big business.

尽管遵守规则的意愿强烈,但吸烟的文化同样根深蒂固。而且吸烟是一门大生意。

A law banning indoor smoking is “a totalitarian idea,” said Motoki Takeda, the director of the general affairs department of the Japan Tobacco Federation, which represents 60,000 cigarette sellers nationwide. “It’s almost like bullying the smokers.”

禁止在室内吸烟的法律是“极权主义想法”,代表日本全国6万家烟草经销商的日本烟草联合会(Japan Tobacco Federation)总务部负责人武田基树(Motoki Takeda)说。“简直像欺负吸烟的人”。

The national health ministry has proposed a smoking ban similar to the one Tokyo is considering. But the idea is trickier on a national level.

厚生劳动省已经提出了一项与东京正在考虑的禁令类似的禁烟令。但这个想法在全国层面就没那么简单了。

The governing Liberal Democratic Party has long resisted anti-smoking policies, in part because the government owns one-third of Japan Tobacco, the cigarette-maker, and taxes on cigarettes generate about 2 trillion yen ($18 billion) a year — about 3 percent of total revenues.

执政的自民党(Liberal Democratic Party)向来抵制禁烟政策,这在一定程度上是因为政府拥有前述香烟制造商日本烟草产业公司三分之一的股份,并且对香烟征税一年能带来大约2万亿日元(约合1200亿元人民币)的收入,大约占总收入的3%。

Many Liberal Democratic lawmakers also come from rural constituencies where tobacco farmers or mom-and-pop restaurant owners hold sway over elections.

同时,很多自民党议员来自烟农和家庭餐馆老板控制着选举的农村选区。

And then there is the culture of smoking.

再就是日本的吸烟文化。

Some lawmakers cling to an idea of Japanese culture in which people who spend their days projecting a reserved public face can unveil their genuine selves only after hours when they congregate at pubs — known in Japan as “izakaya” — to drink, eat and smoke. That combination, they say, uniquely allows restrained personalities to relax and open up.

一些议员仍然坚信日本文化里的观点:人们一整天都以拘谨的公众形象示人,只有在下班之后,聚在酒吧里——也就是日本人所说的“izakaya”(居酒屋)——一起喝酒、吃饭、抽烟,才能展现出真实的自己。他们说,这样的搭配能独特地让被压抑的个性得以放松、显露。

“The izakaya is the kind of place where you can honestly talk about your true feelings or opinions,” said Akinori Eto, the chairman of the Liberal Democrats’ tobacco committee.

“居酒屋是那种能让你开诚布公地谈论真实情感、想法的地方,”自民党烟草特别委员长江渡聪德(Akinori Eto)说。

The health ministry recently proposed a compromise version of its smoking ban to expand an exemption so that restaurants as large as 150 square meters, or a little over 1,600 square feet, could allow smokers.

厚生劳动省最近提出了一个折中版的禁烟令,将面积大于150平方米的餐厅纳入了免除禁烟的范围,允许吸烟。

But Tokyo is likely to stick to a stricter proposal, in part to fulfill the city’s agreement with the International Olympic Committee, which requires a smoke-free environment for the 2020 Olympics, which will be held here. The governor, Yuriko Koike, is also a strong supporter of the ban and campaigned on it during the city’s election last year.

但东京可能会坚守更严格的方案,这在一定程度上是为了履行与国际奥林匹克委员会(International Olympic Committee)的协议,为2020年东京奥运会打造一个无烟环境。东京都知事小池百合子(Yuriko Koike)是该禁令的有力支持者,曾在去年东京选举中提出禁烟。

Musashi, a Japanese robata-style barbecue restaurant tucked down an alley behind Shimbashi Station in central Tokyo, is the kind of place that would be affected by the city ban. On a recent evening, an ashtray was placed at every table setting.

位于东京中心新桥车站后面一条小巷的“武藏”(Musashi)——一家日式炉端烧餐厅——便属于那种会被这条禁令影响的地方。前一阵的晚上,每张桌子上都摆着一个烟灰缸。

Masahiro Shibatsuka, 67, an engineer who had met up with a childhood friend for drinks and a light meal of grilled squid, said the proposed Tokyo ordinance went too far. “It is violating people’s rights,” he said, waving a Hi-Lite brand cigarette and nursing an alcoholic lemon sour.

67岁的芝塚全功(Masahiro Shibatsuka)是一名工程师,他约了与儿时好友一起小酌,吃一顿烤鱿鱼便餐。他表示,东京提出的这个法案太过分了。“这侵犯了人权,”他晃着一根喜力牌香烟(Hi-Lite),品着含酒精的柠檬汽水说道。

Koki Okamoto, a member of the Tokyo Metropolitan Assembly and head of the Neighborhood Second-Hand Smoke Victims Society, said restaurants could potentially gain customers as more people stop smoking and an increasing number of families with young children seek to go out to eat.

东京都议会议员、“近邻住宅被动吸烟受害者社团”(Neighborhood Second-Hand Smoke Victims Society)领头人冈本光树(Koki Okamoto)认为,当越来越多的人不再吸烟,越来越多带着孩子的家庭外出就餐,餐馆的顾客就有机会增多。

“If they change their mindset, it will be possible to increase their profits or sales,” said Okamoto, who wrote a separate Tokyo ordinance aimed at protecting children from secondhand smoke.

“如果他们改变自己的思想观念,就有可能增加利润或销量,”为保护孩子免受二手烟危害另外起草了一部东京法案的冈本光树说。

On the night my colleague and I visited Musashi, nonsmokers outnumbered smokers by 2-1. And on a visit to another cafe, when my colleague and I ordered coffee, the cashier asked whether we were OK with the fact that smoking was allowed on all three floors.

我和同事一起去武藏的那天晚上,不吸烟者与吸烟者人数相比为2比1。在我和同事去另一家咖啡馆点咖啡时,收银员向我们询问能否接受馆内三层均可吸烟的事实。

At Musashi, one of the smokers I spoke to, Eri Yamamoto, 25, said she would always find a way to feed her habit. But as she chain-smoked from a pack of Winstons and shared plates of grilled fish and pints of beer with two friends, she confessed, “I really want to quit.”

在武藏,与我聊天的一位吸烟者——25岁的山本绘梨(Eri Yamamoto,音)说,她总能有办法满足自己的这个习惯。但在连着不停地抽完了一包云斯顿香烟(Winstons)、和两个朋友一起分享了一盘烤鱼和几品脱啤酒以后,她承认,“我真的很想戒。”

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